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Wood Polymer Composites

Wood Polymer Composites Book
Author : K O Niska,M. Sain
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-05-29
ISBN : 1845694570
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Wood-polymer composites (WPC) are materials in which wood is impregnated with monomers that are then polymerised in the wood to tailor the material for special applications. The resulting properties of these materials, from lightness and enhanced mechanical properties to greater sustainability, has meant a growing number of applications in such areas as building, construction and automotive engineering. This important book reviews the manufacture of wood-polymer composites, how their properties can be assessed and improved and their range of uses. After an introductory chapter, the book reviews key aspects of manufacture, including raw materials, manufacturing technologies and interactions between wood and synthetic polymers. Building on this foundation, the following group of chapters discusses mechanical and other properties such as durability, creep behaviour and processing performance. The book concludes by looking at orientated wood-polymer composites, wood-polymer composite foams, at ways of assessing performance and at the range of current and future applications. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Wood-polymer composites is a valuable reference for all those using and studying these important materials. Provides a comprehensive survey of major new developments in wood-polymer composites Reviews the key aspects of manufacture, including raw materials and manufacturing technologies Discusses properties such as durability, creep behaviour and processing performance

Structure and Properties of Wood Polymer Composites WPC

Structure and Properties of Wood Polymer Composites  WPC  Book
Author : Andrey Askadskii,Tatyana Matseevich,Alexander Askadskii
Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Release : 2019-03-05
ISBN : 1527530655
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

At present, the use of polymer composites filled with wood (WPC) is becoming increasingly popular. In particular, flooring of terraced premises, siding, decorative fences, fence systems, steps, universal profiles, among others are made from WPC. In 1977, the first enterprise for the production of WPC appeared in Sweden. The first experience was not very successful – the demand turned out to be low, and the wear of technological equipment was very high. Therefore, developments in this field were resumed only in the 1990s and continue to this day. This book describes the basic physical and mechanical properties of modern WPC, such as tensile and compression strength, and hardness. Also, the influence of climatic factors on the performance properties of products from WPC is described, while the thermal and rheological properties of WPC materials are considered, which directly affect the consumer characteristics of the products. The book contains theoretical developments related to the prediction of the mechanical and thermal properties of polymers and composites. The Van der Waals volume and the energy of the intermolecular interaction are estimated. This book will be of interest to representatives of the WPC market, designers, and architects, as well as technology engineers, students and post-graduate students of higher educational institutions in the fields of chemistry and physics of composite polymer materials.

Wood Reinforced Polymer Composites

Wood Reinforced Polymer Composites Book
Author : Anil Akdogan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The importance of protection of natural resources, recycling and biodegrability are the basic reasons behind the increased use of lignocellulosic (LC) material-reinforced polymer composites. This chapter investigates wood filler-reinforced polymer composites, which have gained attention among the researchers and in the market in woody applications having aesthetic and low service costs. Most polymers have the increasing cost of petrochemical products while LC materials are obtained from different national resources such as different types of wood powder. LC materials are available in light, cheap, environment-friendly forms with easy maintenance. The main disadvantages of LC-reinforced composites are moisture sensitivity and poor dimensional stability, besides changing wood fiber characteristics in time and poor adhesion to basically all kind of matrix polymers. Additive usage in manufacturing is an increasing trend of wood-based LC material-reinforced polymer composite parts to penetrate new markets, with better performance requirements and long-term stability. This chapter investigates description, classification, production with common additive types and usage of wood-polymer composite materials. In addition, it approaches preprocesses to reach high productivity and high-quality product manufacturing. Finally, some experimental manufacturing results of wood-reinforced polymer composites are presented.

Production and Description of Wood Polymer Composites Based on Low viscosity Epoxy Resins

Production and Description of Wood Polymer Composites Based on Low viscosity Epoxy Resins Book
Author : P. Schroeder,N. Parameswaran
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1986
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Production and Description of Wood Polymer Composites Based on Low viscosity Epoxy Resins book written by P. Schroeder,N. Parameswaran, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Extrusion of Wood polymer Composites microform

Extrusion of Wood polymer Composites  microform  Book
Author : Kang Karen Xiao
Publisher : Library and Archives Canada = Bibliothèque et Archives Canada
Release : 2005
ISBN : 9780494095409
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Extrusion of Wood polymer Composites microform book written by Kang Karen Xiao, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Wood Plastic Composites

Wood Plastic Composites Book
Author : Anatole A. Klyosov
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2007-10-12
ISBN : 9780470165928
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A comprehensive, practical guide to wood-plastic composites and their properties This is the first book that presents an overview of the main principles underlying the composition of wood-plastic composite (WPC) materials and their performance in the real world. Focusing on the characteristics of WPC materials rather than their manufacture, this guide bridges the gap between laboratory-based research and testing and the properties WPC materials exhibit when they're used in decks, railing systems, fences, and other common applications. Complete with practical examples and case studies, this guide: Describes compositions of WPC materials, including thermoplastics, cellulose fiber, minerals, additives, and their properties Covers mechanical properties, microbial resistance, water absorption, flammability, slip resistance, thermal expansion-contraction, sensitivity to oxidation and solar radiation, and rheological properties of hot melts of WPC Covers subjects that determine esthetics, properties, performance, and durability of wood-plastic composite products Includes comparisons of different ASTM methods and procedures that apply to specific properties This is a comprehensive, hands-on reference for scientists, engineers, and researchers working with wood-plastic composites in plastics and polymers, materials science, microbiology, rheology, plastic technology, and chemical engineering, as well as an outstanding text for graduate students in these disciplines. It's also an excellent resource for suppliers and WPC manufacturers, and an accessible guide for developers, homebuilders, and landscape architects who want to know more about wood-plastic composites and their performance in the real world.

Wood polymers Composites

Wood polymers Composites Book
Author : Kristiina Oksman,Mohini Sain
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Wood polymers Composites book written by Kristiina Oksman,Mohini Sain, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Wood plastics Composites WPC

Wood plastics Composites  WPC   Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Handbook on Coal Coke Cotton Lignin Hemicellulose Wood Wood Polymer Composites Lignocellulosic Plastic Composites from Recycled Materials Wood Fiber Rosin and Rosin Derivatives

Handbook on Coal  Coke  Cotton  Lignin  Hemicellulose  Wood  Wood Polymer Composites  Lignocellulosic Plastic Composites from Recycled Materials  Wood Fiber  Rosin and Rosin Derivatives Book
Author : Dr. Himadri Panda
Publisher : NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES
Release : 2018-01-11
ISBN : 9381039860
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Coal is the product of plants, mainly trees that died tens or hundreds of millions of years ago. Coal is a fossil fuel and is the altered remains of prehistoric vegetation that originally accumulated in swamps and peat bogs. The energy we get from coal today comes from the energy that plants absorbed from the sun millions of years ago. Coal is used primarily as an energy source, either for heat or electricity. It was once heavily used to heat homes and power locomotives and factories. Bituminous coal is also used to produce coke for making steel and other industrial process heating. Lignin is a constituent of the cell walls of almost all dry land plant cell walls. It is the second most abundant natural polymer in the world, surpassed only by cellulose. Lignin is found in all vascular plants, mostly between the cells, but also within the cells, and in the cell walls. Wood is an aggregate of cells essentially cellulose in composition, which are cemented together by a substance called lignin. The cells are made of three substances called cellulose (about 50 percent), lignin (which makes up a fifth to a quarter of hardwoods but a quarter to a third of softwoods), and hemicellulose. Rosin refers to an extraction process that utilizes a combination of heat and pressure to nearly instantaneously squeeze resinous sap from your initial starting material In India's energy sector, coal accounts for the majority of primary commercial energy supply. With the economy poised to grow at the rate of 8-10% per annum, energy requirements will also rise at a reasonable level. The Indian coal industry aspires to reach the 1.5 billion tonne (BT) mark by FY 2020. In fore-coming years, the industry will naturally need to focus on building on the success, and be on track for reaching the FY 2020 goal. One of the primary goals of the Government of India is to ensure that it is able to meet the country's power generation needs. Another aim is to lower the country's reliance on coal imports by boosting the coal production quickly. The Major contents of the book are Coal, Analysis of Coal and Coke, Cotton, Lignin and Hemicelluloses, Degradation of Wood, CCA-Treated Wood, Wood-Polymer Composites, Lignocellulosic-Plastic Composites from Recycled Materials, Chemical Modification of Wood Fiber, Delignification of Wood with Pernitric Acid, Rosin and Rosin Derivatives, Polymerizable Half Esters of Rosin and Photographs of Plant & Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details. It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, those studying and researching in this important area and others interested in the field of these industries.

Recent Advances in the Processing of Wood Plastic Composites

Recent Advances in the Processing of Wood Plastic Composites Book
Author : Jin Kuk Kim,Kaushik Pal
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-12-16
ISBN : 9783642148774
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is a non-recyclable composite material lumber or timber made of recycled plastic and wood wastes which has become one of the most dynamic sectors of the plastics industry in this decade. It is used in numerous applications, such as, outdoor deck floors, railings, fences, landscaping timbers, park benches, window and door frames. This book starts with a brief glimpse at the basic structures and properties of WPCs. Aspects such as surface treatment, machinery used and testing types of WPCs are also covered. The following chapters of the book give a view of foam technology, flame retardant properties and colour retardant properties of WPCs. The way morphology affects or controls the physical and mechanical behaviours of the finished materials is discussed. Finally, the authors give an overview of the applications of wood-plastic composites in daily life. The book may serve as a source book for scientists wishing to work in this field.

Influence of Wood Modification on the Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride based Wood Polymer Composites WPC

Influence of Wood Modification on the Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride based Wood Polymer Composites  WPC  Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Cuvillier Verlag
Release : 2012-07-11
ISBN : 3736941439
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract The study investigated the influences of wood modification on the properties of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based Wood Polymer Composites (WPC). Various ethanolamines, L-arginine, pre-hydrolyzed and monomeric aminosilane, melamine and acetic anhydride treatment were used to improve the adhesion between wood and polymer as well as water absorption behavior and resistance to basidiomycetes. Amine based treatments were chosen to change the nature of wood from acidic to basic in order to increase the compatibility with the acidic polymer. Treated and untreated wood flour, PVC and additives were dry blended in a mixer. The dry blend was compounded to granulate by counter-rotating twin screw extrusion and compression moulded into panels using a hydraulic press. Elemental analysis (nitrogen content) via gas chromatography showed expected fixation of aminosilane and melamine treatment. The nitrogen fixation of ethanolamine and L-arginine treated material were obviously reduced, whereas the amount and reactivity of the aminogroups influenced the fixation behavior. With increasing content of amino-groups and reactivity, the fixation was improved. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses revealed interactions between monoethanolamine and cell wall components. The amine based treatments changed the nature of wood from acidic to basic. An improvement of the interphase was detected via mechanical property testing. Tensile strength, elongation at break and unnotched impact strength of the composite were obviously increased by Larginine, ethanolamine and aminosilane treatments. It has to be considered that amine based treatments (monoethanolamine in this study) led to reduced thermal stability of the composite. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a decrease of onset temperature with increasing monoethanolamine content. Water repellence of the composite was improved by melamine, pre-hydrolyzed aminosilane and acetic acid treatment. Treated and untreated composites revealed high resistance against basidiomycetes. Due to the low initial moisture content and low weight loss of untreated and treated composites, no effect of the various modifications was distinguished. In general it is possible to treat/modify PVC/wood flour composites with used processing and chemical agents. Amine based treatments indicate an improved adhesion between wood and polymer and can be used as coupling agents. Acetic anhydride, melamine and prehydrolyzed aminosilane treatments improved water absorption behavior. Zusammenfassung In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden die Auswirkungen verschiedener Holzmodifizierungen auf die Eigenschaften von Polyvinylchlorid (PVC) basierten Holz-Kunststoff Kompositen untersucht. Der Fokus lag dabei auf Verbesserung der Interphase zwischen Holz und Polymer, sowie einer Reduktion der Wasseraufnahme und einer Erhöhung der biologischen Dauerhaftigkeit des Komposits. Als Modifizierungschemikalien wurden Ethanolamine (Mono-, Di-, Triethanolamin), L-Arginin, Aminosilane, Melamin und Essigsäureanhydrid verwendet. Die eingesetzten Aminosilane unterschieden sich hinsichtlich ihrer Molekülgröße vor der Behandlung (Monomer, vor-hydrolisiert). Amin basierte Chemikalien wurden ausgewählt, um die Ladungseigenschaften des Holzes zu verändern. Eine bessere Kompatibilität zwischen dem sauren Polymer und der basisch modifizierten Holzoberfläche sollte dementsprechend erreicht werden. Das behandelte und unbehandelte Holzmehl wurde mit dem PVC und ausgewählten Additiven im Heiz-Kühl Mischer zu einem Trockengemisch verarbeitet. Das Trockengemisch wurde in einem gegenläufigen Doppelschneckenextruder granuliert und anschließend im Heißpressverfahren zu Platten gepresst. Mittels einer gaschromatischen Elementaranalyse wurde der Stickstoffgehalt der Holzmehlproben ermittelt, um Aussagen über die Fixierung der jeweiligen Chemikalie treffen zu können. Aminosilan und Melamin behandelte Proben zeigten die erwarteten Fixierungswerte. Die Stickstofffixierung der Ethanolamin und L-Arginin behandelten Proben war im Vergleich dazu deutlich reduziert. Allerdings wurde beobachtet, dass mit steigender Aminogruppenanzahl und Reaktivität auch die Fixierung zunahm. In Fourier Transform Infrarot (FTIR) Analysen wurden Interaktionen zwischen Monoethanolamin und den chemischen Zellwandkomponenten beobachtet. Zudem führte die Behandlung mit Aminosilanen, Ethanolaminen und dem L-Arginin zu einer pH-Wert Verschiebung. Die behandelten Proben besaßen basische Eigenschaften. Eine Verbesserung der Interphase wurde nach der Durchführung mechanischer Eigenschaftsprüfungen gemessen. Die Zugfestigkeit, Bruchdehnung und Schlagzähigkeit der Komposite wurden deutlich erhöht, wenn das Holzmehl zuvor mit Aminosilanen, Ethanolaminen oder L-Arginin behandelt wurde. Allerdings wurde die thermische Stabilität des Komposits durch die Behandlung (Monoethanolamin) herabgesetzt. Thermogravimetrische Analysen (TGA) zeigten eine reduzierte Zersetzungstemperatur mit steigendem Monoethanolamingehalt. Die Behandlung mit Essigsäureanhydrid und Melamin führte zu einer Verringerung der Wasseraufnahmegeschwindigkeit, sowie zu einer Reduzierung der maximalen Materialfeuchte. Bezüglich der verwendeten Aminosilane wurde nur bei der vor-hydrolisierten Variante eine Verbesserung des Wasseraufnahmeverhaltens beobachtet. Alle Komposite wiesen eine hohe Resistenz gegenüber Basidiomyceten auf. Aufgrund der niedrigen Feuchtegehalte vor Versuchsbeginn und den geringen Masseverlusten wurden keine Effekte der jeweiligen Behandlung festgesellt. Prinzipiell ist es möglich mit den verwendeten Chemikalien und Verarbeitungsverfahren Modifizierungen an PVC basierten Holz-Kunststoff Kompositen durchzuführen. Amin basierte Behandlungen zeigten eine erhöhte Kompatibilität mit dem Polymer, womit sie grundsätzlich als Haftvermittler eingesetzt werden können. Zudem wurde das Wasseraufnahmeverhalten der Komposite durch die Behandlung mit Essigsäureanhydrid, Melamin und vorhydrolisiertem Aminosilan positiv beeinflusst.

Wood Composites

Wood Composites Book
Author : Martin P Ansell
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2015-07-24
ISBN : 1782424776
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent progress in enhancing and refining the performance and properties of wood composites by chemical and thermal modification and the application of smart multi-functional coatings have made them a particular area of interest for researchers. Wood Composites comprehensively reviews the whole field of wood composites, with particular focus on their materials, applications and engineering and scientific advances, including solutions inspired biomimetrically by the structure of wood and wood composites. Part One covers the materials used for wood composites and examines wood microstructure, and wood processing and adhesives for wood composites. Part Two explores the many applications of wood composites, for example plywood, fibreboard, chipboard, glulam, cross-laminated timber, I-beams and wood-polymer composites. The final part investigates advances in wood composites and looks at the preservation and modification of wood composites, environmental impacts and legislative obligations, nano-coatings and plasma treatment, biomimetic composite materials, the integration of wood composites with other materials and carbonized and mineralized wood composites. Comprehensively reviews the entire field of wood composites in a single volume Examines recent progress in enhancing and refining the performance and properties of wood composites by chemical and thermal modification and the application of smart multi-functional coatings Explores the range of wood composites, including both new and traditional products

Lignocellulosic Polymer Composites

Lignocellulosic Polymer Composites Book
Author : Vijay Kumar Thakur
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-10-30
ISBN : 1118773985
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book presents emerging economic and environmentally friendly lignocellulosic polymer composites materials that are free from side effects studied in the traditional synthetic materials. This book brings together panels of highly-accomplished leading experts in the field of lignocellulosic polymers & composites from academia, government, as well as research institutions across the globe and encompasses basic studies including preparation, characterization, properties and theory of polymers along with applications addressing new emerging topics of novel issues. Provide basic information and clear understanding of the present state and the growing utility of lignocellulosic materials from different natural resources Includes contributions from world-renowned experts on lignocellulosic polymer composites and discusses the combination of different kinds of lignocellulosic materials from natural resources Discusses the fundamental properties and applications of lignocellulosic polymers in comparison to traditional synthetic materials Explores various processing/ mechanical/ physic-chemical aspects of lignocellulosic polymer composites

Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites Book
Author : Sabu Thomas,Laly A.. Pothan
Publisher : Archives contemporaines
Release : 2009-01-01
ISBN : 2914610998
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Natural fibers and their composites have a long and important place in the history of human creativity and industry. Increasing consumer interest in "green" products made with sustainable materials, along with the rising cost of petroleum - the basic ingredient of synthetic fibers - have once again brought natural fibers and their composites to the fore. The renewed interest in natural fibers is only a few decades old. Thus, the pioneering work of current researchers in this new era of natural fiber composites will help to illuminate the path for future researchers as they explore new potentialities for natural fibers. Sabu Thomas and Laly Pothen, themselves leaders in the field, bring together cutting edge research by eminent scientists in Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites. Covering the latest research trends such as nano technology, the book will be a valuable resource for the natural fiber composite researcher.

Concise Encyclopedia of Composite Materials

Concise Encyclopedia of Composite Materials Book
Author : Anthony Kelly
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 1989
ISBN : 9780262111454
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Concise Encyclopedias draw relevant articles from the Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering, the only complete reference work in this rapidly developing field. Where necessary, articles have been revised and new articles have been commissioned to provide current accounts of the most recent developments in each area. Copublished with Pergamon Press. The Concise Encyclopedia of Composite Materials provides a full and up-to-date account of composite materials, particularly fiber composites. The important mechanical properties of fiber composites are covered and discussed in the context of particulate composites and naturally occurring composite materials. Metal matrix composites and fiber-reinforced thermoplastic resins are also covered.

Natural and Wood Fibre Reinforcement in Polymers

Natural and Wood Fibre Reinforcement in Polymers Book
Author : A. K. Bledzki,V. E. Sperber,O. Faruk
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release : 2002
ISBN : 9781859573594
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report examines the different fibre types available and the current research. The authors have cited several hundred references to the latest work on properties, processing and applications. The different methods of fibre pretreatment are examined, together with fibre properties, chemistry and applications. This review is accompanied by summaries of papers from the Rapra Polymer Library database.

Tribology of Natural Fiber Polymer Composites

Tribology of Natural Fiber Polymer Composites Book
Author : Mohammed Fahim,Navin Chand
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-10-14
ISBN : 1845695054
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental concerns are driving demand for bio-degradable materials such as plant-based natural fiber reinforced polymer composites. These composites are fast replacing conventional materials in many applications, especially in automobiles, where tribology (friction, lubrication and wear) is important. This book covers the availability and processing of natural fiber polymer composites and their structural, thermal, mechanical and, in particular, tribological properties. Chapter 1 discusses sources of natural fibers, their extraction and surface modification. It also reviews the thermal, structural, mechanical, spectroscopic and morphological properties of unmodified and chemically modified natural fibers such as sisal, jute, wood, bamboo and cotton together with their potential applications. Chapter 2 gives a brief introduction to the tribology of polymer composites and the role of fiber reinforcement and fillers in modifying their tribological properties. Further chapters discuss the chemical composition, physical structure, mechanical properties and tribological behaviour of polymer composites reinforced with sisal, jute, cotton and bamboo fibers. The tribological behaviour of wood polymer composites (WPCs) is also discussed. Tribology of natural fibre polymer composites is a useful reference guide for engineers, scientific and technical personnel involved in the development of natural fiber composites. In particular it will give an insight into mechanical properties and failure mechanisms in situations where wear, lubrication and friction are a problem. Examines the availability and processing of natural fiber composites and their structural, thermal, mechanical and tribological properties Explores sources of natural fibers, their extraction and surface modification as well as properties of chemically modified natural fibers Provides an overview of the tribology of polymer composites and the role of fiber reinforcement and filters in modifying tribological composites

Wood fiber polymer Composites

Wood fiber polymer Composites Book
Author : Michael P. Wolcott,Forest Products Society
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1993
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Wood fiber polymer Composites book written by Michael P. Wolcott,Forest Products Society, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Green Composites

Green Composites Book
Author : Caroline Baillie
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2005-03-08
ISBN : 9780849325762
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With an internationally recognized team of contributors, Green Composites examines fibre reinforced polymer composite production and explains how environmental footprints can be diminished at every stage of the life cycle. The introductory chapters examine why green composites should be considered. The book then discusses properties of cellulose and wood. It examines recyclable synthetic fibre-thermoplastic composites as alternatives, then covers polymers derived from natural sources. The text details the factors that influence properties, and considers clean processing, applications, recycling, degradation, and reprocessing. The book is essential for government agricultural departments, automotive companies, and others devoted to eco-friendly materials and production.