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Volcanic Ash

Volcanic Ash Book
Author : Shona Mackie,Katharine Cashman,Hugo Ricketts,Alison Rust,Matt Watson
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2016-05-24
ISBN : 0081004249
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Volcanic Ash: Hazard Observation presents an introduction followed by four sections, each on a separate topic and each containing chapters from an internationally renowned pool of authors. The introduction provides a volcanological context for ash generation that sets the stage for the development and interpretation of techniques presented in subsequent sections. The book begins with an examination of the methods to characterize ash deposits on the ground, as ash deposits on the ground have generally experienced some atmospheric transport. This section will also cover basic information on ash morphology, density, and refractive index, all parameters required to understand and analyze assumptions made for both in situ measurements and remote sensing ash inversion techniques. Sections two, three, and four focus on methods for observing volcanic ash in the atmosphere using ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne instruments respectively. Throughout the book, the editors showcase not only the interdisciplinary nature of the volcanic ash problem, but also the challenges and rewards of interdisciplinary endeavors. Additionally, by bringing together a broad perspective on volcanic ash studies, the book not only ties together ground-, air-, academic, and applied approaches to the volcanic ash problem, but also engages with other scientific communities interested in particulate transport. Includes recent case studies highlighting the impact of volcanic ash, making methods used for observation more accessible to the reader Contains advances in volcanic ash observation that can be used in other remote sensing applications Presents a cross-disciplinary approach that includes not only methods of tracking and measuring ash in the atmosphere, but also of the fundamental science that supports methodological application and interpretation Edited by an internationally recognized team with a range of expertise within the field of volcanic ash

Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety

Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety Book
Author : Thomas J. Casadevall
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release : 1994
ISBN : 0788116509
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This conference was prompted by the occurrence of 5 encounters between passenger jetliners with drifting clouds of volcanic ash from the 1989-90 eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in Alaska. Examines 5 principal areas, including: how volcanoes produce ash clouds, the damage and impacts resulting from ash-cloud encounters, communications procedures for mitigating the risks from volcanic ash, the meteorology and modeling of ash-cloud movement, and methods for detection and tracking of ash clouds. 60 technical presentations are included.

Volcanic Ash Soils

Volcanic Ash Soils Book
Author : S. Shoji,M. Nanzyo,R.A. Dahlgren
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1994-01-06
ISBN : 9780080869896
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Volcanic eruptions are generally viewed as agents of destruction, yet they provide the parent materials from which some of the most productive soils in the world are formed. The high productivity results from a combination of unique physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. The importance and uniqueness of volcanic ash soils are exemplified by the recent establishment of the Andisol soil order in Soil Taxonomy. This book provides the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of volcanic ash soils in a single volume. It contains in-depth coverage of important topics including terminology, morphology, genesis, classification, mineralogy, chemistry, physical properties, productivity and utilization. A wealth of data (37 tables, 81 figures, and Appendix) mainly from the Tohoku University Andisol Data Base is used to illustrate major concepts. Twelve color plates provide a valuable visual-aid and complement the text description of the world-wide distribution for volcanic ash soils. This volume will serve as a valuable reference for soil scientists, plant scientists, ecologists and geochemists interested in biogeochemical processes occurring in soils derived form volcanic ejecta.

Tonsteins

Tonsteins Book
Author : Bruce Forbes Bohor,D. M. Triplehorn
Publisher : Geological Society of America
Release : 1993-01-01
ISBN : 0813722853
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Tonsteins book written by Bruce Forbes Bohor,D. M. Triplehorn, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Utilitarian and Ritual Applications of Volcanic Ash in Ancient Ecuador

The Utilitarian and Ritual Applications of Volcanic Ash in Ancient Ecuador Book
Author : William Saunders Pratt
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

While the majority of studies on volcanic ash in Ecuadorian archaeology are focused on tephrochronology or regional abandonment, there has yet to be a study conducted on the different technical and ritual applications of volcanic ash. Volcanic ash has a great deal of unique chemical and physical properties that make it ideal for a wide variety of technical uses. These same properties make volcanic ash useful for a number of analyses that can yield clues to ancient technical knowledge, areas of influence, and systems of exchange. As a distinctive byproduct closely associated with devastating volcanic eruptions, volcanic ash held great symbolic significance and was used for many ritual applications as well. The ways in which ash was used in these ritual settings can yield clues to ancient conceptions of volcanos and the intricacies of human-volcano relationships. Because volcanic ash was used by various cultures for different purposes, archaeological remains of these uses can serve as culturally and temporally diagnostic markers in the archaeological record. This thesis seeks to catalog these different uses so that they might serve as a reference for other researchers examining volcanic ash features and to discuss them in such a way that it might better our understanding of the complicated relationship ancient people had with these most imposing features of the landscape.

Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety

Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety Book
Author : Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1994
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety book written by Geological Survey (U.S.), available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Ceren Site

The Ceren Site Book
Author : Payson D. Sheets
Publisher : Wadsworth Publishing Company
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Discovered in 1976 by Sheets, and under continuous excavation and study since, the spectacular Ceren site provides us with an unusually clear window into the ancient past with which to view family activities on the frontier of the Mayan civilization. Since volcanic ash did not allow people to selectively remove artifacts, the site is well-preserved and it also largely stopped natural processes of decomposition offering this rare opportunity to study the Mayan past through household archaeology. Known as the New World Pompeii, this study provides a detailed portrait of the life, houses, artifacts, and activity areas of the people who supported the elites with labor, food and goods. As Sheets says, "With any civilization that's being studied, if the households of commoners aren't being investigated, you've eliminated the bulk of the population. How can you understand the society if you ignore most of the people? It's like an ethnography. Only we can't interview people, so their possessions have to speak for them." Art and images from the author's own collection help illuminate the discussions and bring them to life, while the author's discussion of his personal trials and triumphs add a more human dimension to working in the field.

First International Symposium on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety

First International Symposium on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release : 1993-07
ISBN : 9780788101694
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The symposium's aims were to encourage improvements in the detection, tracking, and warning of volcanic ash hazard so that aircraft may avoid ash clouds, and to review the effects of volcanic ash on aircraft so that pilots who encounter ash can respond appropriately.

The use of volcanic ash compounds for construction projects in iceland

The use of volcanic ash compounds for construction projects in iceland Book
Author : H. G. Larew
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1976
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report describes a study of the feasibility of employing certain volcanic ashes, found in Iceland, in combination with lime and gypsum to produce strong, durable building materials. The researchers learned, during a visit to Iceland, that mortars made of volcanic ash and lime were used in the construction of many of the early stone buildings in Iceland. These mortars were found to be very strong or rock like and durable having survived for periods of 90 to 400 years.

Impacts of Volcanic Ash on Water Supplies in Auckland

Impacts of Volcanic Ash on Water Supplies in Auckland Book
Author : David Moore Johnston
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Impacts of Volcanic Ash on Water Supplies in Auckland book written by David Moore Johnston, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Volcanic Ash

Volcanic Ash Book
Author : Danielle Graver
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015-03
ISBN : 9781634635974
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ash produced as a consequence of explosive volcanic eruptions can cause multiple hazards both close to the volcano and at great distances. Explosive volcano eruptions often release volcanic plumes into the atmosphere, which consist of tephra (submillimeter-sized rock particles), water vapor and other gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Particles from volcano eruptions are transported by wind to thousands of kilometers away, or even over 10,000 km from their source for some fine particles. This book discusses the environmental impact and health risks volcanic ash poses as well as its chemical composition.

Preliminary Information Volcanic Ash Problems and Concerns for Fish and Wildlife

Preliminary Information  Volcanic Ash Problems and Concerns for Fish and Wildlife Book
Author : U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Office of Biological Services
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1980
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Preliminary Information Volcanic Ash Problems and Concerns for Fish and Wildlife book written by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Office of Biological Services, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

CO2 Adsorption on Volcanic Ash

CO2 Adsorption on Volcanic Ash Book
Author : Lee New
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Adsorption of CO2 on mineral surfaces accounts for a small percentage of the terrestrial CO2 sink. Volcanic ash is virtually free of CO2 when erupted and has a high surface area resulting in a high capacity for CO2 adsorption. Volcanism is commonly assumed to be only a source of CO2, but pyroclastic eruptions can also potentially serve as a sink. Adsorption was investigated for 6 volcanic ash samples of andesitic composition from four volcanoes: Okmok, Redoubt, Spurr, and Tungurahua. The eruption of Volcano Redoubt released 0.75 x 109 metric tons of CO 2 and 55 x 109 kg of ash throughout the 3 week eruption. The eruption of Mount Spurr released 85,000 CO2 and 36 x 10 9 kg of ash throughout the duration of the eruption. The eruption of Volcano Tungurahua released 29 x 109 kg of ash. CO2 emissions from the eruption of Volcano Tungurahua were not measured. CO2 emissions and mass of tephra released from the eruption of Mount Okmok were not measured. The calculations for adsorption percent for these two volcanos were performed using the ash/CO2 ratio from Mount Spurr and Volcano Redoubt. The ratio was then applied to Okmok and Tungurahua to solve for CO2 emissions for each of these ratios. The calculations for CO2 adsorption for Mount Okmok were performed using the mass of tephra from Volcano Kasatochi (an adjacent, similar erupting volcano). Adsorption on each of the six ash samples ranged from 34.3 to 67.2 mg of CO 2 per kg of ash. Adsorption ranged from 0.04 to 0.45 mg CO2 per m2 volcanic ash.

Genesis of Volcanic Ash Soils and the Evolution of Soil Properties and Crop Performance as Observed in Costa Rica

Genesis of Volcanic Ash Soils and the Evolution of Soil Properties and Crop Performance as Observed in Costa Rica Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Bib. Orton IICA / CATIE
Release : 2021-09-26
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Genesis of Volcanic Ash Soils and the Evolution of Soil Properties and Crop Performance as Observed in Costa Rica book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Stratigraphy and Chronology of Late Quaternary Volcanic Ash in Taupo Rotorua and Gisborne Districts

Stratigraphy and Chronology of Late Quaternary Volcanic Ash in Taupo  Rotorua  and Gisborne Districts Book
Author : James Healy,C. G. Vucetich,W. A. Pullar
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1964
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Stratigraphy and Chronology of Late Quaternary Volcanic Ash in Taupo Rotorua and Gisborne Districts book written by James Healy,C. G. Vucetich,W. A. Pullar, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

An Atlas of Volcanic Ash

An Atlas of Volcanic Ash Book
Author : Grant Heiken
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1974
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download An Atlas of Volcanic Ash book written by Grant Heiken, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

On line Coupling of Volcanic Ash and Aerosols Transport with Global and Regional Meteorological Models

On line Coupling of Volcanic Ash and Aerosols Transport with Global and Regional Meteorological Models Book
Author : Alejandro Martí Donati
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Explosive volcanic eruptions can eject large quantities of particulate matter that, along with other aerosol droplets and trace gases, are carried upwards into the atmosphere by the buoyant eruption column and then dispersed by winds aloft. The presence in the atmosphere of volcanic ash is a sporadic yet important factor that can threaten human health, affect the urban built environment, disrupt aerial navigation and, for very large eruptions, alter both atmospheric composition and chemistry. Once volcanic ash is injected into the atmosphere, it can be transported over great distances, even circumnavigating the entire planet. Volcanic ash modeling systems are used to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of volcanic ash and to generate operational short-term forecasts to support civil aviation and emergency management. The efficiency of response and mitigation actions is directly associated to the accuracy of the volcanic ash cloud detection. Volcanic ash modeling systems normally require an emission or source term model to characterize the eruption column; a dispersal model to simulate the atmospheric transport, dispersion and ground deposition of ash particles; and a meteorological model for the description of the atmospheric conditions. Traditional forecasts for volcanic ash build on off-line coupled modeling systems, where meteorological variables are only updated at the specified coupling intervals. Although this approach is computationally advantageous is some cases, there is a concern that it can lead to a number of accuracy issues and limitations that can be corrected by on-line modeling strategies. Despite these concerns, to date, no on-line coupled model is available for operational forecast of volcanic ash. In addition, the quantification of the limitations associated to the off-line systems has received no attention. This Ph.D. thesis describes and evaluates N12B-MONARCH-ASH, a novel fully coupled on-line multiscale meteorological and atmospheric transport model designed to predict ash cloud trajectories, concentration of ash at relevant flight levels, and the expected deposit thickness for both regional and global domains in research and operational set-ups. The first activity targeted a model validation against several well-characterized events including, the Mt. Etna 2001, Eyjafjallajökull 2010, and Cordón Caulle 2011 eruptions. The model has shown to be robust, scalable, and capable to reproduce the spatial and temporal dispersal variability of the ash cloud and tephra deposits, showing promising results and improving the performance from well-known off-line operational models. The second activity quantified the model shortcomings and systematic errors associated to traditional off-line forecasts employed in operational set-ups. N12B-MONARCH-ASH demonstrated that off-line forecasts could fail to reproduce up to 45-70% of the ash cloud of an on-line forecast, considered to be the best estimate of the true outcome. The uncertainty associated to off-line systems was found to be as relevant (same order of magnitude) as those uncertainties attributed to the source term. The third activity focused on a global application of N12B-MONARCH-ASH to analyze the potential impacts of ash dispersal from Antarctic volcanoes. Numerical simulations suggested that volcanic ash emitted from Antarctic volcanoes could potentially encircle the globe, leading to significant consequences for global aviation safety. The last activity included a novel computational inversion method to account, for the first time, for the Plinian and co-ignimbrite phases of the 39 ka Campanian Ignimbrite super-eruption. This particular application employed the off-line coupled FALL3D model, found to be more suitable from a computational point of view. The outcome of this Ph.D. thesis encourages operational groups responsible for real-time advisories for aviation to consider using computationally efficient on-line coupled ash dispersal models.

An Atlas of Volcanic Ash

An Atlas of Volcanic Ash Book
Author : Grant Heiken
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1974
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download An Atlas of Volcanic Ash book written by Grant Heiken, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.