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Water Gas Shift Reaction

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Water Gas Shift Reaction

Water Gas Shift Reaction Book
Author : Panagiotis Smirniotis,Krishna Gunugunuri
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-06-11
ISBN : 0444633537
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Water Gas Shift Reaction: Research Developments and Applications outlines the importance of hydrogen as a future fuel, along with the various hydrogen production methods. The book explains the development of catalysts for Water Gas Shift (WGS) reaction at different temperatures and steam/CO ratios, and also discussing the effect of different dopants on the WGS activity of iron oxide and the promotion and inhibition roles of the dopants on the WGS activity of iron oxide are explained. In addition, the book describes extensive characterization of modified ferrite catalysts, especially with Mossbauer spectroscopy and its advantage in understanding properties of metal doped ferrite catalysts, the exact dopant location, and its effect on electron hopping capability and WGS activity of Fe redox couple. Outlines the importance of the Water Gas Shift Reaction and its application for hydrogen production Provides detailed information on potential catalysts, their development, and their pros and cons, giving the reader insights on how modified ferrite catalysts work at different temperatures and different steam to CO ratios Reviews hydrogen technology, its current importance, and production methods Presents a clear presentation of the topics with many graphics and tables Offers basic and advanced knowledge of catalysts characterization instrumental techniques

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION THROUGH WATER GAS SHIFT REACTION OVER NICKEL CATALYSTS

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION THROUGH WATER GAS SHIFT REACTION OVER NICKEL CATALYSTS  Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The progress in fuel cell technology has resulted in an increased interest towards hydrogen fuel. Consequently, water gas shift reaction has found a renewed significance. Even though iron- and copper-based catalysts have been used for water gas shift reaction for decades, the catalysts are not strong enough to bring carbon monoxide concentration to a level tolerable for a fuel cell working at low temperatures. This study is focused on hydrogen production from water gas shift reaction using a nickel catalyst. Literature review revealed that nickel is one of the promising catalysts for water gas shift reaction. A thermodynamic analysis proved that exothermic water gas shift reaction is thermodynamically favorable at low temperatures but kinetically limited, and vice versa at higher temperatures. Initial experiments using 12 catalysts supported over monolith alumina revealed that nickel supported on ceria-promoted monolith alumina (Ni/CeO2-Al2O3) performed best, especially at 500oC. At this temperature and steam flowrates of 0.1-0.5 ml/min, the nickel catalyst had an activity of 94-99%, H2 yield of 55-61 vol.%, and H2 selectivity of 77-99%. A second set of experiments examined nine nickel based catalysts using different supports (mostly in powder form) which also demonstrated that Ni/CeO2-Al2O3 is the most promising catalyst for high temperature (450oC) water gas shift reaction. When nickel loading was varied from 1 to 8% (w/w), it was apparent that the catalyst performance increased with the nickel loading. Powder alumina resulted in better catalysis than monolith alumina. In this experiment, it was evident that the presence of minor amounts (1% (w/w) of the nickel loading) of a dopant material that included cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, or ruthenium affected the catalytic activity of the primary catalyst. The addition of cobalt or chromium resulted in positive effect on the performance of Ni/CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst. There was no appreciable effect due to the addition of.

Hydrogen Production Through Water Gas Shift Reaction Over Nickel Catalysts

Hydrogen Production Through Water Gas Shift Reaction Over Nickel Catalysts Book
Author : Agus Haryanto
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The progress in fuel cell technology has resulted in an increased interest towards hydrogen fuel. Consequently, water gas shift reaction has found a renewed significance. Even though iron- and copper-based catalysts have been used for water gas shift reaction for decades, the catalysts are not strong enough to bring carbon monoxide concentration to a level tolerable for a fuel cell working at low temperatures. This study is focused on hydrogen production from water gas shift reaction using a nickel catalyst. Literature review revealed that nickel is one of the promising catalysts for water gas shift reaction. A thermodynamic analysis proved that exothermic water gas shift reaction is thermodynamically favorable at low temperatures but kinetically limited, and vice versa at higher temperatures. Initial experiments using 12 catalysts supported over monolith alumina revealed that nickel supported on ceria-promoted monolith alumina (Ni/CeO2-Al2O3) performed best, especially at 500°C. At this temperature and steam flowrates of 0.1-0.5 ml/min, the nickel catalyst had an activity of 94-99%, H2 yield of 55-61 vol.%, and H2 selectivity of 77-99%. A second set of experiments examined nine nickel based catalysts using different supports (mostly in powder form) which also demonstrated that Ni/CeO2-Al2O3 is the most promising catalyst for high temperature (450°C) water gas shift reaction. When nickel loading was varied from 1 to 8% (w/w), it was apparent that the catalyst performance increased with the nickel loading. Powder alumina resulted in better catalysis than monolith alumina. In this experiment, it was evident that the presence of minor amounts (1% (w/w) of the nickel loading) of a dopant material that included cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, or ruthenium affected the catalytic activity of the primary catalyst. The addition of cobalt or chromium resulted in positive effect on the performance of Ni/CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst. There was no appreciable effect due to the addition of ruthenium, and there was negative effect owing to the presence of molybdenum. Undoped, cobalt-doped, or chromium-doped Ni/CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst performed much better for water gas shift reaction at 450°C than that of a commercial (control) catalyst. A kinetic study revealed that the activation energy of water gas shift reaction over Ni/CeO2-Al2O3 was to be 104.5 kJ/mol.

Studies of the Water gas Shift Reaction Over Supported Gold and Platinum Catalysts

Studies of the Water gas Shift Reaction Over Supported Gold and Platinum Catalysts Book
Author : Steven Taylor Evans
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Studies of the Water gas Shift Reaction Over Supported Gold and Platinum Catalysts book written by Steven Taylor Evans, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Zeolite Membrane Reactor for Water Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen Production

Zeolite Membrane Reactor for Water Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen Production Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gasification of biomass or heavy feedstock to produce hydrogen fuel gas using current technology is costly and energy-intensive. The technology includes water gas shift reaction in two or more reactor stages with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given catalyst volume. This project is focused on developing a membrane reactor for efficient conversion of water gas shift reaction to produce a hydrogen stream as a fuel and a carbon dioxide stream suitable for sequestration. The project was focused on synthesizing stable, hydrogen perm-selective MFI zeolite membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation; fabricating tubular MFI zeolite membrane reactor and stable water gas shift catalyst for membrane reactor applications, and identifying experimental conditions for water gas shift reaction in the zeolite membrane reactor that will produce a high purity hydrogen stream. The project has improved understanding of zeolite membrane synthesis, high temperature gas diffusion and separation mechanisms for zeolite membranes, synthesis and properties of sulfur resistant catalysts, fabrication and structure optimization of membrane supports, and fundamentals of coupling reaction with separation in zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction. Through the fundamental study, the research teams have developed MFI zeolite membranes with good perm-selectivity for hydrogen over carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water vapor, and high stability for operation in syngas mixture containing 500 part per million hydrogen sulfide at high temperatures around 500°C. The research teams also developed a sulfur resistant catalyst for water gas shift reaction. Modeling and experimental studies on the zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction have demonstrated the effective use of the zeolite membrane reactor for production of high purity hydrogen stream.

Studies of Hydrogen Production by the Water Gas Shift Reaction and Related Chemistry

Studies of Hydrogen Production by the Water Gas Shift Reaction and Related Chemistry Book
Author : Richard Eisenberg
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1983
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Many systems have been investigated for the catalysis of the water gas shift reaction and for electrocatalytic oxidation of CO. These systems have involved precious metal complexes composed of Pt, Rh, and Ir, and reaction conditions for these systems have been especially mild: atmospheric pressures and low temperatures. In addition aqueous acidic conditions for these systems have been pursued with particular interest in adopting water gas shift catalysts to act as electrocatalysts for the anode reaction of CO fuel cells.

The Water gas Shift Reaction Deactivation Studies

The Water gas Shift Reaction Deactivation Studies Book
Author : John Ramsdon Mellor
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1993
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Water gas Shift Reaction Deactivation Studies book written by John Ramsdon Mellor, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

A Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Facilitating the Water gas Shift Reaction at High Temperature

A Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Facilitating the Water gas Shift Reaction at High Temperature Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1994
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This program is directed toward the development of a metal-membrane-based process for the economical production of hydrogen at elevated temperature by the reaction of carbon monoxide with steam--i.e., the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. Key to achieving this objective is the development of an inexpensive and durable metal-membrane module. The specific program objectives include the following: design, fabrication, and demonstration of prototype membrane modules; improving the membrane composition to increase the hydrogen flux; demonstrating that membrane lifetime ≥2 years is likely to be achieved; and conducting engineering and economic analyses of the process. Results to date are given and discussed.

Simultaneous Water gas Shift Reaction and Carbon Dioxide Separation for Direct Hydrogen Production from Synthesis Gas

Simultaneous Water gas Shift Reaction and Carbon Dioxide Separation for Direct Hydrogen Production from Synthesis Gas Book
Author : Chun Han,Louisiana State University (Baton Rouge, La.)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1995
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Simultaneous Water gas Shift Reaction and Carbon Dioxide Separation for Direct Hydrogen Production from Synthesis Gas book written by Chun Han,Louisiana State University (Baton Rouge, La.), available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Water Gas Shift Reaction in the Steam carbon System

The Water Gas Shift Reaction in the Steam carbon System Book
Author : Robert Francis McNamara
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1952
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Water Gas Shift Reaction in the Steam carbon System book written by Robert Francis McNamara, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Water gas Shift Reaction Over Model Copper Catalysts

The Water gas Shift Reaction Over Model Copper Catalysts Book
Author : Joseph Campbell
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1991
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Water gas Shift Reaction Over Model Copper Catalysts book written by Joseph Campbell, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Membrane Reactor for the Low Temperature Water Gas Shift Reaction

Membrane Reactor for the Low Temperature Water Gas Shift Reaction Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Membrane Reactor for the Low Temperature Water Gas Shift Reaction book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Hydrodesulphurization of Light Gas Oil Using Hydrogen from the Water Gas Shift Reaction

Hydrodesulphurization of Light Gas Oil Using Hydrogen from the Water Gas Shift Reaction Book
Author : Abdulaziz Alghamdi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The production of clean fuel faces the challenges of high production cost and complying with stricter environmental regulations. In this research, the ability of using a novel technology of upgrading heavy oil to treat Light Gas Oil (LGO) will be investigated. The target of this project is to produce cleaner transportation fuel with much lower cost of production. Recently, a novel process for upgrading of heavy oil has been developed at University of Waterloo. It is combining the two essential processes in bitumen upgrading; emulsion breaking and hydroprocessing into one process. The water in the emulsion is used to generate in situ hydrogen from the Water Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR). This hydrogen can be used for the hydrogenation and hydrotreating reaction which includes sulfur removal instead of the expensive molecular hydrogen. This process can be carried out for the upgrading of the bitumen emulsion which would improve its quality. In this study, the hydrodesulphurization (HDS) of LGO was conducted using in situ hydrogen produced via the Water Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR). The main objective of this experimental study is to evaluate the possibility of producing clean LGO over dispersed molybdenum sulphide catalyst and to evaluate the effect of different promoters and syn-gas on the activity of the dispersed Mo catalyst. Experiments were carried out in a 300 ml Autoclave batch reactor under 600 psi (initially) at 391oC for 1 to 3 hours and different amounts of water. After the hydrotreating reaction, the gas samples were collected and the conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen via WGSR was determined using a refinery gas analyzer. The sulphur content in liquid sample was analyzed via X-Ray Fluorescence. Experimental results showed that using more water will enhance WGSR but at the same time inhibits the HDS reaction. It was also shown that the amount of sulfur removed depends on the reaction time. The plan is to investigate the effect of synthesis gas (syngas) molar ratio by varying CO to H2 ratio. It is also planned to use different catalysts promoters and compare them with the un-promoted Mo based catalysts to achieve the optimum reaction conditions for treating LGO. The results of this study showed that Ni and Co have a promoting effect over un-promoted Mo catalysts for both HDS and WGSR. Ni was found to be the best promoter for both reactions. Fe showed no significant effect for both WGSR and HDS. V and K have a good promoting effect in WGSR but they inhibited the HDS reaction. Potassium was found to be the strongest inhibitor for the HDS reaction since no sulfur was removed during the reaction.

Low Temperature Water gas Shift Reaction Over Gold ferrochrome Catalysts

Low Temperature Water gas Shift Reaction Over Gold ferrochrome Catalysts Book
Author : Gaurav Narendra Vajani
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This work consists of the investigation of gold-ferrochrome catalysts under low temperature water-gas shift reaction conditions. The goal of this research is the development of a kinetic model and understanding the deactivation mechanism of gold-ferrochrome catalyst during water-gas shift reaction. The motivation for studying these catalysts comes from the importance and need of water-gas shift for low temperature applications requiring highly active catalysts that remain stable for long term commercial use. Gold based catalysts supported on metal oxide supports show considerable promise but no kinetic models exist and very little is known about their stability. The first part involves the development of a kinetic model for low temperature water-gas shift over gold-ferrochrome catalysts. Using experimental measurement of kinetics, a power-law rate expression with a factor accounting for catalyst deactivation has been presented.^This is the first reported rate expression for gold-ferrochrome catalysts used for water-gas shift. The effect of various operating conditions on the reaction rate has been discussed. The second part investigates the cause of catalyst deactivation and a mechanism of deactivation of gold-ferrochrome catalyst has been proposed. Under various operating conditions, the catalyst loses its activity rapidly. Long term stability tests and adsorption measurements provide evidence for the loss of active sites. Two aspects of catalyst deactivation are studied: firstly, possible changes in the nature of support and gold particles and secondly, detailed investigation into catalyst deactivation by carbon deposition. Characterization of active and deactivated samples using microscopic and spectroscopic techniques provides qualitative insight into the cause of catalyst deactivation.^The degree of deactivation by sintering and carbon deposition has been quantified by exposing the catalyst to various environments. A novel technique for in-situ gravimetric analysis of the catalyst is developed using a tapered element oscillating microbalance and this helps shed light on the loss in catalytic activity and its relation to carbon deposition. Thermodynamic calculations provide validation for the phase of the support and ascertain the tendency of carbon deposition under low temperature water-gas shift conditions. Carbon deposition and sintering of gold, the main factors contributing to the deactivation of gold-ferrochrome have been discussed.

CO2 Conversion by Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction

CO2 Conversion by Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction Book
Author : Abdulaziz Alamer
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent decades, the world has been concerned about the environmental impact of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Thus, researchers have been focusing on enhancing current technologies, such as the Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) reaction, to convert CO2 to synthetic fuels. The goal of this research was to develop a catalyst that has a high CO2 conversion and CO selectivity. To achieve this goal, different experiments were conducted at the same conditions to study the effect of different supports, metal loadings and different metals. All the experimental results were compared to equilibrium data obtained from Aspen Plus. Each tested catalyst was analyzed by BET and XRD to understand its physical and chemical structure as well as its behavior. Best catalyst was identified to be 5 wt% Cu supported on MgO, which achieved 20% CO2 conversion, 84% of Equilibrium CO2 conversion, and 75% CO selectivity.

SIC BASED HYDROGEN SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR WATER GAS SHIFT REACTION

SIC BASED HYDROGEN SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR WATER GAS SHIFT REACTION  Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2002
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the first two years of this project, we focused on the membrane synthesis, characterization and optimization. In the past year, we have concentrated on the product development for improving the efficiency of hydrogen recovery from coal gasifier off-gas via water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction. A mathematical simulation study has been performed to compare the performance of the membrane reactor (MR) vs conventional packed bed rector for WGS reaction. Our result demonstrates that>99.999% conversion can be accomplished via WGS-MR using the hydrogen selective membrane developed by us. Further, water/CO ratio can be reduced, and>97% hydrogen recovery and

Low Temperature Catalytic Liquid Phase Water Gas Shift Reaction for Carbon Monoxide Free Hydrogen Generation

Low Temperature Catalytic Liquid Phase Water Gas Shift Reaction for Carbon Monoxide Free Hydrogen Generation Book
Author : Baby Jayasree,University of Hong Kong
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Low Temperature Catalytic Liquid Phase Water Gas Shift Reaction for Carbon Monoxide Free Hydrogen Generation book written by Baby Jayasree,University of Hong Kong, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Study of Water Gas Shift Reaction

Study of Water Gas Shift Reaction Book
Author : D. B Pal,Ram Prasad
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2014-07-21
ISBN : 9783659575471
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In modern society energy has become indispensable like food, water and air. However, most of the energy we use nowadays comes from fossil fuels, a non-renewable energy source. Furthermore, our dependence on fossil fuels as energy sources has caused serious environmental problems, i.e. air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, and natural resource depletion. It is emphasized that the global environmental damage caused thermodynamically is more alarming to life on earth than the risk of exhausting the finite amount of fossil fuels being consumed at the present rate. The need for alternatives free of the above mentioned problems are becoming ever more urgent. Hydrogen has been identified as an ideal energy carrier to support sustainable development. It is extremely clean as the only by-product is water. In recent times, growing environmental concern has brought in a new dimension to WGSR role as an adjunct to above reactions for portable and stationery fuel cell application with possible use of improved catalysts which are non-pyrophoric, high attrition resistant and possessing better activity at moderate temperatures.