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Urban Heat Island Modelling For Tropical Climates

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Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates

Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates Book
Author : Ansar Khan,Soumendu Chatterjee,Yupeng Wang
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-11-17
ISBN : 0128225580
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates takes into account the different urban physics in tropical environments, presenting a way of UHI scaling for tropical cities. Topics include measuring, modeling and proper mitigation strategies, which account for the surface energy balance of tropics. Tropical cities are more susceptible to the effects of projected global warming because of conditions in tropical climates and the rapid growth of so many cities in this zone. The need for research on measuring, modeling and mitigation of UHI effects in tropical cities is of growing importance. This book walks through the basics of Urban Heat Islands, including causes, measurement and analysis then expands upon issues as well as the novel techniques that can be used to address issues specific to the region. Reviews topics related to understanding the fundamentals of modeling and impacts of urban heat islands Covers many techniques, from remote sensing, to numerical modeling and then applying them to urban climate studies in general, and in tropical cities Describes the scaling of urban heat islands based on long-term seasonal thermal parameters as feature-based classification systems using a probabilistic and fuzzy logic approach, unlike local climate zones (LCZs)

Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design

Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design Book
Author : Baruch Givoni
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 1998-01-20
ISBN : 9780471291770
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design Baruch Givoni Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design is the most comprehensive, up-to-date reference available on building and urban climatology. Written in clear, common-sense language by Baruch Givoni, the leading authority in the field, this book is a far-reaching look at a variety of climatic influences and their effects on individuals, buildings, and communities. Aimed at architecture and urban planning professionals and students alike, Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design offers real-life solutions to climatological site planning and design issues, helping to settle disputes about site orientation, site organization, and the assembly of building materials. Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design is organized into three parts. The first, Building Climatology, analyzes human thermal comfort and the effect of architectural and structural design features including layout, window orientation, and shading, and ventilation conditions on the indoor climate. Then, Urban Climatology explores the ways in which the climate in densely built areas can differ from surrounding regional climactic conditions, for example, in temperature, wind speed, and humidity. This part further explores the effects of urban design elements, such as urban density and building height, on a city's outdoor climate. Finally, Building and Urban Design Guidelines applies the body of available research on building climatology and the effects of physical planning on the urban and indoor climates to suggest design guidelines for different regions--for example, hot-dry and hot-humid climates. Filled with lists, tables, and graphs for easy cross-referencing, as well as hundreds of visuals, Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design offers readers the ability to perform a quick check of a proposed scheme against authoritative criteria. Mr. Givoni's latest volume is a unique, indispensable guide to the relationship between building design, urban planning, and climate.

Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies in an Arid Climate In Outdoor Thermal Comfort Reacheable

Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies in an Arid Climate  In Outdoor Thermal Comfort Reacheable Book
Author : Suaad Ridha
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Numerous studies over the past several decades focused on the effect of the Urban Heat Island. Initial efforts on understanding the factors affecting UHI contributed to proceed the appropriate solutions and mitigation strategies. Mitigation strategies comprise increase both urban albedo (reflectivity to solar radiation), and evapotranspiration. Albedo increases are obtained through high albedo roofing and paving technologies. An increase in evapotranspiration is achieved through a combination of decreasing the fraction of impervious surfaces and planting vegetation in urban areas. The outdoor thermal comfort is influenced by the perception and satisfaction of the pedestrians, especially in hot and arid climates. Consequently, this work focuses on the appropriate methods for reducing the Urban Heat Island and thus to enhance the pedestrians outdoor thermal comfort. However, there is limited research conducted on the outdoor thermal comfort in hot and arid climate. The studies on the mitigation the Urban Heat Island and the outdoor thermal comfort are almost non-existent for Baghdad city. Baghdad has a complex urban fabric with modern design constructions buildings, traditional and heritage houses. The climate in summer is hot, and summer months are considered the longest season with nearly 7 months of the year. This study focuses on investigating possible mitigation strategies to ensure how pedestrian comfort is affected by the constructions design choices comparing a traditional district to a modern one, and on how vegetation and shading patterns contribute to reducing the effect of UHI and improving the outdoor thermal comfort. Four different scenarios are designed to assess the role of vegetation elements such as trees, grass, and different shading patterns. The evaluation was performed on the hottest day in summer, the mean radiant temperature, specific humidity, air temperature, and wind speed distributions have been analyzed using ENVI-met software. Thermal comfort is assessed using the thermal indices the Physiological Equivalent Temperature PET and the Predicted Mean Vote PMV. Also, a proposal model is designed to evaluate the thermal comfort on the hottest day and the typical day in summer. The results revealed an improvement on thermal comfort in the typical day in summer. The study shows how the urban factors such as the aspect ratio, vegetation cover, shadings, and geometry of the canyon are crucial elements that urban planners and municipalities have to take into account, especially for new urban developments in hot, arid climate.

Tropical Urban Heat Islands

Tropical Urban Heat Islands Book
Author : Nyuk Hien Wong,Yu Chen
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2008-08-29
ISBN : 113422110X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Conventional air conditioning is not a sustainable solution to the challenge of a hot or humid climate. The climate problem is compounded in so-called Urban Heat Islands, urban areas where the air can be 3–5°C hotter than its surrounding areas and where pollution levels are consequently raised. Including a colour section with thermal images and maps, this book explores the complex relationships between climate, buildings and plants, especially in urban heat islands. These relationships bear very critically on a range of environmental issues and point to some corresponding solutions. One chapter highlights some of the extensive research work carried out in Singapore, especially investigating the thermal benefits of greenery in buildings in the urban setting. Though several books have been written on urban heat islands, this work uniquely examines the linkages between climate, buildings and plants. It forms a reference for researchers and professionals such as architects, architectural science, landscape architects, building services engineers, urban planners and urban climatologists. It may also be useful for final year undergraduates or graduate students in these disciplines.

Designing High density Cities for Social and Environmental Sustainability

Designing High density Cities for Social and Environmental Sustainability Book
Author : Edward Ng
Publisher : Earthscan
Release : 2009-12-16
ISBN : 1849774447
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Compact living is sustainable living. High-density cities can support closer amenities, encourage reduced trip lengths and the use of public transport and therefore reduce transport energy costs and carbon emissions. High-density planning also helps to control the spread of urban suburbs into open lands, improves efficiency in urban infrastructure and services, and results in environmental improvements that support higher quality of life in cities. Encouraging, even requiring, higher density urban development is a major policy and a central principle of growth management programmes used by planners around the world. However, such density creates design challenges and problems. A collection of experts in each of the related architectural and planning areas examines these environmental and social issues, and argues that high-density cities are a sustainable solution. It will be essential reading for anyone with an interest in sustainable urban development.

Regional Assessment of Climate Change in the Mediterranean

Regional Assessment of Climate Change in the Mediterranean Book
Author : Antonio Navarra,Laurence Tubiana
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-02-28
ISBN : 9400757697
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is the third volume of a three-volume final report, which thoroughly describes, synthesizes and analyzes the results of the four-year Integrated Research Project CIRCE – Climate Change and Impact Research: Mediterranean Environment, funded by the EU 6th Framework Programme. Conducted under the auspices of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome, Italy, the study was designed to predict and to quantify the physical impacts of climate change in the Mediterranean, and to assess the most influential consequences for the population of the region.

Fundamentals of the Physical Environment

Fundamentals of the Physical Environment Book
Author : Peter Smithson,Kenneth Addison,Kenneth Atkinson
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2002
ISBN : 9780415232944
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fundamentals of the Physical Environmenthas established itself as a highly-respected core introductory textbook for students of physical geography and environmental sciences. The third edition of this popular textbook has been extensively revised to incorporate current thinking and knowledge in the area of physical geography and the environment whilst retaining its basic structure. The nature of Earth and its oceans, the main processes of geomorphology and elements of ecosystems (soils and vegetation) are all explained. The structure of the book follows that of previous editions but chapters are arranged within new sections entitled Fundamentals, Atmosphere, Geosphere, Biosphere and Environments. New illustrations and diagrams have been added in most chapters. Colour has been added in the diagrams to enhance the information displayed. This is particularly useful in maps where tonal variations give a clearer idea of the patterns indicated. Boxes are used extensively to indicate areas of special interest and illustrate key processes, new concepts, developments, applications or human impacts.

Modelling in Geography

Modelling in Geography Book
Author : Reginald William Thomas,Richard J. Huggett
Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield
Release : 1980
ISBN : 9780389200499
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

To find more information about Rowman and Littlefield titles, please visit www.rowmanlittlefield.com.

An Urban Approach To Climate Sensitive Design

An Urban Approach To Climate Sensitive Design Book
Author : Rohinton Emmanuel
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release : 2012-08-06
ISBN : 1134314892
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The need to respond to the rapidly changing city climate is particularly urgent in the tropics where the urban transition is currently at its peak. While the need is clearly felt by the tropical urban dwellers, texts that provide an overview of the problem and indicate possible design solutions are rare. This comprehensive reference will be welcomed by student and practising architects as well as other built envronment professionals engaged with the environmental effects of building in worldwide warm and humid climates.

Solar Energy at Urban Scale

Solar Energy at Urban Scale Book
Author : Benoit Beckers
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-03-04
ISBN : 1118614364
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Increasing urbanization throughout the world, the depletion offossil fuels and concerns about global warming have transformed thecity into a physical problem of prime importance. This bookproposes a multi-disciplinary and systematic approach concerningspecialities as different as meteorology, geography, architectureand urban engineering systems, all surrounding the essentialproblem of solar radiation. It collects the points of view of 18 specialists from around theworld on the interaction between solar energy and constructions,combining territorial, urban and architectural scales to betterregulate energetic efficiency and light comfort for the sustainablecity. The main subjects covered are: measures and models of solarirradiance (satellite observations, territorial and urban groundmeasurements, sky models, satellite data and urban mock-up),radiative contribution to the urban climate (local heat balance,radiative-aerodynamics coupling, evapotranspiration, Urban HeatIsland), light and heat modeling (climate-based daylight modeling,geometrical models of the city, solar radiation modeling for urbanenvironments, thermal simulation methods and algorithms) and urbanplanning, with special considerations for solar potential, solarimpact and daylight rights in the temperate, northern and tropicalclimates, and the requirement of urban solar regulation. Contents 1. The Odyssey of Remote Sensing from Space: Half a Century ofSatellites for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard. 2. Territorial and Urban Measurements, Marius Paulescu and ViorelBadescu. 3. Sky Luminance Models, Matej Kobav and Grega Bizjak. 4. Satellite Images Applied to Surface Solar Radiation Estimation,Bella Espinar and Philippe Blanc. 5. Worldwide Aspects of Solar Radiation Impact, BenoitBeckers. 6. Local Energy Balance, Pierre Kastendeuch. 7. Evapotranspiration, Marjorie Musy. 8. Multiscale Daylight Modeling for Urban Environments, JohnMardaljevic and George Janes. 9. Geometrical Models of the City, Daniel G. Aliaga. 10. Radiative Simulation Methods, Pierre Beckers and BenoitBeckers. 11. Radiation Modeling Using the Finite Element Method, Tom vanEekelen. 12. Dense Cities in the Tropical Zone, Edward Ng. 13. Dense Cities in Temperate Climates: Solar and Daylight Rights,Guedi Capeluto. 14. Solar Potential and Solar Impact, Frédéric Monetteand Benoit Beckers. Appendix 1. Table of Europe’s Platforms (Micro- andMinisatellites) for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard. Appendix 2. Commercial Operators of Earth Observation (EO)Satellites (as of January 1, 2012), Théo Pirard. Appendix 3. Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget, BenoitBeckers.

Desert Development

Desert Development Book
Author : Yehuda Gradus
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9400953968
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The fact that approximately one-third of the world's land mass is arid desert may be congenial for the camel and the cactus, but not for people. Nevertheless, well over half a billion people, or 15% of the world's population live in arid desert areas. If the world's population were distributed evenly over the land surface, we would expect to find about 30% of the population inhabiting arid desert areas. Does the fact that 'only' 15% of the world's population live in an arid desert environment reflect the harshness of the environment? Or is it a testimony to the adaptability and ingenuity of mankind? Do we view the glass as half-full? Or half-empty? The contributors to Desert Development: Man and Technology in Sparselands adopt the position that the cup is half-full and, in fact, could be filled much more. Indeed, many arid desert zones do thrive with life, and given appropriate technological develop ment, such areas could support even greater popUlations. While the dire Malthusian prediction that rapid world population growth exceeds the carrying capacity of existent resource systems has gained popularity (typified by the 1972 Club of Rome book, Limits to Growth), there is a growing body of serious work which rejects such pessimistic 'depletion' models, in favor of models which are mildly optimistic.

Heat Islands

Heat Islands Book
Author : Lisa Mummery Gartland
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2012-05-16
ISBN : 1136564209
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Heat islands are urban and suburban areas that are significantly warmer than their surroundings. Traditional, highly absorptive construction materials and a lack of effective landscaping are their main causes. Heat island problems, in terms of increased energy consumption, reduced air quality and effects on human health and mortality, are becoming more pressing as cities continue to grow and sprawl. This comprehensive book brings together the latest information about heat islands and their mitigation. The book describes how heat islands are formed, what problems they cause, which technologies mitigate heat island effects and what policies and actions can be taken to cool communities. Internationally renowned expert Lisa Gartland offers a comprehensive source of information for turning heat islands into cool communities. The author includes sections on cool roofing and cool paving, explains their benefits in detail and provides practical guidelines for their selection and installation. The book also reviews how and why to incorporate trees and vegetation around buildings, in parking lots and on green roofs.

The Weather and Climate of Southern Africa

The Weather and Climate of Southern Africa Book
Author : Peter Daughtrey Tyson,P. D. Tyson,R. A. Preston-Whyte
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2000
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Weather and Climate of Southern Africa, the second edition of The Atmosphere and Weather of Southern Africa, further consolidates and expands Tyson and Preston-Whyte's in-depth textbook on the meteorology of southern Africa. It offers an introduction to the structure of the atmosphere, anddetailed, well-illustrated discussions on the physics of meteorology, measurement, weather systems, ocean-atmosphere interactions, pollution, climactic change, and forecasting. With a new emphasis on the growing field of climatology, this book is especially pertinent to environmental studies in andon the developing countries of southern Africa, and the relationship of the subcontinent to global weather and climatic changes.

Climates and Societies A Climatological Perspective

Climates and Societies   A Climatological Perspective Book
Author : M. Yoshino,Manfred Domrös,Annick Douguédroit,J. Paszynski,L.C. Nkemdirim
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 9401710554
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The impact of climate on human activities and the effect of humans on cli mate are two of the most important areas of inquiry in climatology. These interactions conducted through physical, chemical and biological process es were described as early as Roman and Greek times. Marcus Vitruvius (75-25 B. C. ), a famous Roman engineer and architect, made the following observation about the climatic conditions necessary for founding a city: Land ideal for the health is slightly elevated and there should be neither fog nor frost. The direction of the slope and the distance to the swamps, lakes, and beaches must also be considered. The prevailing wind directions, observed by a wind tower at the center of the city, like Horologium at Athens, should be taken into consideration in city planning. The main and narrow streets should be placed in the middle angle of the two prevailing wind directions. Then the location of the Pantheons and squares should be decided. The influence of humans on climate was a major subject for discussion in the 19th century, inspired in part, by the rapid industrial growth and expanding deforestation of the time. D. L. Howard wrote brilliant pieces on the climate of London in the 1830s, while G . P. Marsh discussed the effects of forests on precipitation in the U. S . A. in the second half of the 19th century.

Climate Conscious Low Energy Tropical Built Environment Penerbit USM

Climate Conscious Low Energy Tropical Built Environment  Penerbit USM  Book
Author : Abdul Malek Abdul Rahman ,Karam Mustafa Al-Obaidi
Publisher : Penerbit USM
Release : 2019-08-09
ISBN : 9674613366
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Climate Conscious Low-Energy Tropical Built Environment is a welcome addition to the knowledge on green and sustainable architecture. Both the authors shared their vast knowledge and experience on low-energy and passive solar design. The approach is on the technology adapted and applied to ‘welcoming the sun’ as well as to ‘rejecting the sun’, with the emphasis on the passive elements design. As the world now is facing the rapid increase of population, the architects need to consider the future path of the built environment. A good knowledge in low-energy built environment in order to sustain the well-being of the earth is essential, before considering on the aspects of mechanical components. This book is written in a clear and engaging style to suit all readers, the architecture and built environment students and professions as well as readers in general. As there are many books on this topic, but none emphasize the context of tropical climate. This is the first book on the low-energy built environment within the context of tropical climate. Abdul Malek Abdul Rahman was interested in indoor thermal comfort while researching his PhD topic on “Design for Natural Ventilation in Low-Cost Housing in Tropical Climate”. With a firm belief that to be thermally comfortable without mechanical aids in tropical climates, one should be under shade and receiving ample air movement concurrently, which is not naturally possible. Therefore, he sets out for further researches, literatures and acute observations on this issue. With university research funds, he investigated in hypothesis and experimented on low-cost cooling technologies, attended and read books and references on related topics. Equipped with reliable cameras, he captured ideas and happenings spontaneously to confirm his conviction. He believes that in order to re-examine the philosophy of energy efficient architectural design, one has to detach oneself from architecture and to understand other related disciplines (mechanical engineering, to be exact) in order to value add and upgrade the architecture towards sustainability. He finds the future is very challenging on this issue as population increase is real and that when left uncheck would affect the comfort of human psyche. Technology now is the solution and research must include latest technology available during the particular time of change. Karam Mustafa Al-Obaidi has interest in architectural design systems specifically in the tropics. He focuses on dynamic environment in relation with surroundings. His research is towards energy and how it influences the architectural form. With university research funds, he implemented experimental investigation to obtain reliable examination of the built environment. The future of architecture in terms of technology is challenging in this tropical region. He finds that understanding energy in both consumption and efficiency is limited due to the climatic constraints. Therefore, he believes that creating a platform to integrate related disciplines could provide solutions regarding the issue of energy efficiency. In his opinion, nature is the main source of inspiration, thus designing models that respond to tropical environment could provide comfort and durability for users and buildings.

Climates of the British Isles

Climates of the British Isles Book
Author : Elaine Barrow,Mike Hulme
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2014-01-14
ISBN : 1317973755
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Our understanding of climate and its role in human affairs has changed markedly over recent years, as have climate observation systems and modelling capabilities. Reliance on recent weather statistics to provide a guide for future climate is no longer viable. Evidence of human-induced climate change has placed climate high on political and the media agendas. Climates of the British Isles provides a comprehensive account of what we know about climate and changing climates at the end of the twentieth century. Integrating the historical and geographical dimensions of climate, the crucial link between past and future climatic conditions is examined through the geographical lens of the British Isles. Climates of past ages are reconstructed and full descriptions of present climate are illustrated by a wealth of graphs, maps and images. Important climate data sets are provided. Marking the twenty-fifth anniversary of the internationally acclaimed Climatic Research Unit, this book distils much of the leading research of present and recent members of the unit and presents an authoritative, accessible view of climatic change and prospects for the next millenium and beyond.

21st Century Geography

21st Century Geography Book
Author : Joseph P. Stoltman
Publisher : SAGE
Release : 2011-10-20
ISBN : 141297464X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is a theoretical and practical guide on how to undertake and navigate advanced research in the arts, humanities and social sciences.

AS Level Geography

AS Level Geography Book
Author : Ann Bowen,John Pallister
Publisher : Heinemann
Release : 2000
ISBN : 9780435352837
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This work aims to combine comprehensive coverage of the full range of topics with a flexible approach to learning. It covers basic geographical skills and offers help with revision and exam techniques.