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When Affirmative Action Was White An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth Century America

When Affirmative Action Was White  An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth Century America Book
Author : Ira Katznelson
Publisher : W. W. Norton & Company
Release : 2006-08-17
ISBN : 0393347141
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A groundbreaking work that exposes the twisted origins of affirmative action. In this "penetrating new analysis" (New York Times Book Review) Ira Katznelson fundamentally recasts our understanding of twentieth-century American history and demonstrates that all the key programs passed during the New Deal and Fair Deal era of the 1930s and 1940s were created in a deeply discriminatory manner. Through mechanisms designed by Southern Democrats that specifically excluded maids and farm workers, the gap between blacks and whites actually widened despite postwar prosperity. In the words of noted historian Eric Foner, "Katznelson's incisive book should change the terms of debate about affirmative action, and about the last seventy years of American history."

The Affirmative Action Puzzle

The Affirmative Action Puzzle Book
Author : Melvin I. Urofsky
Publisher : Pantheon
Release : 2020-01-28
ISBN : 1101870885
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A rich, multifaceted history of affirmative action from the Civil Rights Act of 1866 through today’s tumultuous times From acclaimed legal historian, author of a biography of Louis Brandeis (“Remarkable” —Anthony Lewis, The New York Review of Books, “Definitive”—Jeffrey Rosen, The New Republic) and Dissent and the Supreme Court (“Riveting”—Dahlia Lithwick, The New York Times Book Review), a history of affirmative action from its beginning with the Civil Rights Act of 1866 to the first use of the term in 1935 with the enactment of the National Labor Relations Act (the Wagner Act) to 1961 and John F. Kennedy’s Executive Order 10925, mandating that federal contractors take “affirmative action” to ensure that there be no discrimination by “race, creed, color, or national origin” down to today’s American society. Melvin Urofsky explores affirmative action in relation to sex, gender, and education and shows that nearly every public university in the country has at one time or another instituted some form of affirmative action plan--some successful, others not. Urofsky traces the evolution of affirmative action through labor and the struggle for racial equality, writing of World War I and the exodus that began when some six mil­lion African Americans moved northward between 1910 and 1960, one of the greatest internal migrations in the country’s history. He describes how Harry Truman, after becoming president in 1945, fought for Roosevelt’s Fair Employment Practice Act and, surprising everyone, appointed a distinguished panel to serve as the President’s Commission on Civil Rights, as well as appointing the first black judge on a federal appeals court in 1948 and, by executive order later that year, ordering full racial integration in the armed forces. In this important, ambitious, far-reaching book, Urofsky writes about the affirmative action cases decided by the Supreme Court: cases that either upheld or struck down particular plans that affected both governmental and private entities. We come to fully understand the societal impact of affirmative action: how and why it has helped, and inflamed, people of all walks of life; how it has evolved; and how, and why, it is still needed.

The Expanding Boundaries of Black Politics

The Expanding Boundaries of Black Politics Book
Author : Georgia A. Persons
Publisher : Transaction Publishers
Release : 2011-12-31
ISBN : 141280907X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume joins the preceding volumes in this distinguished series in presenting contemporary research by leading political scientists addressing topics of interest to those concerned with African-American affairs. It captures the expanding boundaries of black politics and the persistent interests of the black community at large. The anchoring symposium, "The Expanding Boundaries of Black Politics," presents the scholarship of a cadre of young black political scientists actively engaged in the critical tasks of moving forward the study of black politics. Their concerns include expanding the boundaries of black politics along the lines of epistemology and methodology, especially in regard to core issues and areas within this field. In an introductory essay by Todd Shaw, the work of these scholars is situated within the context of temporal shifts in scholarly emphases. Overlapping issues and concerns across time as well as black political scholarship as defined in the field since its beginning are addressed. The second part of this volume, entitled "Maximizing the Black Vote; Recognizing the Limits of Electoral Politics," concentrates on serious lingering social concerns. These include the policy significance of black mayors affecting the concomitant impact of the black vote, the boundaries being pushed concerning the conjunction of black theology and sexual identity, a gendered analysis of familial policies, and the deepening social and economic plight of young black males including felon disfranchisement. The Expanding Boundaries of Black Politics carries forth the search for an understanding of the relationship between religion, the black church, and black political behavior; cross-racial group coalitions as concerns matters of immigration, growing multiculturalism, and the impact on black politics; maximizing the impact of the black vote focusing on voting rights enforcement, the black vote in presidential elections, and the voice of the Congressional Black Caucus in American foreign policy; and persistent social inequalities especially as it concerns ideology, federalism, and social welfare policy.

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action Book
Author : Tim J. Wise
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 1136078428
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Affirmative Action examines the larger structure of institutional white privilege in education, and compares the magnitude of white racial preference with the policies typically envisioned when the term "racial preference" is used. In doing so, the book demonstrates that the American system of education is both a reflection of and a contributor to a structure of institutionalized racism and racial preference for the dominant majority.

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action Book
Author : John W Johnson,Robert P. Green Jr.
Publisher : Greenwood
Release : 2009-05-19
ISBN : 0313081328
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Affirmative Action recounts the fascinating history of a civil rights provision considered vital to protecting and promoting equality, but still bitterly contested in the courts—and in the court of public opinion.

Not All Black and White

Not All Black and White Book
Author : Christopher F. Edley
Publisher : Macmillan
Release : 1998-03-04
ISBN : 9780374525415
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Argues that affirmative action laws are essential to American social justice and racial equality

Affirmative Action in China and the U S

Affirmative Action in China and the U S  Book
Author : M. Zhou,A. Hill
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2009-10-12
ISBN : 0230100929
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume is the first to comprehensively examine Chinese's affirmative action policies in the critical area of minority education, the most important conduit to employment and economic success in the PRC after the economic reforms begun in the late 1970s.

The GI Bill

The GI Bill Book
Author : Glenn Altschuler,Stuart Blumin
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2009-06-02
ISBN : 0199839999
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

On rare occasions in American history, Congress enacts a measure so astute, so far-reaching, so revolutionary, it enters the language as a metaphor. The Marshall Plan comes to mind, as does the Civil Rights Act. But perhaps none resonates in the American imagination like the G.I. Bill. In a brilliant addition to Oxford's acclaimed Pivotal Moments in American History series, historians Glenn C. Altschuler and Stuart M. Blumin offer a compelling and often surprising account of the G.I. Bill and its sweeping and decisive impact on American life. Formally known as the Serviceman's Readjustment Act of 1944, it was far from an obvious, straightforward piece of legislation, but resulted from tense political maneuvering and complex negotiations. As Altschuler and Blumin show, an unlikely coalition emerged to shape and pass the bill, bringing together both New Deal Democrats and conservatives who had vehemently opposed Roosevelt's social-welfare agenda. For the first time in American history returning soldiers were not only supported, but enabled to pursue success--a revolution in America's policy towards its veterans. Once enacted, the G.I. Bill had far-reaching consequences. By providing job training, unemployment compensation, housing loans, and tuition assistance, it allowed millions of Americans to fulfill long-held dreams of social mobility, reshaping the national landscape. The huge influx of veterans and federal money transformed the modern university and the surge in single home ownership vastly expanded America's suburbs. Perhaps most important, as Peter Drucker noted, the G.I. Bill "signaled the shift to the knowledge society." The authors highlight unusual or unexpected features of the law--its color blindness, the frankly sexist thinking behind it, and its consequent influence on race and gender relations. Not least important, Altschuler and Blumin illuminate its role in individual lives whose stories they weave into this thoughtful account. Written with insight and narrative verve by two leading historians, The G.I. Bill makes a major contribution to the scholarship of postwar America.

The Color of Money

The Color of Money Book
Author : Mehrsa Baradaran
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 2017-09-14
ISBN : 0674982304
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In 1863 black communities owned less than 1 percent of total U.S. wealth. Today that number has barely budged. Mehrsa Baradaran pursues this wealth gap by focusing on black banks. She challenges the myth that black banking is the solution to the racial wealth gap and argues that black communities can never accumulate wealth in a segregated economy.

Affirmative Action at a Crossroads Fisher and Forward

Affirmative Action at a Crossroads  Fisher and Forward Book
Author : Edna Chun,Alvin Evans
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-05-20
ISBN : 111912493X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The urgency of developing workable race-neutral admissions strategies that maximize the benefits of student diversity has increased. This practical guide offers: concrete recommendations and strategies for the creation of a campus ecosystem that maximizes the structural, curricular, and interactional benefits of diversity, extensive empirical findings and a rich research literature, opportunities for campuses to craft programs, processes, and intervention that maximize student learning outcomes related to diversity, and alternative strategies for addressing disadvantage, including the use of socioeconomic status and state-based percent plans. This book provides a comprehensive overview of key issues and strategic approaches that will assist institutions of higher education in fostering demographic diversity and building inclusive and welcoming campus environments. This is the fourth issue of the 41st volume of the Jossey-Bass series ASHE Higher Education Report. Each monograph is the definitive analysis of a tough higher education issue, based on thorough research of pertinent literature and institutional experiences. Topics are identified by a national survey. Noted practitioners and scholars are then commissioned to write the reports, with experts providing critical reviews of each manuscript before publication.

Racing to Justice

Racing to Justice Book
Author : John Anthony Powell
Publisher : Indiana University Press
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0253006295
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Argues that America has more to do to redeem the promise of inclusive democracy, discussing the Western notions of individuality, rationality, and market captialism that contain seeds of exclusion and domination.

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action Book
Author : The New York Times Editorial Staff
Publisher : The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
Release : 2020-07-15
ISBN : 1642823198
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Affirmative action is a set of laws or policies that favors disenfranchised groups in efforts to compensate for the discriminatory practices of the past. The term first appeared in U.S. legislature in the 1930s, and has taken many forms. It has championed for those who have been discriminated against for their age, class, gender, race, or physical ability. Affirmative action has addressed discrimination in housing rights, employment, pay equality, civil rights, and academic admissions. These New York Times stories chronicle some of our government's greatest applications of affirmative action, when it has failed, how the perception of it has evolved, and where it will take equality in the future. Media literacy questions and terms are included to further engage readers with the collection.

Whiteness and Racialized Ethnic Groups in the United States

Whiteness and Racialized Ethnic Groups in the United States Book
Author : Sherrow O. Pinder
Publisher : Lexington Books
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0739164899
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book, about the genealogy of whiteness, racialized ethnic groups, and the future of race relations in the United States, is for undergraduate or graduate courses including political science, ethnic studies, American Studies, and multicultural and gender studies. Also, it is accessible and of interest to a broader audience, including the general public who are interested in the future of race relations in the United States.

Whiteucation

Whiteucation Book
Author : Jeffrey S. Brooks,George Theoharis
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-12-17
ISBN : 1351253476
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This important volume explores how racism operates in schools and society, while also unpacking larger patterns of racist ideology and white privilege as it manifests across various levels of schooling. A diverse set of contributors analyze particular contexts of white privilege, providing key research findings, connections to policy, and exemplars of schools and universities that are overcoming these challenges. Whiteucation provides a multi-level and holistic perspective on how inequitable power dynamics and prejudice exist in schools, ultimately encouraging reflection, dialogue, and inquiry in spaces where white privilege needs to be questioned, interrogated, and dismantled.

Affirmative Action at Work

Affirmative Action at Work Book
Author : Bron Raymond Taylor
Publisher : University of Pittsburgh Pre
Release : 1991-10-15
ISBN : 0822974525
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bron Taylor unites theoretical and applied social science to analyze a salient contemporary moral and political problem. Three decades after the passage of civil rights laws, criteria for hiring and promotion to redress past discrimination and the sensitive “quota” question are still unresolved issues. Taylor reviews the works of prominent social scientists and philosophers on the moral and legal principles underlying affirmative action, and examines them in light of his own empirical study. Using participant observation, in-depth interviewing, and a detailed questionnaire, he examines the attitudes of four groups in the California Department of Parks and Recreation: male and female, white and nonwhite workers. Because the department has implemented a strong program for ten years, its employees have had firsthand experience with affirmative action. Their views about the rights of minorities in the economy are often surprising. This work presents a comprehensive picture of the cross-pressures-the racial fears and antagonisms, the moral, ethical, and religious views about fairness and opportunity, the rigid ideas-that guide popular attitudes.

Economic Inequality and Policy Control in the United States

Economic Inequality and Policy Control in the United States Book
Author : M. Stelzner
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-01-23
ISBN : 1137388110
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The income share of the top one percent of the population in the United States has increased from a little over nine percent of national income in the 1970s to 22.46 percent in 2012 a 144 percent increase. What is driving this astronomic growth in incomes for some? Is it possibly the result of non-meritorious forces? If so, how has this incredibly unequal development coexisted, and indeed worsened, in a political system based on equality? In Economic Inequality and Policy Control in the United States, Stelzner tackles each of these questions, and, in order to further develop understanding, Stelzner looks to the past and analyzes our experience with income inequality and the orientation of laws and institutions from the Gilded Age through the New and Fair Deal. He concludes that we have the tools to tackle inequality at present the same policies we used during the New and Fair Deal. However, in order to make change durable, we have to eliminate the undemocratic elements of our political system.

Justice Deferred

Justice Deferred Book
Author : Orville Vernon Burton,Armand Derfner
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 2021-05-04
ISBN : 067425886X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the first comprehensive accounting of the U.S. Supreme Court’s race-related jurisprudence, a distinguished historian and renowned civil rights lawyer scrutinize a legacy too often blighted by racial injustice. The Supreme Court is usually seen as protector of our liberties: it ended segregation, was a guarantor of fair trials, and safeguarded free speech and the vote. But this narrative derives mostly from a short period, from the 1930s to the early 1970s. Before then, the Court spent a century largely ignoring or suppressing basic rights, while the fifty years since 1970 have witnessed a mostly accelerating retreat from racial justice. From the Cherokee Trail of Tears to Brown v. Board of Education to the dismantling of the Voting Rights Act, historian Orville Vernon Burton and civil rights lawyer Armand Derfner shine a powerful light on the Court’s race record—a legacy at times uplifting, but more often distressing and sometimes disgraceful. For nearly a century, the Court ensured that the nineteenth-century Reconstruction amendments would not truly free and enfranchise African Americans. And the twenty-first century has seen a steady erosion of commitments to enforcing hard-won rights. Justice Deferred is the first book that comprehensively charts the Court’s race jurisprudence. Addressing nearly two hundred cases involving America’s racial minorities, the authors probe the parties involved, the justices’ reasoning, and the impact of individual rulings. We learn of heroes such as Thurgood Marshall; villains, including Roger Taney; and enigmas like Oliver Wendell Holmes and Hugo Black. Much of the fragility of civil rights in America is due to the Supreme Court, but as this sweeping history also reminds us, the justices still have the power to make good on the country’s promise of equal rights for all.

Constructing Affirmative Action

Constructing Affirmative Action Book
Author : David Hamilton Golland
Publisher : University Press of Kentucky
Release : 2011-04-22
ISBN : 0813139643
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Between 1965, when President Lyndon B. Johnson defined affirmative action as a legitimate federal goal, and 1972, when President Richard M. Nixon named one of affirmative action's chief antagonists the head of the Department of Labor, government officials at all levels addressed racial economic inequality in earnest. Providing members of historically disadvantaged groups an equal chance at obtaining limited and competitive positions, affirmative action had the potential to alienate large numbers of white Americans, even those who had viewed school desegregation and voting rights in a positive light. Thus, affirmative action was -- and continues to be -- controversial. Novel in its approach and meticulously researched, David Hamilton Golland's Constructing Affirmative Action: The Struggle for Equal Employment Opportunity bridges a sizeable gap in the literature on the history of affirmative action. Golland examines federal efforts to diversify the construction trades from the 1950s through the 1970s, offering valuable insights into the origins of affirmative action--related policy. Constructing Affirmative Action analyzes how community activism pushed the federal government to address issues of racial exclusion and marginalization in the construction industry with programs in key American cities.

A Theoretical Approach to Modern American History and Literature

A Theoretical Approach to Modern American History and Literature Book
Author : W. Lawrence Hogue
Publisher : Anthem Press
Release : 2020-01-10
ISBN : 1785272616
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book reconfigures the history of modern America, showing how multiple and, at times, vulnerable social, economic, literary, and political movements, levels, divisions, and conditions such as the emergent middle class, the labor movement, the Progressive Movement, the socialist and communist parties, the Women’s movements, the NAACP, the Garvey movement, Asian and Native American resistance movements, writers, artists, and intellectuals seized upon social, gender, economic, and racial inequalities and challenged a singularly defined modern America. This book re-represents the modern American novel, accenting the different critical literary voices that come out of the mainstream consumer society but also out of the various unequal social, economic, gender, and political movements and situations. In including racial, gender, sexual, colonial, class, and ethnic others—who reject the rigidity, the repression, the racial and ethnic stereotyping, the external and internal colonialism, the complication/rejection of the past/nature, and the violence of the institutionalized, conformist norm—in a discussion of the modern American novel, it effects a fundamental recasting of the modern Americanist paradigm, one that is de-centered, richer, more complex, and more diverse.

Media Frames Interracial Attitudes and Support for Affirmative Action

Media Frames  Interracial Attitudes and Support for Affirmative Action Book
Author : John D. Richardson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Media Frames Interracial Attitudes and Support for Affirmative Action book written by John D. Richardson, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.