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Viral Polymerases

Viral Polymerases Book
Author : Satya Prakash Gupta
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-10-29
ISBN : 0128154233
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Viral Polymerases: Structures, Functions and Roles as Antiviral Drug Targets presents in-depth study information on the structure and functions of polymerases and their roles in the lifecycle of viruses, and as drug targets. Viral polymerases constitute a vital component in the lifecycle of many viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis viruses, influenza virus, and several others. They are essentially required for the replication of viruses. Thus, the polymerases that can be found in viruses (called viral polymerases) represent favorable targets for the design and development of antiviral drugs. Provides comprehensive, state-of-the-art coverage on virus infections, the virus lifecycle, and mechanisms of polymerase inhibition Analyzes the structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of each viral polymerase Presents a consistent and comprehensive coverage of all aspects of viral polymerases, including structure, function and their role as antiviral drug targets

Viral Polymerases and Related Proteins

Viral Polymerases and Related Proteins Book
Author : Lawrence C. Kuo,David B. Olsen,Steven S. Carroll
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1996
ISBN : 9780121821760
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The critically acclaimed laboratory standard for more than forty years, Methods in Enzymology is one of the most highly respected publications in the field of biochemistry. Since 1955, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. More than 270 volumes have been published (all of them still in print) and much of the material is relevant even today--truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of life sciences. Key Features * Expression, purification, and characterization * Activity assays * Kinetic and screening * Design and analysis of substrates and inhibitors * Molecular and structural characterizations

Nucleic Acid Polymerases

Nucleic Acid Polymerases Book
Author : Katsuhiko S. Murakami,Michael A. Trakselis
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 3642397964
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a review of the multitude of nucleic acid polymerases, including DNA and RNA polymerases from Archea, Bacteria and Eukaryota, mitochondrial and viral polymerases, and other specialized polymerases such as telomerase, template-independent terminal nucleotidyl transferase and RNA self-replication ribozyme. Although many books cover several different types of polymerases, no book so far has attempted to catalog all nucleic acid polymerases. The goal of this book is to be the top reference work for postgraduate students, postdocs, and principle investigators who study polymerases of all varieties. In other words, this book is for polymerase fans by polymerase fans. Nucleic acid polymerases play a fundamental role in genome replication, maintenance, gene expression and regulation. Throughout evolution these enzymes have been pivotal in transforming life towards RNA self-replicating systems as well as into more stable DNA genomes. These enzymes are generally extremely efficient and accurate in RNA transcription and DNA replication and share common kinetic and structural features. How catalysis can be so amazingly fast without loss of specificity is a question that has intrigued researchers for over 60 years. Certain specialized polymerases that play a critical role in cellular metabolism are used for diverse biotechnological applications and are therefore an essential tool for research.

Viral Polymerases and Related Proteins

Viral Polymerases and Related Proteins Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Viral Polymerases and Related Proteins book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Allosteric Inhibition in Viral Polymerases

Allosteric Inhibition in Viral Polymerases Book
Author : Jodian A. Brown
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Viral pathogens are responsible for a large number of human infections. For example, the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects close to 3% of the world's population. There has been significant progress in the therapeutic options available for the treatment of HCV and most of the highly effective existing therapies are a combination of small molecule inhibitors targeting key viral enzymes. One such target is the polymerase, which is a critical component of the viral life cycle. Our work focuses on understanding inhibition of the polymerase by small molecules that bind to pockets outside the active site (i.e. allosteric inhibitors). The first objective of this study is to determine how allosteric inhibitors alter the structural, dynamic and thermodynamic properties of the HCV polymerase so that these small molecules can synergistically inhibit the enzyme. Our second goal is to identify putative allosteric sites in the polymerases of the Dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV) and Foot-and-mouth Disease (FMDV) viruses. One of the existing challenges in current HCV treatment is that low fidelity of NS5B increases the rate of mutations in the virus. This results in the generation of multiple enzyme variants and makes it difficult to target the enzyme with single inhibitors. In contrast, for DENV, WNV and FMDV one of the major hurdles is lack of biochemical and structural data that can help steer more structure-based drug discovery efforts. Results from our studies of the HCV polymerase suggest that allosteric inhibitors from nonoverlapping sites can bind simultaneously and synergistically modulate the enzyme conformation and free energy landscape. This work provides the first molecular descriptions of mechanisms underlying enhanced inhibition of the HCV polymerase. We used validated HCV allosteric sites as targets to evaluate several ligand binding site predictor tools and used the best tool to identify novel putative allosteric pockets in the DENV, WNV and FMDV polymerases. The identified sites displayed structural and/or chemical similarities with two of the NS5B validated allosteric pockets. Our approach provides an economic and faster means to facilitate an essential step of drug discovery (i.e. binding site identification), which is critical for infections with limited therapeutic options.

Viral Molecular Machines

Viral Molecular Machines Book
Author : Michael G. Rossmann,Venigalla B. Rao
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-02-02
ISBN : 1461409802
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book will contain a series of solicited chapters that concern with the molecular machines required by viruses to perform various essential functions of virus life cycle. The first three chapters (Introduction, Molecular Machines and Virus Architecture) introduce the reader to the best known molecular machines and to the structure of viruses. The remainder of the book will examine in detail various stages of the viral life cycle. Beginning with the viral entry into a host cell, the book takes the reader through replication of the genome, synthesis and assembly of viral structural components, genome packaging and maturation into an infectious virion. Each chapter will describe the components of the respective machine in molecular or atomic detail, genetic and biochemical analyses, and mechanism. Topics are carefully selected so that the reader is exposed to systems where there is a substantial infusion of new knowledge in recent years, which greatly elevated the fundamental mechanistic understanding of the respective molecular machine. The authors will be encouraged to simplify the detailed knowledge to basic concepts, include provocative new ideas, as well as design colorful graphics, thus making the cutting-edge information accessible to broad audience.

Methods in Enzymology

Methods in Enzymology Book
Author : Nathan O. Kaplan,Sidney P. Colowick,John N. Abelson,Melvin I. Simon,Lawrence C. Kuo,David B. Olden,Steven S. Carroll
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Methods in Enzymology book written by Nathan O. Kaplan,Sidney P. Colowick,John N. Abelson,Melvin I. Simon,Lawrence C. Kuo,David B. Olden,Steven S. Carroll, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Viral Polymerases and Related Proteins

Viral Polymerases and Related Proteins Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 1996-10-08
ISBN : 9780121821760
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The critically acclaimed laboratory standard for more than forty years, Methods in Enzymology is one of the most highly respected publications in the field of biochemistry. Since 1955, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. More than 270 volumes have been published (all of them still in print) and much of the material is relevant even today--truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of life sciences. Key Features * Expression, purification, and characterization * Activity assays * Kinetic and screening * Design and analysis of substrates and inhibitors * Molecular and structural characterizations

The RNA dependent RNA Polymerase of Poliovirus and the RNA AND DNA dependent DNA Polymerases of Rous Sarcoma Virus

The RNA dependent RNA Polymerase of Poliovirus and the RNA AND DNA dependent DNA Polymerases of Rous Sarcoma Virus Book
Author : Jerome Pearsall McDonnell
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1971
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The RNA dependent RNA Polymerase of Poliovirus and the RNA AND DNA dependent DNA Polymerases of Rous Sarcoma Virus book written by Jerome Pearsall McDonnell, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Rna dependent rna polymerases in alfalfa mosaic virus infected

Rna dependent rna polymerases in alfalfa mosaic virus infected Book
Author : Cornelia Maria Clerx-van Haaster
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1978
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Rna dependent rna polymerases in alfalfa mosaic virus infected book written by Cornelia Maria Clerx-van Haaster, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Anti Varicella zoster Activity of 2HM HBG a New Acyclic Guanosine Analog

Anti Varicella zoster Activity of 2HM HBG  a New Acyclic Guanosine Analog Book
Author : Gunnar Abele
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1988
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Anti Varicella zoster Activity of 2HM HBG a New Acyclic Guanosine Analog book written by Gunnar Abele, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Transcriptional Effects of Viral Proteins that Bind Host RNA Polymerase

Transcriptional Effects of Viral Proteins that Bind Host RNA Polymerase Book
Author : Kelly Porter Williams
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1991
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Transcriptional Effects of Viral Proteins that Bind Host RNA Polymerase book written by Kelly Porter Williams, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase Activity of the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Viral Protein 1

RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase Activity of the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Viral Protein 1 Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

(Uncorrected OCR) Abstract of thesis entitled RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE ACTIVITY OF THE INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS VIRAL PROTEIN 1 Submitted by Ma Hok Tsun for the degree of Master of Philosophy at The University of Hong Kong in June 2004 Infectious Bursal Disease Virus is one of the most devastating viruses to the poultry industry. The viral protein VP1, encoded by segment B of the double-stranded viral genome is likely a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Rdrp) based on its conservation to known viral RNA polymerases. Current researches on its Rdrp activity are based on virion-associated activity assays. The objective of this study was to establish in vivo and in vitro systems for the determination and characterization of Rdrp activity of VP1. The in vitro system involved co-transfection of a plasmid pAlter-B that expressed the VP1 protein and a reporter vector pRL-32B( - ), consisting of the Renilla luciferase gene fused to the viral promoter elements into vero cells. It was observed that interactions between the co-transfected vectors interfered with reporter gene expression. Therefore, an in vitro activity assay was explored. Recombinant VP1 was first expressed either by in vitro transcription/translation or in a baculovirus system. Subsequently its Rdrp activity was measured by an in vitro transcription activity assay. However, no polymerase activity was detected from the recombinant VP1 when either single-stranded synthetic RNA or native viral double-stranded RNA was used as templates. Nonetheless, Rdrp activity was observed when native viruses were used to constitute the source of VP1 and RNA template. A recent report revealed that after the first round of RNA synthesis, VP1 could not be released from the RNA duplexes in the absence of other viral proteins. As a result, another round of RNA synthesis could not be initiated. Hence, other viral proteins may be required for the release of VP1 from templates to ensure continuous RNA synthesis. Viral proteins li.

The Mechanism of Action of Cidofovir and S 9 3 hydroxy 2 phosphonomethoxypropyl Adenine Against Viral Polymerases

The Mechanism of Action of Cidofovir and  S  9  3 hydroxy 2 phosphonomethoxypropyl  Adenine Against Viral Polymerases Book
Author : Wendy Colleen Magee
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Mechanism of Action of Cidofovir and S 9 3 hydroxy 2 phosphonomethoxypropyl Adenine Against Viral Polymerases book written by Wendy Colleen Magee, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Study on Function of Ns1 Protein in Influenza a Virus Replication and Vaccine Application of Delns1 Viruses

Study on Function of Ns1 Protein in Influenza a Virus Replication and Vaccine Application of Delns1 Viruses Book
Author : Min Zheng
Publisher : Open Dissertation Press
Release : 2017-01-26
ISBN : 9781361033357
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This dissertation, "Study on Function of NS1 Protein in Influenza A Virus Replication and Vaccine Application of DelNS1 Viruses" by Min, Zheng, 郑敏, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Influenza A virus causes significant morbidity and excessive mortality around the world every year and has precipitated four human pandemics during the past 100 years. While significant progress has been made in influenza research since the H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997, many questions regarding how influenza virus replication is regulated remain to be answered. It is still not clear if a universal influenza vaccine may be a realistic option for preparedness of future emerging influenza viruses which pose a pandemic threat. Influenza virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a virulence determinant with multiple functions; it is the major antagonist of innate immunity against influenza A virus and also plays an important role in regulating virus replication. More significantly, influenza A virus with NS1 gene deleted is highly attenuated and DelNS1 virus is being actively explored as a new live attenuated vaccine for both seasonal and pandemic influenza. To better understand the role of NS1 in the influenza A virus life cycle, I established three DelNS1 viruses from different strains to study the regulation of influenza virus replication and assess their potential for vaccine development. I found that the WSN-DelNS1, H7N9-DelNS1 and CA04-DelNS1 virus each acquired an M-A14U, M-G917A and NP-G346A mutation through passages either in MDCK, Vero or 10-day-old chicken embryonated eggs. Characterization of growth properties found that these three DelNS1 viruses replicated to a level comparable to the wild type (WT) virus in each system. This is by far the most direct evidence to indicate that the NS1 protein is dispensable for influenza virus replication. Further analysis using WSN-DelNS1-M-WT virus revealed that the M2 expression was markedly attenuated due to the loss of NS1 expression, and M-A14U mutation restored M2 expression during virus replication. My findings clearly demonstrate a mechanism that both NS1 and viral polymerases are involved in the regulation of M mRNA splicing during virus replication. I further characterized WSN-DelNS1-M-A14U virus and found that the M-A14U mutation increased the M2 mRNA splicing by inhibiting the mRNA3 splicing via impairment of the mRNA3 splicing consensus sequence. The role of NS1 in regulation of M mRNA splicing is further confirmed using the H7N9-DelNS1-M-G917A virus. Prior to this study, there were no reports evaluating the vaccine applications of adapted replication competent DelNS1 virus. I found DelNS1 viruses to be completely avirulent to mice at the highest available dose. Most importantly, this study found that DelNS1 H1N1 viruses are able to provide cross protection against lethal challenges of heterosubtypic viruses, including highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and H7N9 viruses. The DelNS1 viruses developed in this study provide valuable tools warranting evaluation for use as universal vaccines to control and prevent emergence of future influenza virus strains. In summary, this study provides direct evidence showing that NS1 is involved in influenza virus replication through regulating the splicing of M gene, and establishes a strategic technology for developing DelNS1 live attenuated vaccines. Subjects: Viral proteins Influenza vaccines Influenza A virus - Reproduction

Influenza A Virus A Role for the RNA Polymerase in Viral Particle Assembly

Influenza A Virus  A Role for the RNA Polymerase in Viral Particle Assembly Book
Author : John F. Regan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Influenza is an RNA virus whose segmented genome is encapsidated into viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs). Upon infection, the vRNPs migrate into the nucleus where transcription and replication take place. The vRNPs contain a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is responsible for viral transcription and replication. The polymerase is composed of three subunits, PB1, PB2, and PA. PBI has polymerase activity and PB2 is involved in viral transcription. The function of PA is unclear. To help elucidate the role of PA in the viral life cycle, 16 conserved regions of PA were targeted for alanine substitution. A plasmid-based transfection system was used to generate recombinant influenza particles bearing each mutation, which were tested for viral viability and the ability of each mutant polymerase to transcribe and replicate a reporter. Mutations in the N-terminus were not well tolerated and resulted in either non-viable or attenuated viruses. One of the mutants, J10, was capable of RNA synthesis, yet did not create viral particles capable of plaque formation in MDCK cells. Specifically, when compared to wild-type, this mutant synthesized 50+/-7% vRNA, 86+/-12% mRNA, and 128+/-18% cRNA. These levels are compatible with viability, as mutants J8 (27%) and J12 (23%), produced significantly less vRNA than J10, yet were viable by plaque assay. The mRNAs generated from J10 polymerase were found to be translationally-active, and both the mutant protein and its RNA products were appropriately localized in the cytoplasm, where influenza assembly occurs. Nevertheless, J10 failed to generate infectious particles from cells in a plasmid-based influenza assembly assay, and hemagglutinating material from the supernatants of such cells contained little or no nuclease-resistant genomic RNA. These findings suggest that PA has a previously unrecognized role in assembly or release of influenza virions, perhaps influencing core structure or the packaging of vRNAs or other essential components into nascent influenza particles.

Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease

Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease Book
Author : P. J. Quinn,B. K. Markey,F. C. Leonard,P. Hartigan,S. Fanning,E. S. Fitzpatrick
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-10-17
ISBN : 1405158239
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students, and since its first publication in 2002, Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease has become an essential text for students of veterinary medicine. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition updates the subject for pre-clinical and clinical veterinary students in a comprehensive manner. Individual sections deal with bacteriology, mycology and virology. Written by an academic team with many years of teaching experience, the book provides concise descriptions of groups of microorganisms and the diseases which they cause. Microbial pathogens are discussed in separate chapters which provide information on the more important features of each microorganism and its role in the pathogenesis of diseases of animals. The international and public health significance of these pathogens are reviewed comprehensively. The final section is concerned with the host and is organized according to the body system affected. Tables, boxes and flow diagrams provide information in an easily assimilated format. This edition contains new chapters on molecular diagnostics and on infectious conditions of the skin, cardiovascular system, urinary tract and musculoskeletal system. Many new colour diagrams are incorporated into this edition and each chapter has been updated. Key features of this edition: Twelve new chapters included Numerous new illustrations Each chapter has been updated Completely re-designed in full colour Fulfils the needs of veterinary students and academics in veterinary microbiology Companion website with figures from the book as Powerpoints for viewing or downloading by chapter: www.wiley.com/go/quinn/veterinarymicrobiology Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease remains indispensable for all those studying and teaching this essential component of the veterinary curriculum.

Antiviral Mechanisms in the Control of Neoplasia

Antiviral Mechanisms in the Control of Neoplasia Book
Author : P. Chandra
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1979-02
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Download Antiviral Mechanisms in the Control of Neoplasia book written by P. Chandra, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Gene Therapy for Viral Infections

Gene Therapy for Viral Infections Book
Author : Patrick Arbuthnot
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-06-01
ISBN : 0124114520
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gene Therapy for Viral Infections provides a comprehensive review of the broader field of nucleic acid and its use in treating viral infections. The text bridges the gap between basic science and important clinical applications of the technology, providing a systematic, integrated review of the advances in nucleic acid-based antiviral drugs and the potential advantages of new technologies over current treatment options. Coverage begins with the fundamentals, exploring varying topics, including harnessing RNAi to silence viral gene expression, antiviral gene editing, viral gene therapy vectors, and non-viral vectors. Subsequent sections include detailed coverage of the developing use of gene therapy for the treatment of specific infections, the principles of rational design of antivirals, and the hurdles that currently face the further advancement of gene therapy technology. Provides coverage of gene therapy for a variety of infections, including HBV, HCV, HIV, hemorrhagic fever viruses, and respiratory and other viral infections Bridges the gap between the basic science and the important medical applications of this technology Features a broad approach to the topic, including an essential overview and the applications of gene therapy, synthetic RNA, and other antiviral strategies that involve nucleic acid engineering Presents perspectives on the future use of nucleic acids as a novel class of antiviral drugs Arms the reader with the cutting-edge information needed to stay abreast of this developing field

The Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR for Human Viral Diagnosis

The Polymerase Chain Reaction  PCR  for Human Viral Diagnosis Book
Author : Jonathan P. Clewley
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1994-10-27
ISBN : 9780849348334
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most sensitive method for revealing the presence of otherwise undetectable quantities of the genome of RNA or DNA of human viruses. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for Human Viral Diagnosis addresses the urgent need to use this revolutionary technology in reference and routine diagnostic laboratories. It informs the molecular biologist of the most appropriate clinical uses for PCR and educates the clinician and medical virologist about the subtleties and benefits of gene amplification. The reader is given an understanding and appreciation of the principles of PCR and how, why, and where it should be applied. The book explains the principles behind PCR and its role in the diagnostic and public health laboratory. The application of PCR to the detection and investigation of viral latency and persistence is presented by the originators of in situ amplification. There are individual contributions from experts in their respective fields on the detection, characterization, and analysis by PCR of gastroenteritis viruses, hepatitis viruses, herpesviruses, rhinoviruses, enteroviruses, flaviviruses, polyomaviruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I and II); and measles, mumps, rubella, influenza, rabies, and B19 viruses.