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Value At Risk And Bank Capital Management

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Value at Risk and Bank Capital Management

Value at Risk and Bank Capital Management Book
Author : Francesco Saita
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2007
ISBN : 9780123694669
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bank capital management is a major concern for banking and finance today due to Basel II, a set of regulatory guidelines aimed at promoting greater consistency in the way bands and banking regulators approach risk management across national borders. The combination of discussions about sophisticated and cutting-edge risk measurement techniques and practical bank decision-making about capital management and allocation make this book unique.

The Value Management Handbook

The Value Management Handbook Book
Author : Thomas C. Wilson
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-04-13
ISBN : 1118774639
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A value management framework designed specifically for banking and insurance The Value Management Handbook is a comprehensive, practical reference written specifically for bank and insurance valuation and value management. Spelling out how the finance and risk functions add value in their respective spheres, this book presents a framework for measuring – and more importantly, influencing – the value of the firm from the position of the CFO and CRO. Case studies illustrating value-enhancing initiatives are designed to help Heads of Strategy offer CEOs concrete ideas toward creating more value, and discussion of "hard" and "soft" skills put CFOs and CROs in a position to better influence strategy and operations. The challenge of financial services valuation is addressed in terms of the roles of risk and capital, and business-specific "value trees" demonstrate the source of successful value enhancement initiatives. While most value management resources fail to adequately address the unique role of risk and capital in banks, insurance, and asset management, this book fills the gap by providing concrete, business-specific information that connects management actions and value creation, helping readers to: Measure value accurately for more productive value-based management initiatives and evaluation of growth opportunities Apply a quantitative, risk-adjusted value management framework reconciled with the way financial services shares are valued by the market Develop a value set specific to the industry to inspire initiatives that increase the firm's value Study the quantitative and qualitative management frameworks that move CFOs and CROs from measurement to management The roles of CFO and CRO in financial firms have changed dramatically over the past decade, requiring business savvy and the ability to challenge the CEO. The Value Management Handbook provides the expert guidance that leads CFOs and CROs toward better information, better insight, and better decisions.

Risk Management and Shareholders Value in Banking

Risk Management and Shareholders  Value in Banking Book
Author : Andrea Sironi,Andrea Resti
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2007-05-21
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text covers all main aspects of risk management, capital management and value creation for financial institutions.

Concept of Value at Risk VaR

Concept of Value at Risk  VaR  Book
Author : Fabian Kremer
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2013-08-23
ISBN : 3656485348
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Business economics - Banking, Stock Exchanges, Insurance, Accounting, grade: 2,0, University of Hohenheim, language: English, abstract: How is it possible to manage or measure such a hard to defining term like „risk“? To solve this problem and giving stakeholders a tool to measure their individual risk or to compare it, an empirical risk measurer called „Value at Risk“ is used in practice. The main task of this work is to introduce the concept of Value at Risk and giving an overview about the concept itself, its problems and its use in practice.

Risk Management and Shareholders Value in Banking

Risk Management and Shareholders Value in Banking Book
Author : Andrea Sironi
Publisher : Wiley
Release : 2014-04-21
ISBN : 9781119942146
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Risk Management and Shareholders' Value in Banking provides an integrated framework for risk measurement, capital management and value creation in banks covering interest rate risk; market risk; credit risk; operational risk; capital regulation; capital management; and value creation. Updated to include coverage of the most recent developments in banking regulation, including comprehensive coverage of the new Basel III regulatory framework the book is structured in six parts. Part I covers the measurement and management of the interest rate risk and liquidity risk on all assets and liabilities of a banking institution. This includes a discussion of gapping models, presented critically through numerical examples and solutions, internal transfer rates, gapping techniques, liquidity risk management. Part II presents portfolio models for market risks, including the “variance/covariance” approach, Monte Carlo / historical simulations, backtesting, alternative risk measures (e.g. expected shortfall) and volatility estimation techniques. Part III addresses credit risk measurement, first on a stand-alone basis, then at a portfolio level; it also includes chapters on scoring models, rating systems, recovery risk, counterparty risk for OTC derivatives, and practical applications of credit risk models. Part IV deals with operational risk before part V goes on to illustrate the main pieces of regulation on bank capital issued by the Basel Committee, the main focus being on Basel 2 (insofar it has not been changed by the latest regulatory wave) and Basel 3. Part VI presents the link between risk and capital in all its implications, and provides the reader with the technical models needed to allocate capital to risk-taking units, set risk-adjusted profitability targets, and optimize the amount and composition of bank capital. By bringing together the core aspects of risk management in banking - models and algorithms, regulation, process engineering and management, and strategic planning – the book provides a unique and consistent framework showing how financial risks can be understood, measured, managed and covered with capital. The book is accompanied by a website which includes a series of excel files with detailed explanations of all the numerical examples shown in the book, as well as solutions to the end of chapter exercises.

Value at Risk and Bank Capital Management

Value at Risk and Bank Capital Management Book
Author : Francesco Saita
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2010-07-26
ISBN : 9780080471068
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Value at Risk and Bank Capital Management offers a unique combination of concise, expert academic analysis of the latest technical VaR measures and their applications, and the practical realities of bank decision making about capital management and capital allocation. The book contains concise, expert analysis of the latest technical VaR measures but without the highly mathematical component of other books. It discusses practical applications of these measures in the real world of banking, focusing on effective decision making for capital management and allocation. The author, Francesco Saita, is based at Bocconi University in Milan, Italy, one of the foremost institutions for banking in Europe. He provides readers with his extensive academic and theoretical expertise combined with his practical and real-world understanding of bank structure, organizational constraints, and decision-making processes. This book is recommended for graduate students in master's or Ph.D. programs in finance/banking and bankers and risk managers involved in capital allocation and portfolio management. Contains concise, expert analysis of the latest technical VaR measures but without the highly mathematical component of other books Discusses practical applications of these measures in the real world of banking, focusing on effective decision making for capital management and allocation Author is based at Bocconi University in Milan, Italy, one of the foremost institutions for banking in Europe

Value at Risk 3rd Ed

Value at Risk  3rd Ed  Book
Author : Philippe Jorion
Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
Release : 2006-11-09
ISBN : 0071736921
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since its original publication, Value at Risk has become the industry standard in risk management. Now in its Third Edition, this international bestseller addresses the fundamental changes in the field that have occurred across the globe in recent years. Philippe Jorion provides the most current information needed to understand and implement VAR-as well as manage newer dimensions of financial risk. Featured updates include: An increased emphasis on operational risk Using VAR for integrated risk management and to measure economic capital Applications of VAR to risk budgeting in investment management Discussion of new risk-management techniques, including extreme value theory, principal components, and copulas Extensive coverage of the recently finalized Basel II capital adequacy rules for commercial banks, integrated throughout the book A major new feature of the Third Edition is the addition of short questions and exercises at the end of each chapter, making it even easier to check progress. Detailed answers are posted on the companion web site www.pjorion.com/var/. The web site contains other materials, including additional questions that course instructors can assign to their students. Jorion leaves no stone unturned, addressing the building blocks of VAR from computing and backtesting models to forecasting risk and correlations. He outlines the use of VAR to measure and control risk for trading, for investment management, and for enterprise-wide risk management. He also points out key pitfalls to watch out for in risk-management systems. The value-at-risk approach continues to improve worldwide standards for managing numerous types of risk. Now more than ever, professionals can depend on Value at Risk for comprehensive, authoritative counsel on VAR, its application, and its results-and to keep ahead of the curve.

Risk Management in Banking

Risk Management in Banking Book
Author : Joël Bessis
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-06-29
ISBN : 1118660218
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The seminal guide to risk management, streamlined and updated Risk Management in Banking is a comprehensive reference for the risk management industry, covering all aspects of the field. Now in its fourth edition, this useful guide has been updated with the latest information on ALM, Basel 3, derivatives, liquidity analysis, market risk, structured products, credit risk, securitizations, and more. The new companion website features slides, worked examples, a solutions manual, and the new streamlined, modular approach allows readers to easily find the information they need. Coverage includes asset liability management, risk-based capital, value at risk, loan portfolio management, capital allocation, and other vital topics, concluding with an examination of the financial crisis through the utilisation of new views such as behavioural finance and nonlinearity of risk. Considered a seminal industry reference since the first edition's release, Risk Management in Banking has been streamlined for easy navigation and updated to reflect the changes in the field, while remaining comprehensive and detailed in approach and coverage. Students and professionals alike will appreciate the extended scope and expert guidance as they: Find all "need-to-know" risk management topics in a single text Discover the latest research and the new practices Understand all aspects of risk management and banking management See the recent crises – and the lessons learned – from a new perspective Risk management is becoming increasingly vital to the banking industry even as it grows more complex. New developments and advancing technology continue to push the field forward, and professionals need to stay up-to-date with in-depth information on the latest practices. Risk Management in Banking provides a comprehensive reference to the most current state of the industry, with complete information and expert guidance.

Implementing Value at Risk

Implementing Value at Risk Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Implementing Value at Risk Philip Best Value at Risk (VAR) is an estimate of the potential loss on a trading or investment portfolio. Its use has swept the banking world and is now accepted as an essential tool in any risk manager's briefcase. Perhaps the greatest strength of VAR is that it can cope with virtually all financial products, from simple securities through to complex exotic derivatives. This allows the risk taken, across diverse trading activities, to be compared. This said, VAR is no panacea. It is as critical to understand when the use of VAR is inappropriate as it is to understand the value VAR can add to a bank's understanding and control of its risks. This book aims to explain how VAR can be used as an integral part of a risk and business management framework, rather than as a stand-alone tool. The objectives of this book are to explain: What VAR is - and isn't! How to calculate VAR - the three main methods Why stress testing is needed to complement VAR How to make stress testing effective How to use VAR and stress testing to manage risk How to use VAR to improve a bank's performance VAR as a regulatory measure of risk and capital Risk management practitioners, general bank managers, consultants and students of finance and risk management will find this book, and the software package included, an invaluable addition to their library. Finance/Investment.

Implementing Value at Risk

Implementing Value at Risk Book
Author : Philip Best
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2000-11-21
ISBN : 0470865962
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Implementing Value at Risk Philip Best Value at Risk (VAR) is an estimate of the potential loss on a trading or investment portfolio. Its use has swept the banking world and is now accepted as an essential tool in any risk manager's briefcase. Perhaps the greatest strength of VAR is that it can cope with virtually all financial products, from simple securities through to complex exotic derivatives. This allows the risk taken, across diverse trading activities, to be compared. This said, VAR is no panacea. It is as critical to understand when the use of VAR is inappropriate as it is to understand the value VAR can add to a bank's understanding and control of its risks. This book aims to explain how VAR can be used as an integral part of a risk and business management framework, rather than as a stand-alone tool. The objectives of this book are to explain: What VAR is - and isn't! How to calculate VAR - the three main methods Why stress testing is needed to complement VAR How to make stress testing effective How to use VAR and stress testing to manage risk How to use VAR to improve a bank's performance VAR as a regulatory measure of risk and capital Risk management practitioners, general bank managers, consultants and students of finance and risk management will find this book, and the software package included, an invaluable addition to their library. Finance/Investment

Credit Risk Measurement

Credit Risk Measurement Book
Author : Anthony Saunders,Linda Allen
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2002-10-06
ISBN : 0471274763
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The most cutting-edge read on the pricing, modeling, and management of credit risk available The rise of credit risk measurement and the credit derivatives market started in the early 1990s and has grown ever since. For many professionals, understanding credit risk measurement as a discipline is now more important than ever. Credit Risk Measurement, Second Edition has been fully revised to reflect the latest thinking on credit risk measurement and to provide credit risk professionals with a solid understanding of the alternative approaches to credit risk measurement. This readable guide discusses the latest pricing, modeling, and management techniques available for dealing with credit risk. New chapters highlight the latest generation of credit risk measurement models, including a popular class known as intensity-based models. Credit Risk Measurement, Second Edition also analyzes significant changes in banking regulations that are impacting credit risk measurement at financial institutions. With fresh insights and updated information on the world of credit risk measurement, this book is a must-read reference for all credit risk professionals. Anthony Saunders (New York, NY) is the John M. Schiff Professor of Finance and Chair of the Department of Finance at the Stern School of Business at New York University. He holds positions on the Board of Academic Consultants of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors as well as the Council of Research Advisors for the Federal National Mortgage Association. He is the editor of the Journal of Banking and Finance and the Journal of Financial Markets, Instruments and Institutions. Linda Allen (New York, NY) is Professor of Finance at Baruch College and Adjunct Professor of Finance at the Stern School of Business at New York University. She also is author of Capital Markets and Institutions: A Global View (Wiley: 0471130494). Over the years, financial professionals around the world have looked to the Wiley Finance series and its wide array of bestselling books for the knowledge, insights, and techniques that are essential to success in financial markets. As the pace of change in financial markets and instruments quickens, Wiley Finance continues to respond. With critically acclaimed books by leading thinkers on value investing, risk management, asset allocation, and many other critical subjects, the Wiley Finance series provides the financial community with information they want. Written to provide professionals and individuals with the most current thinking from the best minds in the industry, it is no wonder that the Wiley Finance series is the first and last stop for financial professionals looking to increase their financial expertise.

Value Added Risk Management in Financial Institutions

Value Added Risk Management in Financial Institutions Book
Author : David P. Belmont
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons Incorporated
Release : 2004-03-03
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The typical financial executive’s view of the value of risk management in their financial institution is based on the belief that risk management focuses on loss avoidance. This view is based on the history of risk management being control focused. However, risk management has evolved rapidly to address the more strategic issue of optimization of return on risk. This evolutions has been accompanied by statistical, mathematical and financial techniques which, when actively applied, can produce disproportionately high return on risk. Given that financial institutions will have to make significant investments in their risk management systems to comply with the regulatory capital calculation requirements of BIS II, the book shows how to leverage this investment to extract shareholder value. Key concepts illustrated and explained in detail include: Opportunity costs of capital Economic profit Risk adjusted returns on capital Economic capital measurement and their relationship to economic capital allocation Capital structuring Capital budgeting The use of risk adjusted performance information in the formulation of management strategies that seek to optimize return to shareholders are discussed in depth and illustrated by practical case studies of several leading financial institutions. Finally, practical incentive and technology challenges are addressed and pragmatic recommendations for overcoming these challenges are given. The book aims to describe these techniques, illustrate their application, and discuss their strategic value in the management of financial institutions.

Economic Capital

Economic Capital Book
Author : Pieter Klaassen,Idzard van Eeghen
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009-05-28
ISBN : 9780080956800
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Managers can deploy and manage economic capital more effectively when they understand how their decisions add value to their organizations. Economic Capital: How It Works and What Every Manager Needs to Know presents new ways to define, measure, and implement management strategies by using recent examples, many from the sub-prime crisis. The authors also discuss the role of economic capital within the broader context of management responsibilities and activities as well as its relation to other risk management tools that are available to the modern risk manager. Explains ways to use economic capital in balancing risk and return Evaluates solutions to problems encountered in establishing an economic capital framework Emphasizes intuition Draws special attention to embedding risk modelling approaches within economic capital frameworks

The VaR Modeling Handbook Practical Applications in Alternative Investing Banking Insurance and Portfolio Management

The VaR Modeling Handbook  Practical Applications in Alternative Investing  Banking  Insurance  and Portfolio Management Book
Author : Greg N. Gregoriou
Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
Release : 2010-02-22
ISBN : 0071713646
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Value-at-Risk (VaR) is a powerful tool for assessing market risk in real time— a critical insight when making trading and hedging decisions. The VaR Modeling Handbook is the most complete, up-to-date reference on the subject for today’s savvy investors, traders, portfolio managers, and other asset and risk managers. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories and sources of market risk, VaR is applicable to all liquid assets, making it a reliable indicator of total market risk. For this reason, among many others, VaR has become the dominant method for estimating precisely how much money is at risk each day in the financial markets. The VaR Modeling Handbook is a profound volume that delivers practical information on measuring and modeling risk specifically focused on alternative investments, banking, and the insurance sector. The perfect primer to The VaR Implementation Handbook (McGraw- Hill), this foundational resource features The experience of 40 internationally recognized experts Useful perspectives from a wide range of practitioners, researchers, and academics Coverage on applying VaR to hedge fund strategies, microcredit loan portfolios, and economic capital management approaches for insurance companies Each illuminating chapter in The VaR Modeling Handbook presents a specific topic, complete with an abstract and conclusion for quick reference, as well as numerous illustrations that exemplify covered material. Practitioners can gain in-depth, cornerstone knowledge of VaR by reading the handbook cover to cover or take advantage of its user-friendly format by using it as a go-to resource in the real world. Financial success in the markets requires confident decision making, and The VaR Modeling Handbook gives you the knowledge you need to use this state-of-the-art modeling method to successfully manage financial risk.

Bank and Insurance Capital Management

Bank and Insurance Capital Management Book
Author : Frans de Weert
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-10-14
ISBN : 0470971649
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the aftermath of the financial crisis, capital management has become a critical factor in value creation for banks and other financial institutions. Although complex and subject to regulatory change, the strategic importance of capital management became apparent during the crisis and has moved the subject to the top of corporate agendas. Bank and Insurance Capital Management is an essential guide to help banks and insurance companies understand and manage their capital position. Bridging the gap between theory and practice, it provides proven techniques for managing bank capital, as well as explaining key capital management perspectives, including accounting, regulatory, risk and capital management and corporate finance. It also shows how to analyze a firm's stakeholders such as depositors, policy holders, debt holders and shareholders, and manage their expectations, and how to align risk and capital management so as to best optimize the return on capital and preserve capital in periods of stress. Economic capital is also discussed in depth, as are the practicalities of bank and insurance M&A, and the book also shows how financial innovations can be used to optimise the capital position and how diversification effects are reflected in the capital position. This book will arm readers with the knowledge and skills needed to understand how capital management can improve capital structure and performance, achieving an optimal cost of, and return on capital, creating value as a result.

Measuring Operational and Reputational Risk

Measuring Operational and Reputational Risk Book
Author : Aldo Soprano,Bert Crielaard,Fabio Piacenza,Daniele Ruspantini
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2010-12-03
ISBN : 0470742119
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

How to apply operational risk theory to real-life banking data Modelling Operational and Reputational Risks shows practitioners the best models to use in a given situation, according to the type of risk an organization is facing. Based on extensive applied research on operational risk models using real bank datasets, it offers a wide range of various testing models and fitting techniques for financial practitioners. With this book, professionals will have a foundation for measuring and predicting these important intangibles. Aldo Soprano (Madrid, Spain) is Group Head of operational risk management at UniCredit Group.

Bank Valuation and Value Based Management Deposit and Loan Pricing Performance Evaluation and Risk Management

Bank Valuation and Value Based Management  Deposit and Loan Pricing  Performance Evaluation  and Risk Management Book
Author : Jean Dermine
Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
Release : 2009-09
ISBN : 0071624996
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bank Valuation & Value-Based Management provides bankers, bank regulators, auditors, and risk managers with foundational concepts and practical tools for effectively managing a bank. An expert in asset and liability management, European financial markets, and banking theory, Jean Dermine provides rigorous foundations to discuss asset and liability management at a global level, with an integrated focus on an institution’s banking book. He covers bank valuation, fund transfer pricing, deposit and loan pricing, risk management, and performance measurement, and addresses two high-profile issues for banks worldwide: portfolio credit risk and liquidity risk. This thorough and innovative guide presents insightful coverage on the hazards of measuring portfolio credit risk, the impact of liquidity risk on fund transfer pricing, and the practice of performance measurement in the banking industry. Numerous real-world examples from the U.S. subprime crisis help illustrate the nature and dynamics of these issues. Inside, you will find a framework for discussing such managerial issues as: Bank valuation Fund transfer pricing Deposit pricing Capital management Loan pricing and provisioning Securitization Measurement of interest rate risk Performance measurement At the same time that it helps readers develop an intuitive sense for asset-liability management, this practical book follows through with rigorous mathematical formulas and examples from the international banking community. In addition,exercises are incorporated throughout the text to facilitate discussions of how theoretical concepts can be applied to real-world problems. This authoritative guide to bank management also features an exclusive companion Web site, www.mhprofessional.com/bankvaluation, which includes additional chapters and exercise solutions that serve as key supplements to the core text. Creating value in banking depends on a rocksolid understanding of what drives value and the right valuation model to help make the tough decisions that will enhance shareholder value. Bank Valuation & Value-Based Management is your one-stop reference for each of these critical issues.

Financial Risk Management in Banking

Financial Risk Management in Banking Book
Author : Dennis G. Uyemura,Donald R. Van Deventer
Publisher : Probus Publishing Company
Release : 1993
ISBN : 9781557383532
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Presents an in-depth review of the tremendous risk and volatility in bank financial management. This book provides a comprehensive overview of aggressive asset and liability management (ALM) and demonstrates how ALM can strengthen the capital position of a financial institution.

Risk Budgeting

Risk Budgeting Book
Author : Neil D. Pearson
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-08-31
ISBN : 1118160835
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Covers the hottest topic in investment for multitrillion pension market and institutional investors Institutional investors and fund managers understand they must take risks to generate superior investment returns, but the question is how much. Enter the concept of risk budgeting, using quantitative risks measurements, including VaR, to solve the problem. VaR, or value at risk, is a concept first introduced by bank dealers to establish parameters for their market short-term risk exposure. This book introduces VaR, extreme VaR, and stress-testing risk measurement techniques to major institutional investors, and shows them how they can implement formal risk budgeting to more efficiently manage their investment portfolios. Risk Budgeting is the most sophisticated and advanced read on the subject out there in the market.

The Fundamentals of Risk Measurement

The Fundamentals of Risk Measurement Book
Author : Christopher Marrison
Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
Release : 2002-06-27
ISBN : 9780071386272
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: The Basics of Risk Management This chapter introduces how banks work. It describes how they make money, how they often lose money, and how they try to manage their losses. It includes thirteen short case studies showing how banks have lost money. Chapter 2: Risk Measurement at the Corporate Level: Economic Capital and RAROC Chapter Two discusses the meaning of capital and how the risks that a bank faces are related to the amount of capital that the bank should hold. It then describes the two fundamental building blocks of integrated risk measurement: Economic Capital and Risk Adjusted Return on Capital (RAROC). Chapter 3: Review of Statistics Chapter Three is useful for those readers who do not have a recent working knowledge of statistics. It reviews the statistical relationships that are commonly used in risk measurement and provides reference material for the rest of the book. Examples are provided using financial loss data. MARKET RISK SECTION Chapter 4: Background on Traded Instruments This chapter gives an overview of the main types of traded instruments: bonds, equities and derivatives. It gives a qualitative description of the instrument, examples of calculating the instrument’s value and the basic risk metrics such as duration and the Greeks. This chapter is useful for those readers who are new to the finance industry. Chapter 5: Market Risk Measurement This chapter describes the most common ways to measure market risks: Sensitivity analysis, Stress testing, Scenario testing, Sharpe Ratio and Value at Risk. It gives detailed examples of using each of the metrics. Chapter 6: The Three Common Approaches for Calculating Value at Risk Value at Risk (VaR) has become the standard approach for measuring market risk. This chapter is devoted to explaining the details of the three common approaches to calculating VaR: Parametric VaR, Historical VaR and Monte Carlo VaR. We work though increasingly complex examples and compare the strengths of each approach. (Note: many readers will be particularly interested in this chapter because the name “VaR” is well known and has a certain mystery) Chapter 7: Value at Risk Contribution The Value at Risk Contribution (VaRC) is a useful way of pinpointing the source of the portfolio’s risk. VaRC can break down the risk by instrument, trading desk or market risk factor. Examples are given for several types of VaRC. Chapter 8: Testing VaR Results to Ensure Proper Risk Measurement This chapter discusses the procedures required by regulators to backtest VaR calculators to check that their predictions of losses are consistent with market events. Chapter 9: Calculating Capital for Market Risk VaR is used as the basis for calculating both Regulatory Capital and Economic Capital for Market Risks. In this chapter VaR also extended to measure the risk of Asset Management operations. Chapter 10: Overcoming VaR Limitations Although VaR is the best single metric for market risks, is has several limitations. The limitations and typical solutions are discussed in this chapter. Chapter 11: The Management of Market Risk This chapter concludes the market risk section by describing how the results of risk measurement are used by management to identify the sources of risk. It also describes the process of setting VaR Limits. (Note: readers should be particularly interested in VaR Limits because it is difficult and an important element in controlling a bank’s risk). ASSET/LIABILITY MANGEMENT SECTION Chapter 12: Introduction to Asset Liability Management Asset Liability Management (ALM) is primarily concerned with the interest rate and liquidity risks that are created when commercial banks take in short term deposits from customers and give out long term loans. This chapter describes how those risks arise and the risk characteristics of different types of deposits and loans. Chapter 13: Measurement of Interest Rate Risk for ALM This chapter discussed the primary techniques used to measure interest rate risk: Gap reports, Rate shift scenarios and Simulations Chapter 14: Funding Liquidity Risk in ALM The measurement of liquidity risk is broken into three groups: expected, unusual and crisis events. Measurement techniques are given for each group. Chapter 15: Funds Transfer Pricing and the Management of ALM Risks A key use of asset/liability measurement is the calculation of the fair price at which funds should be lent from one department to another within a bank. This is one of the keys to integrated risk measurement and is a critical component in measuring risk-adjusted profitability and setting prices to customers. A typical balance sheet is used to illustrate how transfer pricing works in detail. CREDIT RISK SECTION Chapter 16: Introduction to Credit Risk This chapter discusses the sources of credit risk and how measurement is used to manage the risks Chapter 17: Types of Credit Structure For readers who are unfamiliar with lending operations, we discuss the ways that credit exposures are structured in commercial and retail lending. It also describes the calculation of credit exposure for derivatives trading operations and gives an overview of credit derivatives. Chapter 18: Risk Measurement for a Single Facility This chapter shows how the Expected Loss and Unexpected Loss for a loan can be calculated from the Probability of Default, Loss In the Event of Default, Exposure at Default and the Grade Migration Matrix. Chapter 19: Estimating Parameter Values for Single Facilities One of the main difficulties in credit risk measurement is the estimation of values for Probability of Default, Loss Given Default and Exposure at Default. This chapter discusses estimation techniques such as Discriminant Analysis and the Merton Model. It also gives parameter values that can be used as the basis for the reader’s own models. The parameter values are used in examples to demonstrate how the credit risk calculations are used. Chapter 20: Risk Measurement For A Credit Portfolio: Part One To estimate the overall risk for a portfolio many credit instruments, we must examine the correlation between losses. This chapter describes the Covariance Credit Portfolio Model and the different approaches available for estimating default correlations. It also describes how the correlations can be used to estimate the Unexpected Loss Contribution and the Economic Capital for a single facility within a portfolio. Chapter 21: