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Wildland Fires And Air Pollution

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Wildland Fires and Air Pollution

Wildland Fires and Air Pollution Book
Author : Andrzej Bytnerowicz
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0080556094
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Wildland fires are one of the most devastating and terrifying forces of nature. While their effects are mostly destructive they also help with regeneration of forests and other ecosystems. Low-intensity fires clear accumulating biomass reducing risk of catastrophic crown fires and can be used as an effective management tool. This book presents current understanding of wildland fires and air quality as well as their effects on human health, forests and other ecosystems. In the first section of the book the basics of wildland fires and resulting emissions are presented from the perspective of changing global climate, air quality impairment and effects on environment and human health and security. In the second section, effects of wildland fires on air quality, visibility and human health in various regions of the Earth are discussed. The third section of the book deals with complex issues of the ecological impacts of fire and air pollution in forests and chaparral in North America. --

Climate Change Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change  Air Pollution and Global Challenges Book
Author : Mikhail Sofiev
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-19
ISBN : 0128055731
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The chapter gives a short outlook of wildland fires and their influence on atmospheric composition, air quality and climate. Fires are among the most powerful sources of atmospheric tracers and also means of changing the ecosystems themselves. Present pattern of the biomass burning is strongly affected by anthropogenic activities, both via accidental and deliberate ignitions of the fires (about 90% fires are started by humans) and via various fire-fighting and prevention measures. The role of urban–rural interface territories is particularly high in this regard. The fire specifics and impact vary in the different parts of the globe. In forested regions, the bulk of consumed biomass can be attributed to a comparatively small number of major episodes, whereas in arid regions, individual fires are smaller but more numerous. Remote sensing is the primary way of fire monitoring. Three types of products—inventories of burnt areas, count of active fires and estimates of release of fire radiative energy—are available from several satellite instruments. Altogether, they cover the whole globe and span over several decades. Based on this information, several inventories of consumed biomass and atmospheric emissions have been compiled. Their comparison shows qualitative similarity of the products but the differences are substantial. Understanding the reasons for these differences and development of consensus-based methodologies is among the main challenges for the near future.

Wildland Fire in Ecosystems

Wildland Fire in Ecosystems Book
Author : David V. Sandberg
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on air quality can assist land, fire, and air resource managers with fire and smoke planning, and their efforts to explain to others the science behind fire-related program policies and practices to improve air quality. Chapter topics include air quality regulations and fire; characterization of emissions from fire; the transport, dispersion, and modeling of fire emissions; atmospheric and plume chemistry; air quality impacts of fire; social consequences of air quality impacts; and recommendations for future research.

Wildland Fire in Ecosystems

Wildland Fire in Ecosystems Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on air quality can assist land, fire, and air resource managers with fire and smoke planning, and their efforts to explain to others the science behind fire-related program policies and practices to improve air quality. Chapter topics include air quality regulations and fire; characterization of emissions from fire; the transport, dispersion, and modeling of fire emissions; atmospheric and plume chemistry; air quality impacts of fire; social consequences of air quality impacts; and recommendations for future research.

Assessment of Ambient and Occupational Exposures to Air Contaminants from Wildland Fire Smoke

Assessment of Ambient and Occupational Exposures to Air Contaminants from Wildland Fire Smoke Book
Author : Kathleen McGuire Navarro
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This dissertation combines traditional methods of exposure assessment with new approaches to evaluate exposures in community and occupational settings to air contaminants commonly emitted from wildland fires and found in the ambient environment. Wildland fires emit large amounts of air pollutants known to cause adverse health effects. Past exposure assessments of wildland fires have measured levels of fine and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5-PM4), acrolein, benzene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, crystalline silica, total particulates, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). I evaluated exposures to air pollutants associated with wildland fires, specifically PM2.5 and PAHs at different exposure receptor levels - in communities near a wildland fire, occupational exposures of wildland firefighters, and biomarkers of exposure in the US population. First, I evaluated air quality impacts of PM2.5 from smoke from a mega wildland fire on receptor areas in California and Nevada. The 2013 Rim Fire was the third largest wildland fire in California history and burned 257,314 acres in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. This project employed two approaches to examine the air quality impacts, (1) an evaluation of PM2.5 concentration data collected by temporary and permanent air monitoring sites and (2) an estimation of intake fraction (iF) of PM2.5 from smoke. The Rim Fire impacted locations in the central Sierra nearest to the fire and extended to northern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California and Nevada monitoring sites. Daily 24-hr average PM2.5 concentrations measured at 22 air monitors had an average concentration of 20 [mu]g/m3 and ranged from 0 to 450 [mu]g/m3. iF for PM2.5 from smoke during the active fire period was 7.4 per million, which is slightly higher to representative iF for PM2.5 in rural areas and much lower than for urban areas. This study is a unique application of intake fraction to examine emissions-to-exposure for wildfires and emphasizes that air quality cannot only be localized to communities near large fires but can extend long distances and impact larger urban areas. Next, I characterized exposures of wildland firefighters during wildland fire and prescribed fires to PAHs, explore associations between exposure and firefighting job tasks, and examine off-duty and community PAH and PM2.5 concentrations. Wildland firefighters working to control wildland fires work long shifts and are exposed to high levels of wood smoke with no respiratory protection. PAHs were measured on 21 wildland firefighters (N=28) while suppressing two wildland fires and 4 wildland firefighters conducting prescribed burns in California. Personal air samples were collected using actively sampled XAD-coated quartz fiber filters. Filters in cassette cases were attached to the back of each wildland firefighter's backpack. Community-level PAH air samples were collected for the first 12 days of a wildland fire and were collocated with a PM2.5 sampler. Samples were analyzed for 17 individual PAHs through extraction with dichloromethane and analyzed on a gas chromatograph with a mass selective detector. I detected measurable concentrations of 17 PAHs in personal samples on firefighters at prescribed and wildland fires and in area samples at a community nearby a wildland fire. Naphthalene, retene, and phenanthrene were consistently the highest measured PAHs at all three sampling scenarios. PAH concentrations were higher at wildland fires compared to prescribed fires and were highest for firefighters during job tasks that involve the most direct contact with smoke near an actively burning wildland fire. Although concentrations do not exceed current occupational exposure limits, wildland firefighters are exposed to PAHs not only on the fire line at wildland fires, but also while working prescribed burns and while off-duty. It is important to characterize exposures from wildland fires to better understand any potential long-term health effects. Lastly, I evaluated predictors of urinary PAH concentrations in 2001-2006 NHANES participants from a variety of sources including demographic information, food intake, housing characteristics, and modeled outdoor air pollutant exposures. Biomonitoring data provides a direct way to link human exposure to environmental contaminants. However, these data do not reveal how various exposure routes or media contribute to the body burden of a specific chemical. NHANES participants were linked to their census tract-level daily PM2.5 exposure estimate, outdoor temperature, and annual air toxics concentrations. Multivariate linear regression models were developed using the Deletion/Substitution/ Addition algorithm to predict urinary PAH levels using NHANES questionnaire data for model selection in all and non-smoking adult NHANES participants. Exposure parameters were then added to each model. Model fit was assessed by comparing the R2 for each model tested. Exposure to PM2.5 and air toxics emissions were not associated with levels of urinary PAH metabolites. In the analysis current smoking status was the strongest predictor of PAH biomarker concentration and was able to explain 10% - 47% of the variability of PAH biomarker concentrations. The DSA selected models did not improve prediction in the "all adults" analysis. They were able to explain 10% - 51% of the variability of PAH biomarker concentrations in all adults. Among non-smokers, the DSA selected variables only explained 2% - 5% of the variability in biomarker concentrations. Further studies of routes of exposure of PAHs should be completed to understand how PAHs in the environment are contributing to the body burden of PAH. This study demonstrated how a rich dataset of biomarkers with individual information on demographics, food intake, and air pollution exposures can be used to examine the contribution of each route of exposure on the body burden. With the predicted increase of fire season in the western United States due to climate change resulting in more acres burned and smoke produced, it is important to quantify the air quality impacts from wildfires to develop effective strategies to protect public and wildland firefighter health. These methods outlined in this dissertation can be used to better estimate short-term and long-term health risks, so that public and occupational health practitioners, air quality regulators, and natural resource managers can develop mitigation strategies to reduce exposure to wildland fire smoke.

Air pollution in the Nordic countries from biomass burning in Eastern Europe

Air pollution in the Nordic countries from biomass burning in Eastern Europe Book
Author : Nordic Council of Ministers
Publisher : Nordic Council of Ministers
Release : 2015-08-12
ISBN : 9289342978
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polluted air with impacts on human health and ecosystems is transported with the winds over very long distances. Large-scale biomass burning is an important source for polluted air over the northern hemisphere. In 2006, biomass burning occurred on approximately 2 Mha forest and agricultural land in Russia and neighbouring countries. This highly polluted air was transported across northern Europe all the way to Iceland and Svalbard. High air concentrations of black carbon, ozone and high deposition of nitrogen were measured in Scandinavian forests. High concentrations of particulate matter caused health problems. Large-scale wildfires in Russia have continued until today. The Nordic countries and the EU ought to support neighbouring countries in order to restrict wildfires. Important activities are preventing the burning of agricultural waste and fire-prevention activities in forests.

Smoke Management Guide for Prescribed and Wildland Fire

Smoke Management Guide for Prescribed and Wildland Fire Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Smoke Management Guide for Prescribed and Wildland Fire book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Climate Change Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Climate Change  Air Pollution and Global Challenges Book
Author : Stan Cieslik,Juha-Pekka Tuovinen,Manuela Baumgarten,Rainer Matyssek,Patricia Brito,Gerhard Wieser
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-19
ISBN : 0128055545
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Climate change is expected to affect the exchange of gases between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this review, we focus on a few related topics, including the emission of greenhouse gases from the forest floor, and vegetation fires and their impact on air quality and soil CO2 efflux. In particular, we summarise the current state of knowledge on O3 deposition in forest ecosystems, both for stomatal uptake and non-stomatal sinks. Based on such summaries, we discuss interactions between forests, atmospheric composition and climate, and finally outline directions for multi- and interdisciplinary research required for mechanistically understanding such interrelationships.

Climate Change and Air Pollution

Climate Change and Air Pollution Book
Author : Rais Akhtar,Cosimo Palagiano
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-10-05
ISBN : 3319613464
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book discusses regional and international climate-change, air- pollution and human-health scenarios. The research, from both industrialized and developing countries, focuses on region-specific perspectives of climate change impacts on air pollution. After analyzing the variations of climate data over recent decades, the authors consider the different effects of climate change on air pollution and health. As stressed by the IPCC, “pollen, smoke and ozone levels are likely to increase in a warming world, affecting the health of residents of major cities. Rising temperatures will worsen air quality through a combination of more ozone in cities, bigger wild fires and worse pollen outbreaks,” according to a major UN climate report. The report follows the World Health Organization in finding that air pollution is the world’s greatest environmental health risk, killing 7 million people in 2014 (compared to 0.4 million deaths due to malaria). Deteriorating air quality will most affect the elderly, children, people with chronic ill-health and expectant mothers. Another report suggests that more than 5.5 million people die prematurely each year due to air pollution with over half of those deaths occurring in China and India. A study on the air pollution in the USA,suggests that more than half of US population lives in areas with potentially dangerous air pollution, and about six out of 10 of the top cities for air pollution in the USA are located in the state of California. In the face of future climate change, scientists have urged stronger emission controls to avoid worsening air pollution and the associated exacerbation of health problems, especially in more populated regions of the world. It is hoped that the implementation of the Paris Climate Agreement will help minimize air pollution. Additionally the authors consider the various measures that different countries and groups of countries, like the European Union, have adopted to mitigate the problems arising from climate change and to safeguard the health of population. The book examines the increasing incidence of diseases largely caused by climate change. The countries/regions covered in this study include the USA, Northern Europe (U.K).,Southern Europe ( Italy), Canada, Australia, East Asia, Russia, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, South Africa, Mexico, Brazil, Caribbean countries, and Argentina.

National Strategic Plan

National Strategic Plan Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Wildland Fire in Ecosystems

Wildland Fire in Ecosystems Book
Author : David V. Sandberg,Roger D. Ottmar,Janice L. Peterson
Publisher : CreateSpace
Release : 2012-10
ISBN : 9781480198906
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Wildland fire is an integral part of ecosystem management and is essential in maintaining functional ecosystems, but air pollutants emitted from those fires can be harmful to human health and welfare. Because of the public and governmental concerns about the possible risk of wildland fire smoke to public health and safety, as well as nuisance, visibility, ozone generation, and regional haze impacts, increasingly effective smoke management programs and air quality policies are being implemented with support from research and land management agency programs. This state-of-knowledge review of what is known about the effects of fire on air quality has been prepared to assist those in the fir and air quality management communities for future discussion of management, policy, and science options for managing fire and air quality.

High resolution Three dimensional Plume Modeling with Eulerian Atmospheric Chemistry and Transport Models

High resolution Three dimensional Plume Modeling with Eulerian Atmospheric Chemistry and Transport Models Book
Author : Fernando Garcia Menendez
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Eulerian chemical transport models are extensively used to steer environmental policy, forecast air quality and study atmospheric processes. However, the ability of these models to simulate concentrated atmospheric plumes, including fire-related smoke, may be limited. Wildland fires are important sources of air pollutants and can significantly affect air quality. Emissions released in wildfires and prescribed burns have been known to substantially increase the air pollution burden at urban locations across large regions. Air quality forecasts generated with numerical models can provide valuable information to environmental regulators and land managers about the potential impacts of fires. Eulerian models present an attractive framework to simulate the transport and transformation of fire emissions. Still, the limitations inherent to chemical transport models when applied to replicate smoke plumes must be identified and well understood to adequately interpret results and further improve the models' predictive skills. Here, a modeling framework centered on the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) is used to simulate several fire episodes that occurred in the Southeastern U.S. and investigate the sensitivity of fine particulate matter concentration predictions to various model inputs and parameters. Significant sources of uncertainty in the model are identified and discussed, including the spatiotemporal allocation of fire emissions and meteorological drivers. In addition, special attention is given to model grid resolution. Adaptive grid modeling is explored as a strategy to simulate fire-related plumes. An adaptive version of CMAQ, capable of dynamically restructuring the grid on which solution fields are estimated and providing refinement at the regions where accuracy is most dependent on resolution, is presented. The fully adaptive three-dimensional modeling technique can be applied to reach unprecedented levels of grid resolution and provide insight into plume dynamics unattainable with static grid models. Through this work the capability of current chemical transport models to replicate fire-related air quality impacts is evaluated, key research needs to achieve effective simulations are identified, and numerical tools designed to improve model performance are developed.

Wildland Fire on Ecosystems Effects of Fire on Air

Wildland Fire on Ecosystems Effects of Fire on Air Book
Author : U. S. Department Agriculture,Forest Service
Publisher : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Release : 2017-07-21
ISBN : 9781973808039
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Wildland fire is an integral part of ecosystem management and is essential in maintaining functional ecosystems, but air pollutants emitted from those fires can be harmful to human health and welfare. Because of the public and governmental concerns about the possible risk of wildland fire smoke to public health and safety, as well as nuisance, visibility, ozone generation, and regional haze impacts, increasingly effective smoke management programs and air quality policies are being implemented with support from research and land management agency programs. This state-of-knowledge review of what is known about the effects of fire on air quality has been prepared to assist those in the fire and air quality management communities for future discussion of management, policy, and science options for managing fire and air quality. The introduction sets up a framework in which to discuss the interaction between pollutants emitted from fire, and air quality at the national, State, and local levels applied to air resource management, fire management, and geographical scale components.

California Fire Plan

California Fire Plan Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 199?
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Effects of Fire on Air

Effects of Fire on Air Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1978
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Modelling Monitoring and Management of Forest Fires

Modelling  Monitoring and Management of Forest Fires Book
Author : J. de las Heras,C.A. Brebbia,D. Viegas,V. Leone
Publisher : WIT Press
Release : 2008-08-26
ISBN : 1845641418
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

At present there is insufficient knowledge of the behavior of fires and how they propagate. This lack of information makes it very hard to control these phenomena and is one of the biggest obstacles to the development of a reliable decision support system. Public concern regarding this topic is increasing as uncontrolled fires may lead to major ecological disasters, and usually result in negative economic and health implications for the region. Containing papers presented at the First International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Forest Fires, this book addresses the latest research and applications of available computational tools to analyse and predict the spread of forest fires in order to prevent or reduce major loss of life and property as well as damage to the environment. Such tools must be able to take into consideration a large number of different parameters. The book thus deals with all aspects of forest fires, from fire propagation in different scenarios to the optimum strategies for fire-fighting. It also covers issues related to economic, ecological, social and health effects. Featured topics include: Computer Models for Fire Propagation; Risk and Vulnerability Assessment; Fire Combustion Models; Computational Methods and Experiments; Case Studies; Emergency Response Systems; Optimization Models for Fire Mitigation; Environmental Impact Models; Air Pollution and Health Risk; Interaction between Meteorological and Forest Fires Models; Economic Impact Models; Forest Material Characterisation; Eco Remediation Models; Decision Support Systems; Monitoring Systems and Data Acquisition and Analysis.

Forest Fire Smoke Management Policy

Forest Fire Smoke Management Policy Book
Author : Philip S. Cook,Jay O'Laughlin
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Forest Fire Smoke Management Policy book written by Philip S. Cook,Jay O'Laughlin, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

California Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Air Pollution Profiling Study

California Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Air Pollution Profiling Study Book
Author : Craig Corrigan,V. Ramanathan,Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download California Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Air Pollution Profiling Study book written by Craig Corrigan,V. Ramanathan,Scripps Institution of Oceanography, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

WILDFIRE EMISSIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL CHANGE AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY POLLUTION

WILDFIRE EMISSIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL CHANGE AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY POLLUTION Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract : Wildfires are episodic disturbances that exert a significant influence on the Earth system. They emit substantial amounts of atmospheric pollutants, which can impact atmospheric chemistry/composition and the Earth's climate at the global and regional scales. This work presents a collection of studies aimed at better estimating wildfire emissions of atmospheric pollutants, quantifying their impacts on remote ecosystems and determining the implications of 2000s-2050s global environmental change (land use/land cover, climate) for wildfire emissions following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B socioeconomic scenario. A global fire emissions model is developed to compile global wildfire emission inventories for major atmospheric pollutants [greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O), air pollutants and tropospheric O3 precursors (nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (alkanes, alkenes)), aerosols and their precursors (particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), sulfur dioxide (SO2)) and mercury (Hg)] and quantify the impacts of 2000s-2050s global change. The estimated Hg wildfire emissions (2000s) are used in a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to determine the contribution of wildfire emissions to Hg pollution in the Arctic. Significant perturbations to wildfire emissions of atmospheric pollutants in the context of global change are estimated, mainly driven by the projected changes in climate, land use/land cover and in the case of Hg, anthropogenic emissions as well. A continuing increase in anthropogenic influence on wildfires in the coming decades is predicted. Greater human occupation of the African continent and increase in cropland coverage cause significant declines in wildfire emissions of atmospheric pollutants from the continent. Anthropogenic factors play an important role in the changes in emissions from other continents as well. Future changes in climate and land cover contribute to significant increases in global emissions for all the species. Wildfires are estimated to contribute 10% of global annual deposition to the Arctic with boreal fires in Asia contributing the most. Wildfires in Eurasia contribute 5.3% of annual Hg deposition followed by Africa (2.5%) and North America (1%). Wildfires contribute to Arctic Hg deposition throughout the year with the highest deposition occurring during the boreal fire season.