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Vascular Responses To Pathogens

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Vascular Responses to Pathogens

Vascular Responses to Pathogens Book
Author : Felicity N.E. Gavins,Karen Y. Stokes
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-10-31
ISBN : 0128013257
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Vascular Responses to Pathogens focuses on the growing research from leaders in the field for both the short and long-term impact of pathogens on the vasculature. It discusses various organisms, including bacteria, parasites, and viruses, and their role in key events leading to vascular disease. Formatted to discuss the topic of the interaction of pathogens with the vascular rather than individual diseases described separately, this reference demonstrates that common mechanisms are at play in many different diseases because they have a similar context, their vasculature. This all-inclusive reference book is a must-have tool for researchers and practicing clinicians in the areas of vascular biology, microvasculature, cardiology, and infectious disease. Covers a wide spectrum of organisms and provides analysis of pathogens and current therapeutic strategies in the context of their vasculature Provides detailed perspectives on key components contributing to vascular pathogens from leaders in the field Interfaces between both vascular biology and microbiology by encompassing information on how pathogens affect both macro and microvasculature Includes coverage of the clinical aspects of sepsis and current therapeutic strategies and anti-sepsis drugs

Mechanisms of NOD1 induced Inflammation in Vascular Tissue

Mechanisms of NOD1 induced Inflammation in Vascular Tissue Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Mechanisms of NOD1 induced Inflammation in Vascular Tissue book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Signalling Crosstalk of Plant Defence Responses to Xylem invading Pathogens

Signalling Crosstalk of Plant Defence Responses to Xylem invading Pathogens Book
Author : Sabina Berne
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Xylem is a plant vascular tissue that transports water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant. It consists of specialized water-conducting tracheary elements, supporting fibre cells and storage parenchyma cells. Certain plant pathogenic fungi, oomycetes and bacteria have evolved strategies to invade xylem vessels and cause highly destructive vascular wilt diseases that affect the crop production and forest ecosystems worldwide. In this chapter, we consider the molecular mechanisms of root-specific defence responses against vascular wilt pathogens, with an emphasis on the most important and well-studied fungal (Verticillium spp. and Fusarium oxysporum) and bacterial (Xanthomonas spp. and Ralstonia solanacearum) pathogens. In particular, we present the current understanding of plant immune responses, from invasion perception to signal transduction and termination. Furthermore, we address the role of specific transcription factors involved in plant immunity and their regulatory network. We also highlight the crucial roles of phytohormones as signalling molecules in local and systemic defence responses. Finally, we summarize the current knowledge of plant defence responses to xylem-invading pathogens to devise new strategies and methods for controlling these destructive plant pathogens.

Endothelial Responses to Anthrax Lethal Toxin and Pathogenic Implications

Endothelial Responses to Anthrax Lethal Toxin and Pathogenic Implications Book
Author : Jason Michael Warfel
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 9781109599954
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is a primary virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, the microorganism that causes anthrax. Recent evidence indicates that LT has direct effects on endothelial cells supporting our central hypothesis that LT plays a causative role in the vascular pathologies associated with anthrax, including vascular leakage, vasculitis, and faulty innate immune response. In order to further understand anthrax pathogenesis, it is necessary to determine the precise role of LT on these vascular pathologies. Here, I use a primary human endothelial cell culture model to investigate the effects of LT on two critical functions of the endothelium: 1) the immune response, which is essential to coordinate leukocyte transmigration, and 2) the barrier function, which regulates passage of fluid and proteins out of the bloodstream. With respect to the immune response, I show that LT differentially regulates the cytokine-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. For example, LT enhances TNF-induced expression of the adhesion molecule VCAM-1, but suppresses expression of numerous chemokines, including MCP-1. The underlying mechanisms for these contrasting actions involve modulation of pro-inflammatory transcription factor activation by LT. Specifically, LT is shown to enhance or prolong activation of IRF-1, NF- & kappa;B, and STAT1, while significantly inhibiting activation of the AP-1 family. In addition, the prolonged NF- & kappa;B activation by LT is shown to involve enhanced activity of the upstream I & kappa;B kinase (IKK), which leads to delayed reaccumulation of NF- & kappa;B-inhibitory I & kappa;B proteins. Another novel finding in this thesis is that LT-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction occurs by two independent mechanisms. LT-induced morphological changes, including actin stress fiber formation and cell elongation, are shown to be dependent upon Rho kinase (ROCK) phosphorylation of myosin light chain. However, LT-induced barrier dysfunction is only partially ROCK-dependent. Characterizing a second mechanism, I show that LT-treated endothelial cells display decreased expression of the tight junction adhesion molecule claudin-5. This suppression involves inhibition of the kinase Akt, and subsequent increased activity of FoxO1, a claudin-5 transcriptional repressor. Together, the novel findings presented in this thesis provide a mechanistic basis for understanding the role of endothelial dysfunction in anthrax pathogenesis.

Inflammation Research Perspectives

Inflammation Research Perspectives Book
Author : Giocomo T. Romano
Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release : 2008-01-01
ISBN : 9781600218453
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Inflammation is the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli as well as initiate the healing process for the tissue. Inflammation is not a synonym for infection. Even in cases where inflammation is caused by infection it is incorrect to use the terms as synonyms: infection is caused by an exogenous pathogen, while inflammation is the response of the organism to the pathogen. In the absence of inflammation, wounds and infections would never heal and progressive destruction of the tissue would compromise the survival of the organism. However, inflammation which runs unchecked can also lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever, atheriosclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. It is for this reason that inflammation is normally tightly regulated by the body. Inflammation can be classified as either acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes from the blood into the injured tissues. A cascade of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, and various cells within the injured tissue. Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells which are present at the site of inflammation and is characterised by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process. This new book presents leading-edge research from around the world.

NETosis 2 The Excitement Continues

NETosis 2  The Excitement Continues Book
Author : Mariana J. Kaplan,Marko Radic,Martin Herrmann
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2017-12-28
ISBN : 2889453790
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

NETosis, a form of cell death that manifests by the release of decondensed chromatin to the extracellular space, provides valuable insights into mechanisms and consequences of cellular demise. Because extracellular chromatin can immobilize microbes, the extended nucleohistone network was called a neutrophil extracellular trap (NET), and the process of chromatin release was proposed to serve an innate immune defense function. Extracellular chromatin NETs were initially observed in studies of neutrophils and are most prominent in these types of granulocytes. Subsequent studies showed that other granulocytes and, in a limited way, other cells of the innate immune response may also release nuclear chromatin following certain kinds of stimulation. Variations of NETosis were noted with cells that remain temporarily motile after the release of chromatin. Numerous stimuli for NETosis were discovered, including bacterial breakdown products, inflammatory stimuli, particulate matter, certain crystals, immune complexes and activated thrombocytes. Fundamental explorations into the mechanisms of NETosis observed that neutrophil enzyme activity (PAD4, neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase) and signal transduction pathways contribute to the regulation of NETosis. Histones in NET chromatin become modified by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and cleaved at specific sites by proteases, leading to extensive chromatin externalization. In addition, NETs serve for attachment of bactericidal enzymes including myeloperoxidase, leukocyte proteases, and the cathelicidin LL-37. NETs are decorated with proteases and may thus contribute to tissue destruction. However, the attachment of these enzymes to NET-associated supramolecular structures restricts systemic spread of the proteolytic activity. While the benefit of NETs in an infection appears obvious, NETs also participate as key protagonists in various pathologic states. Therefore, it is essential for NETs to be efficiently cleared; otherwise digestive enzymes may gain access to tissues where inflammation takes place. Persistent NET exposure at sites of inflammation may lead to a further complication: NET antigens may provoke acquired immune responses and, over time, could initiate autoimmune reactions, serve as antigen for nuclear autoantibodies and foster DNA immune complex-related inflammation. Neutrophil products and deiminated proteins comprise an important group of autoantigens in musculoskeletal disorders. Aberrant NET synthesis and/or clearance are often associated with inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Recent evidence also implicates aberrant NET formation in the development of endothelial damage, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Intravital microscopy provides evidence for conditions that induce NETosis in vivo. Furthermore, NETs can easily be detected in synovial fluid and tissue sections of patients with arthritis and gout. NETosis is thus of interest to researchers who investigate innate immune responses, host-pathogen interactions, chronic inflammatory disorders, cell and vascular biology, biochemistry, and autoimmunity. As we enter the second decade of research on NETosis, it is useful and timely to review the mechanisms and pathways of NET formation, their role in bacterial and fungal defense and their importance as inducers of autoimmune responses.

NETosis At the Intersection of Cell Biology Microbiology and Immunology

NETosis  At the Intersection of Cell Biology  Microbiology  and Immunology Book
Author : Mariana J. Kaplan,Marko Radic
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2013-08-08
ISBN : 2889191583
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

NETosis is a unique form of cell death that is characterized by the release of decondensed chromatin and granular contents to the extracellular space. The initial observation of NETosis placed the process within the context of the innate immune response to infections. Neutrophils, the most numerous leukocytes that arrive quickly at the site of an infection, were the first cell type shown to undergo extracellular trap formation. However, subsequent studies showed that other granulocytes are also capable of releasing nuclear chromatin following stimulation. The extracellular chromatin acts to immobilize microbes and prevent their dispersal in the host. Bacterial breakdown products and inflammatory stimuli induce NETosis and the release of NETs requires enzyme activities. Histones in NET chromatin become modified by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and cleaved at specific sites by proteases. NETs serve for attachment of bactericidal enzymes including myeloperoxidase, leukocyte proteases, and the cathelicidin LL-37. While the benefit of NETs in an infection appears clear, NETs also figure prominently at the center of various pathologic states. Therefore, it is important for NETs to be efficiently cleared; else digestive enzymes may gain access to tissues where inflammation takes place. Persistent NET exposure at sites of inflammation may lead to a further complication: NET antigens may provoke acquired immune responses and, over time, could initiate autoimmune reactions. Recent studies identified aberrant NET synthesis and/or clearance in inflammatory/autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), psoriasis, ANCA-positive vasculitis, gout and Felty’s syndrome. In the case of SLE, for example, it appears that LL-37 exposed in the NETs may be a significant trigger of type I Interferon responses in this disease. Recent evidence also implicates aberrant NET formation in the development of endothelial damage, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. NETosis is thus of interest to researchers who investigate innate immune responses, host-pathogen interactions, chronic inflammatory disorders, cell and vascular biology, biochemistry, and autoimmunity. As we approach the 10-year-anniversary of the initial discovery of NETosis, it is useful and timely to review the so far identified mechanisms and pathways of NET formation, their role in bacterial and fungal defense and their putative importance as inducers of autoimmune responses. We look forward to a rich and rigorous discussion of these and related issues that benefit from interdisciplinary approaches, collaborations and exciting discoveries.

HSP27 Regulation of GPCR induced Vascular Inflammation

HSP27 Regulation of GPCR induced Vascular Inflammation Book
Author : Cara Coleen Rada
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The vascular endothelium plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid and macromolecule homeostasis through the body as well as propagating inflammatory responses as a result of pathogens and injuries. This process is generally protective and resolves efficiently. However, dysregulation of this process can lead to chronic inflammation in diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, or acute conditions as seen in tissue edema or sepsis, in the presence of bacteria, and can lead to death. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie this balanced regulation and re-establishment of tissue homeostasis after inflammation is important to understand as it has a vast array of therapeutic potential for combating inflammation-driven diseases. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are often activated by inflammatory mediators in the endothelium and are key modulators leading to endothelial barrier permeability and cytokine production. In this dissertation, I describe a novel mechanism for endothelial GPCR signaling through heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) in the resolution of vascular inflammation after GPCR-induction both in vitro and in vivo.

Platelets as Immune Cells in Physiology and Immunopathology

Platelets as Immune Cells in Physiology and Immunopathology Book
Author : Olivier Garraud
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-01-05
ISBN : 2889197409
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Are platelets cells? (Not everyone agrees, since they are non-nucleate). And if platelets are cells - which all specialists consider at the time being - are they immune cells? The issue that platelets participate in immunity is no longer debated; however, the issue that they are key cells in immunity is challenged. It has even been proposed a couple of years ago that platelets can present antigen to T-lymphocytes by using their HLA class I molecules. No one has the same functional definition of platelets. The ‘Frontiers Research Topic’- coordinators’ own view is that platelets are primarily repairing cells, what they do in deploying tools of physiological inflammation. This function is better acknowledged as primary hemostasis, i.e. platelet adherence to injured or wounded vessels, followed by activation, aggregation, and constitution of the initial clot. Platelets would thus repair damaged vascular endothelium; so doing, as they patrol to detect damages, they sense danger along the vascular arborescence. As the latter is immense, platelets get close to tissues, which are not allowed to them under ‘physiological’ conditions but are readily accessible in pathology. Platelets are equipped with a variety of Pathogen Recognition Receptors such as TLRs; they have a complete signalosome, which is functional until the phosphorylation of NFkB; they have been proved to retro-transcribe RNA and synthesize de novo proteins; etc. Platelets participate to inflammation along the whole spectrum: from physiological (tissue repair, healing) to acute/severe inflammation (as can be seen in e.g. sepsis). In general, platelets engage complex interactions with most infectious pathogens. We propose there to cover those topics - from physiology to pathology, that put platelets within cells that not only take place in-, but also are key players of-, innate immunity. The relation of platelets with adaptive immunity is even more complex. Not everyone is convinced that platelets present antigens; however, platelets influence adaptive immunity since they have mutual interactions with Dendritic cells, Monocytes/Macrophages, and B-lymphocytes (the key players of antigen presentation); they also have mutual interactions with T-lymphocytes, though is issue is less clearly deciphered. We propose to also cover these topics - or to present the forum. There is another issue which is medically relevant - speaking of physiology/physiopathology-: this is fetal maternal incompatibility of platelet specific antigens (the HPA system) and the likely formation of maternal antibodies that often injure the newborn with risks of severe thrombocytopenia and intracranial hemorrhage. We propose an update on this issue as well. Last, platelets are very special because they can be directly therapeutic (by transfusion), even when being offered by a generous blood donor displaying given genetic and phenotypic parameters to a patient/recipient in need, who also display his/her own genetic and phenotypic parameters, which - for a large part - differ from the donor's ones. Besides immunization - via mechanisms probably close to the fetal maternal platelet incompatibility, but likely not similar -, transfusion has allowed the identification of the tremendous capacity of platelets to mediate inflammation: we propose to conclude the Topics with this item/forum.

Cytokines

Cytokines Book
Author : Payam Behzadi
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-08-19
ISBN : 178984858X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The human immune system is a complicated biological network that employs a collection of cells, molecules, and proteins. Cytokines play an important role in regulating the innate and adaptive immune systems by different receptors and signaling pathways. As such, they are also implicated in the occurrence of different disorders and diseases. This book presents a comprehensive overview of immunology, the immune system, and cytokines. Chapters cover such topics as the role and importance of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the human body, the association of cytokines with different disorders and diseases, and the role of cytokines in dentistry.

The role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications

The role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications Book
Author : Gabriel Virella,Maria Lopes-Virella
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2014-12-03
ISBN : 2889193527
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The main causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetes are macrovasular and microvascular complications, including atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and retinopathy. As the definition of atherosclerosis as a chronic, smoldering, inflammatory disease has gained general acceptance, the attention of researchers has focused on the triggers of chronic vascular inflammation. The oxidation and other forms of modification of lipids and lipoproteins have emerged as a major pathogenic factor in atherosclerosis, with a significant interaction with the immune system. Modified lipoproteins by themselves are proinflammatory through the activation of the innate immune system as a consequence of the interaction with scavenger receptors and/or toll-like receptors expressed by a variety of cell types, including phagocytic cells and dendritic cells. A variety of modified forms of LDL (mLDL), including oxidized, malondialdehyde-modified, and Advanced Glycation End-product-modified LDL induce autoimmune responses in humans. Those modifications seem enhanced in diabetes, and the progression of atherosclerosis is accelerated in diabetic patients. The immune response to all forms of mLDL results in both activation of T cells in the arterial wall and in an autoimmune response characterized by the formation of IgG antibodies. Both arms of the immune response are believed to play a role in vascular inflammation. While the cell response is likely to activate resident macrophages, the humoral immune response results in the production of IgG antibodies that bind to specific epitopes in modified forms of LDL, generate immune complexes both intra- and extravascularly, and those complexes are able to activate the classical pathway of the complement system as well as phagocytic cells via Fc? receptors. In vitro studies suggest that the pro-inflammatory activity of immune complexes containing mLDL is several-fold higher than that of the modified LDL molecules by themselves. Clinical studies have provided significant support to the pathogenic role of immune complexes containing modified LDL in the development of atherosclerotic complications in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. At the same time, there is increasing evidence that the formation of immune complexes containing modified forms of LDL may also be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy. These are areas in which more research is needed to fully understand the pathogenic mechanisms activated by those immune complexes. Of interest is the fact that animal models have suggested the possibility of modifying the adaptive humoral immune response in ways that would result in slowing down, and perhaps prevent, the atherosclerotic process. This possibility is sufficiently alluring as to justify increased research efforts, both in animal models (including diabetic animals) and translational clinical studies. The manipulation of the T regulatory population is another area of potential translational impact, which has hardly been explored. Indeed at this point of time, what seems to be a high priority is an increased and open interchange of information among investigators, trying to reach a better general understanding and integration of knowledge generated from a variety of approaches and perspectives. This Research Topic provided an optimal platform for this open interchange of information. We encouraged interested scientists to submit mini-reviews, methods papers, review articles, perspectives and original research articles covering this topic in all its diversity to facilitate the communication of perspectives and new information between scientists interested in understanding the multiple implications of the involvement of the immune system in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications.

Diseases and Pathogens of Eucalypts

Diseases and Pathogens of Eucalypts Book
Author : PJ Keane,GA Kile,FD Podger,BN Brown
Publisher : CSIRO PUBLISHING
Release : 2000-10-25
ISBN : 0643098844
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the last fifty years, there has been an increasing recognition that eucalypts are vulnerable to a wide range of diseases. They have suffered destructive epidemics, particularly of dieback caused by the cinnamon fungus in native forests, of foliar diseases and cankers in plantations, and of dieback of remnant trees on agricultural and grazing land. This has stimulated intensive research into the causes and management of diseases of the eucalypts. This work represents a comprehensive review of our current knowledge of the health and diseases of eucalypts.

Histological Comparisons of Needle Tissues of Four Species of White Pine Infected by Cronartium Ribicola

Histological Comparisons of Needle Tissues of Four Species of White Pine Infected by Cronartium Ribicola Book
Author : Katarina Sweeney
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hypersensitive response-like (HR-like) needle reactions to infection by the white pine blister rust pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, have been reported for several species of five needle pines native to western North America. The best-studied examples are in Pinus monticola and P. lambertiana. In these species a "needle spot" phenotype has been identified in which HR-like needle reactions are related to disease resistance that is conditioned by a major gene. Conventionally it is believed that the HR-like needle reactions in resistant pines prevent spread of the pathogen to vascular stem tissue by HR mechanisms commonly seen in other plant-pathogen incompatibility interactions, i.e. a rapidly induced plant cell death and subsequent localized tissue necrosis. The dead cells present a barrier to colonization by biotrophic pathogens and cause degeneration of fungal hyphae preventing further pathogen colonization. Structural analyses of early C. ribicola needle colonization in resistant Pinus spp. have shown, however, that these symptoms and their underlying physiology are fundamentally different from the clearly defined HR described in other host-pathogen systems. Contrary to the pattern of HR responses seen in most incompatible host reactions, onset of needle lesions was first seen several weeks after initial entry of C. ribicola. We observed extensive proliferation of fungal hyphae in the host and penetration of the needle endodermis and vascular tissue by the pathogen prior to the onset of a discernable HR or cell necrosis. The amount of fungal tissue present and progress of needle colonization was similar for both resistant and susceptible Pinus spp. Therefore, typical HR does not appear to function in needles as the mechanism of disease resistance in the "needle reaction" phenotype.

Platelets

Platelets Book
Author : Alan D. Michelson
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-12-31
ISBN : 0123878381
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Platelets — winner of a 2013 Highly Commended BMA Medical Book Award for Internal Medicine — is the definitive current source of state-of-the-art knowledge about platelets and covers the entire field of platelet biology, pathophysiology, and clinical medicine. Recently there has been a rapid expansion of knowledge in both basic biology and the clinical approach to platelet-related diseases including thrombosis and hemorrhage. Novel platelet function tests, drugs, blood bank storage methods, and gene therapies have been incorporated into patient care or are in development. This book draws all this information into a single, comprehensive and authoritative resource. Highly Commended BMA Medical Book Award 2013: Internal Medicine Comprehensive and definitive source of knowledge about platelets for clinicians, pathologists and scientists Integrates the entire field of platelet biology, pathophysiology, and clinical medicine Full color reference comprising 64 chapters, 1400 pages, and 16,000 references Contributions from 126 world leaders in their fields New chapters on topics such as the regulation of platelet life span, platelet microRNAs, GPVI and CLEC-2, monitoring of antiplatelet therapy, novel antiplatelet therapy, and making platelets ex vivo

Stress Response in Pathogenic Bacteria

Stress Response in Pathogenic Bacteria Book
Author : Stephen P. Kidd
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9781845937775
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability of pathogenic bacteria to adapt to various chemical, biochemical and physical conditions within the human host and their ability to respond to stresses generated in these environments is a central feature of infectious diseases and the outcome of bacterial infection. This book covers the key aspects of this rapidly developing field, including the generation of stresses by the host immune system, bacterial response to reactive chemicals, and adaptation to environmental conditions of anatomical niches such as the gut, mouth and urogenital tract. It also addresses the increasing impor.

Plant Disease An Advanced Treatise

Plant Disease  An Advanced Treatise Book
Author : James G. Horsfall
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 0323147682
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plant Diseases An Advanced Treatise, Volume III: How Plants Suffer from Disease deals with the mechanism on how individual plants suffer from disease. Organized into 19 chapters, this volume discusses plant growth, the conceptual theory of disease development in plants, and the occurrence of different kinds of impairment in diseased plant system. The opening chapters outline the array of physiological functions that are essential in the growth and development of healthy plants. This text also describes the effect of disease on the capture, transfer, and utilization of energy by plants. The subsequent chapters discuss specific types of dysfunction in plant system, including food flow, water system, mineral nutrition, and growth alteration. Other chapters deal with other plant diseases, such as crown gall, teratoma, dysfunction and shortfalls of symbiont responses, disrupted reproduction, and tissue disintegration. This volume also examines various physical factors of the environment that impose mechanical or other physical stresses on plants. It also discusses the engineering mechanics of growing plants and the effect of various pathogens and microorganisms on plant strength and plant organ structural integrity. Other chapters deal with the effect of disease on cell membrane and permeability and on intermediary plant metabolism. The concluding chapters cover the genetic aspects of diseased plants and the diseases that induce senescence and diseases that senescence induced. This volume is an invaluable source for plant pathologists and researchers, mycologists, virologists, and graduate students.

Functional Foods and Cardiovascular Disease

Functional Foods and Cardiovascular Disease Book
Author : Mohammed H. Moghadasian,N.A. Michael Eskin
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-02-10
ISBN : 1420071106
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in North America and around the world. The staggering medical costs involved in treating patients suffering from this disease demand an alternative approach to prevent or minimize its development. In Functional Foods and Cardiovascular Disease, international researchers reveal essential up-to-date information on the role that functional foods and nutraceuticals play in preventing the development of heart disease. Highlighting the physiological benefits of a host of functional foods, the book examines: The pathogenesis of coronary artery disease Genetic methods for enhancing bioactives in foods and new techniques for extracting bioactive components for developing functional foods Clinical and experimental evidence of the cardiovascular benefits of fish oils and plant oils, particularly flaxseed oil The importance of folic acid in homocysteine metabolism and its impact on cardiovascular disease Clinical and experimental evidence for the cardiovascular benefits of plant sterols The beneficial effects of wine, garlic products, eggs, fiber, cocoa and chocolate, and coffee and tea on cardiovascular health While there have been great improvements in treating coronary heart disease through surgery and medications, prevention through diet and exercise should remain an essential priority in maintaining the health of the aging population. Nutritionists, food scientists, and those working in the health industry will find that this book enhances their understanding of the potential role of functional foods in combating cardiovascular disease before more aggressive treatment is needed.

Vascular Surgery

Vascular Surgery Book
Author : Christos D. Liapis,Klaus Balzer,Fabrizio Benedetti-Valentini,Jose Fernandes e Fernandes
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-03-31
ISBN : 354030956X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This practical guide is devoted to vascular diseases as dealt with by vascular surgeons. It is written with the collaboration of other specialists attending to vascular diseases. The book provides a concise overview of the current level and standards of care of vascular diseases in the European Union, and fills the need of vascular specialists who prepare for the U.E.M.S. exam. The text is well-structured and contains practical guidelines. The readership that will benefit most will be trainees and practitioners in vascular surgery, angiology and also practicing physicians. However, the book will also be valuable to physicians of other specialties.

Platelets and Immune Responses During Thromboinflammation

Platelets and Immune Responses During Thromboinflammation Book
Author : Mirta Schattner,Craig N. Jenne,Soledad Negrotto,Benoît Ho-Tin-Noé
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-07-09
ISBN : 2889638391
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Platelets and Immune Responses During Thromboinflammation book written by Mirta Schattner,Craig N. Jenne,Soledad Negrotto,Benoît Ho-Tin-Noé, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Phytopathogenic Prokaryotes

Phytopathogenic Prokaryotes Book
Author : Mark Mount
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 0323147208
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Phytopathogenic Prokaryotes, Volume 2, provides an understanding of the diversity and complexity of diseases caused by these organisms. It is part of a two-volume treatise that summarizes current research on phytopathogenic prokaryotes. The book is organized into five parts. Part I describes the movement of pathogens from one host to another. The concepts to be presented are essential for understanding the epidemiology and, therefore, the control of diseases caused by prokaryotes. Parts II and III elaborate on the dynamic nature of host/parasite interaction. First to be presented are methods by which hosts may evolve to minimize damage caused by their pathogens. Second, the mechanisms for rapid genetic change available to the pathogen to counteract host defenses are discussed. Part IV emphasizes control of diseases caused by prokaryotes. Manipulation of plant-prokaryote interactions to break the disease cycle or minimize losses is discussed in regard to cultural practices, host breeding, biological control, and chemical control. Part V deals with cultivation and preservation of phytopathogenic prokaryotes.