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Virus Taxonomy

Virus Taxonomy Book
Author : Andrew M.Q. King,Michael J. Adams,Elliot J. Lefkowitz
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0123846846
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The practical need to partition the world of viruses into distinguishable, universally agreed upon entities is the ultimate justification for developing a virus classification system. Since 1971, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) operating on behalf of the world community of virologists has taken on the task of developing a single, universal taxonomic scheme for all viruses infecting animals (vertebrate, invertebrates, and protozoa), plants (higher plants and algae), fungi, bacteria, and archaea. The current report builds on the accumulated taxonomic construction of the eight previous reports dating back to 1971 and records the proceedings of the Committee since publication of the last report in 2005. Representing the work of more than 500 virologists worldwide, this report is the authoritative reference for virus organization, distinction, and structure.

A Planet of Viruses

A Planet of Viruses Book
Author : Carl Zimmer
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2015-10-06
ISBN : 022629420X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Viruses are the smallest living things known to science, yet they hold the entire planet in their sway. They helped give rise to the first life-forms, are responsible for many of our most devastating diseases, and will continue to control our fate for centuries. Carl Zimmer, the popular science writer and New York Times columnist, takes us from the first record of the common cold to the latest frontiers of biology, where scientists are expanding our understanding of life as we know it. This revised edition includes stories of new outbreaks, such as Ebola, MERS, and chikungunya virus; new scientific discoveries, such as a hundred-million-year-old virus that infected the common ancestor of armadillos, elephants, and humans; and new findings that show why climate change may lead to even deadlier outbreaks. Zimmer's lucid explanations and intriguing stories demonstrate how deeply humans and viruses are intertwined. As reassuring as it is frightening, Planet of Viruses is a fascinating tour of a formidable hidden world. -- from back cover.

Understanding Viruses

Understanding Viruses Book
Author : Teri Shors
Publisher : Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Release : 2016
ISBN : 1284025926
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Understanding Viruses continues to set the standard for the fundamentals of virology. This classic textbook combines molecular, clinical, and historical aspects of human viral diseases in a new stunning interior design featuring high quality art that will engage readers. Preparing students for their careers, the Third Edition greatly expands on molecular virology and virus families. This practical text also includes the latest information on influenza, global epidemiology statistics, and the recent outbreaks of Zika and Ebola viruses to keep students on the forefront of cutting-edge virology information. Numerous case studies and feature boxes illuminate fascinating research and historical cases stimulate student interest, making the best-selling Understanding Viruses the clear choice in virology. Each new print copy includes Navigate 2 Advantage Access that unlocks a comprehensive and interactive eBook, student practice activities and assessments, a full suite of instructor resources (available to adopting instructors with course ID), and learning analytics reporting tools (available to adopting instructors with course ID).

Viruses and Nanotechnology

Viruses and Nanotechnology Book
Author : Marianne Manchester,Nicole F. Steinmetz
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-10-02
ISBN : 3540693793
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanotechnology is a collective term describing a broad range of relatively novel topics. Scale is the main unifying theme, with nanotechnology being concerned with matter on the nanometer scale. A quintessential tenet of nanotechnology is the precise self-assembly of nanometer-sized components into ordered devices. Nanotechnology seeks to mimic what nature has achieved, with precision at the nanometer level down to the atomic level. Nanobiotechnology, a division of nanotechnology, involves the exploitation of biomaterials, devices or methodologies in the nanoscale. In recent years a set of b- molecules has been studied and utilized. Virus particles are natural nanomaterials and have recently received attention for their tremendous potential in this field. The extensive study of viruses as pathogens has yielded detailed knowledge about their biological, genetic, and physical properties. Bacterial viruses (bacte- ophages), plant and animal eukaryotic viruses, and viruses of archaea have all been characterized in this manner. The knowledge of their replicative cycles allows manipulation and tailoring of particles, relying on the principles of self-assembly in infected hosts to build the base materials. The atomic resolution of the virion structure reveals ways in which to tailor particles for higher-order functions and assemblies.

Plant Viruses

Plant Viruses Book
Author : K. M. Smith
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9401096538
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the sixth edition of Plant Viruses, each section has been brought up to date and some additions made. A short account is given of a new technique, the protoplast-culture of plant viruses. The omission in the fifth edition of the Mycoplasma-like organisms has been criticized on the grounds of the close simi larity of symptom expression and techniques of study between Mycoplasmas and plant viruses. To meet this criticism Chapter 16, which gives a brief account of these organisms, is included. Some of the plates have been changed and new ones added. Grateful acknowledgment is due to Dr Aaron KIug F.R.S. and his colleagues, to Drs D. A. Govier, Basil Kassanis F.R.S. and Karl Maramorsch for permission to use their recent work. Acknowledgement is also due to several friends who have supplied prints of illustrations from their published work; credit has been given to authors in the illustration legends. Mr Denis C. Ingram, editor to Chapman and Hall, has been most helpful and co-operative throughout.

Bats and Viruses

Bats and Viruses Book
Author : Lin-Fa Wang,Christopher Cowled
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-09-15
ISBN : 1118818733
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Approximately 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses. The rate of emergence of zoonotic viruses appears to be increasing and/or our ability to detect new viruses is improving. Bats are being increasingly recognised as an important reservoir of zoonotic viruses of different families, including SARS coronavirus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus and Ebola virus. Several recent studies hypothesized that bats, an ancient group of flying mammals, are the major reservoir of several important RNA virus families from which most (if not all) other known mammalian viruses of livestock animals and human were derived. As the only flying mammal on earh, bats have several unique biological features distinguishing them from all other mammals. Recent genomics studies revealed that the adaptation of flight is linked to bat's ability to live longer and harbouring a large number of viruses without suffering from diseases. There has been a very rapid increase in the number of publication in the 2000s. This was mainly due to the discovery of bats as reservoir of major zoonotic viruses such as Henipavirus, SARS virus and Ebola/Marburg viruses in the 1990s, which triggered a new wave of research interests into bats as a reservoir of viruses. In addition to the large number of bat viruses discovered in the last two decades, the research interest has also expanded to the host biology, especially in the area of immunology and genomics marked by the recent publication of the two bat genomes in Science (Zhang et al. 203 Science, 339: 456-460) as a cover story. It is unfortunate that for such an important and rapidly expanding area of research, there has been no publication of any dedicated book on this topic. The last book published in this area is a monogram titled "Virus Infections in Bats" in 1974 which is almost 4 decades ago. This is the time to produce a book dedicated to this important topic which has witnessed tremendous growth in the last four decades. The aim of this project is to provide a most updated review on our knowledge in the area of bat biology and bats as a host of major zoonotic viruses. The book will cover a wide range of topics from bat biology, bat immunology, bat genomics to pathogen discovery and specific chapters on each of the major bat-borne virus families. The book will also provide a chapter remarking on the future direction of research in this important and rapidly growing area.

A Planet of Viruses

A Planet of Viruses Book
Author : Carl Zimmer
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2021-03-29
ISBN : 022678259X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Introduction. "A contagious living fluid" : tobacco mosaic virus and the discovery of the virosphere -- Old companions. The uncommon cold : how rhinoviruses gently conquered the world ; Looking down from the stars : influenza's never-ending reinvention ; Rabbits with horns : human papillomavirus and infectious cancer -- Everywhere, in all things. The enemy of our enemy : bacteriophages as viral medicine ; The infected ocean : how marine phages rule the sea ; Our inner parasites : endogenous retroviruses and our virus-riddled genomes -- The viral future. The young scourge : human immunodeficiency virus and the animal origins of disease ; Becoming an American : the globalization of West Nile virus ; The pandemic age : why COVID-19 should have come as no surprise ; The long goodbye : the delayed oblivion of Smallpox -- Epilogue. The alien in the water cooler : giant viruses and what it means to be a virus.

Hepatitis Viruses

Hepatitis Viruses Book
Author : Jing-Hsiung James Ou
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461508819
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hepatitis viruses research started more than fifty years ago. The names of hepatitis A and hepatitis B were introduced in 1947 when it became clear that there were two types of hepatitis that were transmitted either enterically or parenterally. It became apparent in the 1970's that there were additional hepatitis viruses distinct from hepatitis A and hepatitis B, and thus, the term non-A, non-B hepatitis was introduced. The non-A, non-B hepatitis was further divided into post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis and enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis in the 1980's. By the end of the 1980's, both post-transfusion non-A, non-B virus and enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B virus had been identified and renamed hepatitis C virus and hepatitis E virus, respectively. Hepatitis delta antigen was first recognized as an antigen associated with hepatitis B virus infection in the 1970's. In the early 1980's, a virus was isolated and named hepatitis delta virus. These five different hepatitis viruses have distinct replication pathways and are major health concerns. They have become an important topic for teaching to graduate-level and medical students. Hepatitis Viruses provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of these viruses to readers. Each chapter is written by one of the top researchers in the field, and topics include: the epidemiology and the natural history of infection of these viruses, the molecular biology and the replication cycle of individual hepatitis viruses, host-virus interactions and the pathogenesis of hepatitis viruses, the immunology of hepatitis viruses, the relationship between hepatitis viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma, the viral vaccines and antiviral drugs. This book can serve as a supplemental reading material to graduate students and medical students, and to any researcher who would like to learn more about hepatitis viruses.

The Invisible Enemy

The Invisible Enemy Book
Author : Dorothy Crawford
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2002-03-21
ISBN : 0191622486
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Viruses are disarmingly small and simple. None the less, the smallpox virus killed over 300 million people in the 20th century prior to its eradication in 1980. The AIDS virus, HIV, is now the single most common cause of death in Africa. In recent years, the outbreaks of several lethal viruses such as Ebola and hanta virus have caused great public concern. In her fascinating and vividly written book, Dorothy Crawford describes all aspects of the natural history of these deadly parasites, explaining how they differ from other microorganisms. She looks at the havoc viruses have caused in the past, where they have come from, and the detective work involved in uncovering them. Finally, she considers whether a new virus could potentially wipe out the human race. This is an informative and highly readable book, which will be read by all those seeking a deeper understanding of these minute but remarkably efficient killers.

Origin and Evolution of Viruses

Origin and Evolution of Viruses Book
Author : Esteban Domingo,Colin R. Parrish,John J. Holland
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-06-23
ISBN : 9780080564968
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

New viral diseases are emerging continuously. Viruses adapt to new environments at astounding rates. Genetic variability of viruses jeopardizes vaccine efficacy. For many viruses mutants resistant to antiviral agents or host immune responses arise readily, for example, with HIV and influenza. These variations are all of utmost importance for human and animal health as they have prevented us from controlling these epidemic pathogens. This book focuses on the mechanisms that viruses use to evolve, survive and cause disease in their hosts. Covering human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses, it provides both the basic foundations for the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and specific examples of emerging diseases. * NEW - methods to establish relationships among viruses and the mechanisms that affect virus evolution * UNIQUE - combines theoretical concepts in evolution with detailed analyses of the evolution of important virus groups * SPECIFIC - Bacterial, plant, animal and human viruses are compared regarding their interation with their hosts

Viruses

Viruses Book
Author : Michael G. Cordingley
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 2017-06-19
ISBN : 0674972082
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

While viruses—the world’s most abundant biological entities—are not technically alive, they invade, replicate, and evolve within living cells. Michael Cordingley goes beyond our familiarity with infections to show how viruses spur evolutionary change in their hosts and shape global ecosystems, from ocean photosynthesis to drug-resistant bacteria.

Viruses and Apoptosis

Viruses and Apoptosis Book
Author : Covadonga Alonso
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-12-07
ISBN : 9783540742630
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The pathogenesis of viral infections involves dynamic interactions between viruses and hosts,which can result in different outcomes including cell death, elimination of the virus or latent infection.Viruses deliver genomes and p- teins with signaling potential into target cells, resulting in growth, prolife- tion and apoptosis.Viral infection modi?es key cell regulatory elements involved in apoptotic pathways to successfully accomplish viral replication despite the toxicity of viral products and the immune response elicited against the virus.Also,the interplay between virus-induced apoptosis and cell survival is mediated by an accurate balance between pro-death and anti-apoptotic signals triggered by cellular and viral proteins.Hence,viral survival products causing a delay in the completion of apoptotic process can be critical in the replication and propagation of viruses. Viral control of apoptosis can be a double-edged sword.In some viral inf- tions, immune cell apoptosis will contribute to pathogenesis and determine disease evolution either by direct infection of immune cells or as a result of bystander cell apoptosis caused by viral proteins or mediators secreted from infected cells. The apoptotic mechanisms contributing to HIV pathogenesis, the functional consequences on the immune system and the effect of antiviral therapies on this process will be reviewed in depth in this Volume.

The Biology of Animal Viruses

The Biology of Animal Viruses Book
Author : Frank J. Fenner,B. R. McAuslan,C. A. Mims
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-09-17
ISBN : 1483271889
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Biology of Animal Viruses, Second Edition deals with animal viruses focusing on molecular biology and tumor virology. The book reviews the nature, chemical composition, structure, and classification of animal viruses. The text also describes the methods of isolating animal viruses, how these are grown in the laboratory, assayed, purified, and used in biochemical experiments. The book also describes the structure and chemistry of many known viruses such as the papovaviridae, herpes virus, poxvirus, coronavirus, or the Bunyamwera supergroup. The book then explains the structure and function of the animal cell including the cytoplasmic organelles, the nucleus, inhibitors of cell function, and viral multiplication. Other papers discuss in detail the multiplication of the DNA and RNA viruses, whose mechanisms of multiplication differ from those of other viruses. Other papers discuss the known prevention and treatment methods of viral diseases, as well as the epidemiology and evolution of viral diseases resulting from human's disturbance of the biosphere and from medical and experimental innovations. The text can prove useful for immunologists, veterinarians, virologists, molecular researchers, students, and academicians in the field of cellular microbiology and virology.

Viruses Plagues and History

Viruses  Plagues  and History Book
Author : Michael B. A. Oldstone
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2020-08-01
ISBN : 0190056800
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

More people were killed by smallpox during the twentieth century--over 300 million--than by all of the wars of that period combined. In 1918 and 1919, influenza virus claimed over 50 million lives. A century later, influenza is poised to return, ongoing plagues of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis infect millions, and Ebola, Zika, and West Nile viruses cause new concern and panic. The overlapping histories of humans and viruses are ancient. Earliest cities became both the cradle of civilization and breeding grounds for the first viral epidemics. This overlap is the focus of virologist/immunologist Michael Oldstone in Viruses, Plagues and History. Oldstone explains principles of viruses and epidemics while recounting stories of viruses and their impact on human history. This fully updated second edition includes engrossing new chapters on hepatitis, Zika, and contemporary threats such as the possible return of a catastrophic influenza, and the impact of fear of autism on vaccination efforts. This is a fascinating panorama of humankind's longstanding conflict with unseen viral enemies, both human successes--such as control of poliomyelitis, measles, smallpox and yellow fever, and continued dangers--such as HIV and Ebola. Impeccably researched and accessibly written, Viruses, Plagues and History will fascinate all with an interest in how viral illnesses alter the course of human history.

Emerging Viruses

Emerging Viruses Book
Author : Stephen S. Morse
Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0195104846
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is the first book to focus on rapid viral evolution and emerging viruses. It systematically explores methods to track viral epidemics and to detect new viruses. It also offers practical suggestions for the prevention of future epidemics.

Plant Viruses

Plant Viruses Book
Author : Kenneth Manley Smith
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1974
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In preparing the fifth edition of Plant Viruses the general plan of the book has been retained since this seems to offer adequate scope for a book of this size. However, each section has been brought up-to-date with any new information which has become available since the publication of the previous edition. Chapter 15 has been added giving a short account of two new fields of virus study, the viruses affecting fungi and algae. Some of the plates have been replaced by more modern illustrations. Reference to the aster yellows group of diseases has been eliminated because these diseases are now known to be caused by infection with Mycoplasma and not with viruses. Grateful acknowledgement is due to Dr Aaron Klug, F.R.S. and his colleagues for permission to use their recent work on the assembly of viruses. Acknowledgement is also due to several friends who have supplied prints of illustration from their pub lished work; credit has been given to authors in the illustration legends. Cambridge K.M.S.

Molecular and Cellular Biology of Viruses

Molecular and Cellular Biology of Viruses Book
Author : Phoebe Lostroh
Publisher : Garland Science
Release : 2019-05-06
ISBN : 0429664303
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Viruses interact with host cells in ways that uniquely reveal a great deal about general aspects of molecular and cellular structure and function. Molecular and Cellular Biology of Viruses leads students on an exploration of viruses by supporting engaging and interactive learning. All the major classes of viruses are covered, with separate chapters for their replication and expression strategies, and chapters for mechanisms such as attachment that are independent of the virus genome type. Specific cases drawn from primary literature foster student engagement. End-of-chapter questions focus on analysis and interpretation with answers being given on the website (half for students, all for instructors). Examples come from the most-studied and medically important viruses such as HIV, influenza, and poliovirus. Plant viruses and bacteriophages are also included. There are chapters on the overall effect of viral infection on the host cell. Coverage of the immune system is focused on the interplay between host defenses and viruses, with a separate chapter on medical applications such as anti-viral drugs and vaccine development. The final chapter is on virus diversity and evolution, incorporating contemporary insights from metagenomic research. Key selling feature: Readable but rigorous coverage of the molecular and cellular biology of viruses Molecular mechanisms of all major groups, including plant viruses and bacteriophages, illustrated by example Host-pathogen interactions at the cellular and molecular level emphasized throughout Medical implications and consequences included Quality illustrations available to instructors Extensive questions and answers for each chapter

Bacteria and Viruses

Bacteria and Viruses Book
Author : Kara Rogers Senior Editor, Biomedical Sciences
Publisher : The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
Release : 2011-01-15
ISBN : 1615303065
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Discusses bacteria and viruses.

Computer Viruses For Dummies

Computer Viruses For Dummies Book
Author : Peter H. Gregory
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-05-09
ISBN : 1118085477
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Computer viruses—just the thought of your trusty PC catchingone is probably enough to make you sick. Thanks to thecyber-sickies who persist in coming up with new strains,there’s a major new cyberattack nearly every day. Virusessneak in, usually through e-mail. Fortunately, there are ways to inoculate and protect yourcomputer. Computer Viruses For Dummies helps you: Understand the risks and analyze your PC’s currentcondition Select, install, and configure antivirus software Scan your computer and e-mail Rid your computer of viruses it’s already caught Update antivirus software and install security patches Use firewalls and spyware blockers Protect handheld PDAs from viruses Adopt safe computing practices, especially with e-mail and whenyou’re surfing the Net Written by Peter H. Gregory, coauthor of CISSP ForDummies and Security + For Dummies, Computer VirusesFor Dummies goes beyond viruses to explain other nasty computerinfections like Trojan horses, HiJackers, worms, phishing scams,spyware, and hoaxes. It also profiles major antivirus software tohelp you choose the best program(s) for your needs. Remember, if you don’t protect your computer, not only doyou risk having your computer infiltrated and your datacontaminated, you risk unknowingly transmitting a virus, worm, orother foul computer germ to everybody in your address book! Thisguide will help you properly immunize your PC with antivirussoftware now and install updates and security patches that are likebooster shots to keep your software protected against newviruses.

Viruses Intimate Invaders

Viruses  Intimate Invaders Book
Author : Van G. Wilson
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2022-01-11
ISBN : 9783030854867
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book guides through the fascinating world of viruses and makes readers enjoy science in an accessible way. Virologist and author Professor Van Wilson imparts knowledge about what viruses are, how they work, and how much they impact life on Earth. The book equips the reader with the scientific basics behind virus function and presents the historic milestones of virus research and discovery. Well-known viruses such as HIV or Influenza are tackled alongside novel pathogens like coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Professor Wilson explores where they come from and how they impact our society. Last but not least the book provides exciting insights into how our immune system reacts to different viruses and how vaccines contribute to conquer pandemics. While scientifically informative, this book makes the field of virology understandable to a lay audience and encourages readers to further thinking. And more importantly, it conveys the wonder, beauty, and mystery of these ubiquitous, microscopic marvels. This book addresses anyone interested in understanding the principles of virology, viral diseases, or the impact of viruses on human societies.