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Underground Pipeline Corrosion

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Underground Pipeline Corrosion

Underground Pipeline Corrosion Book
Author : Mark Orazem
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-02-17
ISBN : 0857099264
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, numerical simulations for cathodic protection of pipelines, and use of corrosion inhibitors in managing corrosion in underground pipelines. The methods described in part two for detecting corrosion in underground pipelines include: magnetic flux leakage, close interval potential surveys (CIS/CIPS), Pearson surveys, in-line inspection, and use of both electrochemical and optical probes. While the emphasis is on pipelines transporting fossil fuels, the concepts apply as well to metallic pipes for delivery of water and other liquids. Underground Pipeline Corrosion is a comprehensive resource for corrosion, materials, chemical, petroleum, and civil engineers constructing or managing both onshore and offshore pipeline assets; professionals in steel and coating companies; and academic researchers and professors with an interest in corrosion and pipeline engineering. Reviews the causes and considers the detection and prevention of corrosion to underground pipes Addresses a lack of current, readily available information on the subject Case studies demonstrate how corrosion is managed in the underground pipeline industry

A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion

A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion Book
Author : George B. McComb
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1967
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Download A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion book written by George B. McComb, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion

A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1961
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion

A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1958
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion

Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1959
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion

A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1960
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Corrosion of Underground Pipeline and Cathodic Protection

Corrosion of Underground Pipeline and Cathodic Protection Book
Author : Katsutomo Okamoto
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 198?
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Corrosion of Underground Pipeline and Cathodic Protection book written by Katsutomo Okamoto, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion

Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1958
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Optimization of Corrosion in Underground Pipeline with Special Emphasis on Cathodic Protection and Its Effect on Design Operating and Maintenance Cost

Optimization of Corrosion in Underground Pipeline with Special Emphasis on Cathodic Protection and Its Effect on Design Operating and Maintenance Cost Book
Author : Jayanti K. Patel
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1976
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Optimization of Corrosion in Underground Pipeline with Special Emphasis on Cathodic Protection and Its Effect on Design Operating and Maintenance Cost book written by Jayanti K. Patel, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Guidelines for Predicting the Remaining Life of Underground Pipe Networks that are Subjected to the Combined Effects of External Corrosion and Internal Pressure

Guidelines for Predicting the Remaining Life of Underground Pipe Networks that are Subjected to the Combined Effects of External Corrosion and Internal Pressure Book
Author : Christoffel Gerhardus Van Deventer
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2002
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Guidelines for Predicting the Remaining Life of Underground Pipe Networks that are Subjected to the Combined Effects of External Corrosion and Internal Pressure book written by Christoffel Gerhardus Van Deventer, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion

A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1957
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Modelling of External Corrosion Propagation for Buried Pipelines Based on Stochastic Processes

Modelling of External Corrosion Propagation for Buried Pipelines Based on Stochastic Processes Book
Author : Hui Wang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pipelines are considered to be the most favored and reliable mode for transporting large quantities of gas/liquid. In recent years, because the pipelines are interconnected at a national and global level and because of increasing economic and regulatory constraints in dealing with aging and corroded pipeline systems, pipeline integrity management is an area of increasing relevance in the petroleum industry. Metal deterioration caused by corrosive soil is one of the major threats to the integrity of underground pipeline systems. External localized corrosion is one of the most common defects that can occur under normal operating conditions.In this Dissertation, we consider the external corrosion in pipeline structures in a probabilistic and dynamic manner. Multiple uncertainties from soil environment, pipeline structure, inspection process and maintenance are considered. The correlation between the spatial distribution of the external corrosion defects and the heterogeneous soil properties has been investigated. The correlation analysis is conducted by employing clustering techniques. As for the time domain, the long-time corrosion process is considered as a dynamic stable evolution process which contains three stages: nucleation, propagation and repassivation. In this study, the uncertainties introduced by the in-line inspections are investigated by using calibration methods and detection theories. Both random error and systematic error are assessed. Finally, a comprehensive pipeline maintenance strategy is proposed as an integrated solution to improve the efficiency of inspections and maintenances in industry practice.The contributions of this dissertation include: 1) a probabilistic model for the prediction of metal loss rate in underground pipeline structure is proposed. The model is able to account for the model uncertainty which comes from the imperfect prior knowledge and estimate the PDF of metal loss rate at a specified location. 2) A Bayesian approach for calibrating and estimating the actual external corrosion depth in buried pipeline structures based on an ultrasonic ILI inspection and the clustering technique was developed. We have taken the probability of defect existence into consideration. Hence a more realistic assessment of pipeline integrity can be achieved. 3) A clustering approach based on a hidden Markov random field is established for assessing the spatial distribution of external corrosion in a buried pipeline. The clustering approach presented in this study is easy to implement with the established ICM-EM algorithm. 4) A novel stochastic model framework for predicting the external corrosion growth in buried pipeline structures is presented and a time- and location- dependent maintenance strategy is established. We relate the soil properties with the corrosion growth propagation. The geometric Brownian bridge model was employed to present the corrosion rate evolution and hence is able to represent the inherent time-dependent dynamic property of corrosion growth.

Assessment of Soil Corrosion in Underground Pipelines Via Statistical Inference

Assessment of Soil Corrosion in Underground Pipelines Via Statistical Inference Book
Author : Ayako Yajima
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the oil industry, underground pipelines are the most preferred means of transporting a large amount of liquid product. However, a considerable number of unforeseen incidents due to corrosion failure are reported each year. Since corrosion in underground pipelines is caused by physicochemical interactions between the material (steel pipeline) and the environment (soil), the assessment of soil as a corrosive environment is indispensable. Because of the complex characteristics of soil as a corrosion precursor influencing the dissolution process, soil cannot be explained fully by conventional semi-empirical methodologies defined in controlled settings. The uncertainties inherited from the dynamic and heterogeneous underground environment should be considered.Therefore, this work presents the unification of direct assessment of soil and in-line inspection (ILI) with a probabilistic model to categorize soil corrosion. To pursue this task, we employed a model-based clustering analysis via Gaussian mixture models. The analysis was performed on data collected from southeastern Mexico. The clustering approach helps to prioritize areas to be inspected in terms of underground conditions and can improve repair decision making beyond what is offered by current assessment methodologies. This study also addresses two important issues related to in-situ data: missing data and truncated data. The typical approaches for treating missing data utilized in civil engineering are ad hoc methods. However, these conventional approaches may cause several critical problems such as biased estimates, artificially reduced variance, and loss of statistical power. Therefore, this study presents a variant of EM algorithms called Informative EM (IEM) to perform clustering analysis without filling in missing values prior to the analysis. This model-based method introduces additional cluster-specific Bernoulli parameters to exploit the nonuniformity of the frequency of missing values across clusters.In-line inspection tools (ILI) are commonly used for pipeline defect detection and characterization with advanced technologies such as magnetic flux leakage (MFL) and ultrasonic tools (UT). Each technology has its limitation for minimum detectable defect size. As a result, the data measured by different technologies are difficult to compare under the same modeling framework. In the present study, this problem will be addressed, considering two datasets measured by MFL and UT. Moreover, a truncated generalized exponential (TGE) distribution is introduced to describe the observed data. The non-informative Jeffreys' prior is used to establish the Bayesian updating algorithm, and the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is adopted to estimate the posterior distribution of model.

Underground Corrosion

Underground Corrosion Book
Author : Edward Escalante
Publisher : ASTM International
Release : 1981-06
ISBN : 9780803107038
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Underground Corrosion book written by Edward Escalante, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Study of Underground Oil Gas Pipeline Corrosion Pits Estimation Based on MFL Inspection Method

Study of Underground Oil Gas Pipeline Corrosion Pits Estimation Based on MFL Inspection Method Book
Author : Qi Jiang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The paper presents a new approach for detection of oil-gas pipeline corrosion pit defects in which pipeline magnetic flux leakage (MFL) detection system is adopted. To test the new approach, some artificial pits are fabricated on the surface of oil-gas pipes to simulate different pits happening in practice. The interference eliminating method is introduced for compensation of defected MFL field and helping map extraction from the background. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of identifying erosion pit defects are described in the paper.

Cathodic Protection of Underground Steel Pipelines by Using Sacrificial Anodes

Cathodic Protection of Underground Steel Pipelines by Using Sacrificial Anodes Book
Author : Mohd Saiful Nizam Mohamad
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Underground corrosion may cause serious damage to the underground steel pipelines structure. Cathodic protection (CP) method is the most important in order to prevent underground corrosion. In this project, Cathodic Protection by using sacrificial anodes technique will be used to the underground steel pipeline. In this project a study of the performance of magnesium and zinc anodes have been carried out. Besides that, in order to know the effect of coating to the corrosion rate, the specimens of steel pipe have been coats using paint. All of the specimens were buried in the soil with depth 0.2m, pH 5.49. Each sample undergoes underground exposure for 28 days before the surface morphology investigation was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). After the exposure period, cleaning process for all specimens follows prior to the final analysis. Corrosion rates were calculated using weight loss methods for all of the specimens. Magnesium sacrificial anode gives better protection to the steel pipe compare to the zinc anode. The result of the corrosion rate for cathodically protected coated steel pipe by using magnesium anode was lowest which is 0.80 mpy compared to the cathodically protected coated steel pipe with sacrificial zinc anode, the corrosion rate is 2.32 mpy. The result for coated steel pipe without using any anode is 2.71 mpy. The magnesium anode performance yield similar result to the cathodicaly protected for uncoated steel pipe. The corrosion rate for coated steel pipe is around 0.80 mpy to 2.71 mpy which is lowest compare to corrosion rate for uncoated steel pipe is around 9.86 mpy to 15.68 mpy. Surface morphology examinations indicate the type of corrosion occurred on the steel pipe was uniform corrosion and galvanic corrosion. In conclusion, the conjoint use of cathodic protection and coating takes advantage of the most attractive features of each method of corrosion control. Magnesium anodes proves to be more practical anode in applying Cathodic Protection for underground steel pipelines.

Corrosion

Corrosion Book
Author : L L Shreir
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 1483164128
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Corrosion, Volume 2: Corrosion Control deals with corrosion and corrosion control. Topics covered range from the design and economic aspects of corrosion to cathodic and anodic protection; pretreatment and design for metal finishing; protective action of metallic coatings; and methods of applying metallic coatings. Corrosion testing, monitoring, and inspection are also considered. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters; the first of which provides an overview of corrosion control, with emphasis on the classification of practical methods of corrosion control. Attention then turns to the economic aspects of corrosion; how corrosion control is implemented in chemical and petrochemical plants; and design considerations to prevent corrosion in buildings and structures. Design in marine engineering and in relation to welding and joining is also discussed. The chapters that follow focus on the principles and practical applications of cathodic and anodic protection; chemical and mechanical pretreatments for metal finishing; and design for corrosion protection by electroplated and paint coatings. Chemical conversion coatings and miscellaneous coatings such as vitreous enamel coatings are also considered. Finally, this book describes the conditioning of the atmosphere to reduce corrosion. Tables and specifications as well as terms and abbreviations are included. This book will be of value to students as well as workers and engineers involved in corrosion and corrosion control.

Ductile iron Pipe and Fittings

Ductile iron Pipe and Fittings Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : American Water Works Association
Release : 2002
ISBN : 1583212183
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides practical information about the design and installation of ductile iron pressure piping systems for water utilities. The 12 chapters outlines the procedure for calculating pipe wall thickness and class, and describes the types of joints, fittings, valves, linings, and corrosion protection a

Corrosion Tests and Standards

Corrosion Tests and Standards Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ASTM International
Release : 2022-01-20
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Prediction Model of Underground Corrosion on Steel Pipeline Using In situ Parameters

Prediction Model of Underground Corrosion on Steel Pipeline Using In situ Parameters Book
Author : Siti Nor Fariza Mior Mohd. Tahir
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Prediction Model of Underground Corrosion on Steel Pipeline Using In situ Parameters book written by Siti Nor Fariza Mior Mohd. Tahir, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.