Skip to main content

Tumor Microenvironment Regulates Tumor Expansion

In Order to Read Online or Download Tumor Microenvironment Regulates Tumor Expansion Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, Tuebl and Mobi you need to create a Free account. Get any books you like and read everywhere you want. Fast Download Speed ~ Commercial & Ad Free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library!

Tumor Microenvironment Regulation of Tumor Expansion

Tumor Microenvironment Regulation of Tumor Expansion Book
Author : Domenico Ribatti
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-04-04
ISBN : 0128228040
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Tumor Microenvironment Regulation of Tumor Expansion is a practical guide to understand and perform research on tumor microenvironments, and to support related clinical decisions. Tumor progression is linked to an imbalance between positive and negative regulators, and mainly depends on the release of specific growth factors by inflammatory or neoplastic cells. Inflammatory infiltrate contributes to tumor progression and the metastatic process, and there are many reports of associations between tumor inflammatory infiltrate, progression, and prognosis. Understanding different contexts of organs is a key factor in improving treatment outcome, especially in new therapeutic treatments targeting components of the tumor microenvironment. This book is a valuable resource for cancer researchers, clinicians, graduate students, and scientists in many biomedical fields who are interested in the complex relationship between the tumor microenvironment and its context in specific organs. Provides a holistic approach to understanding the crucial role of the tumor microenvironment in tumor progression Encompasses the basic knowledge necessary to understand and undertake further studies related to tumor microenvironments Discusses new therapeutic approaches developed to control tumor progression by targeting different components of the tumor microenvironment

Tumor Microenvironment

Tumor Microenvironment Book
Author : Alexander Birbrair
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-02-06
ISBN : 3030355829
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Revealing essential roles of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest research on how different signaling pathways are important in the tumor microenvironment. Multiple signaling pathways are covered, including S1P, neuregulin, Notch, erythropoietin, Rho-ROCK, mTOR, and more. Taken alongside its companion volumes, these books update us on what we know about various aspects of the tumor microenvironment as well as future directions. Tumor Microenvironment: Signaling Pathways – Part A is essential reading for advanced cell biology and cancer biology students as well as researchers seeking an update on research in the tumor microenvironment.

Oncoimmunology

Oncoimmunology Book
Author : Laurence Zitvogel,Guido Kroemer
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-12-13
ISBN : 3319624318
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

In this book, leading experts in cancer immunotherapy join forces to provide a comprehensive guide that sets out the main principles of oncoimmunology and examines the latest advances and their implications for clinical practice, focusing in particular on drugs with FDA/EMA approvals and breakthrough status. The aim is to deliver a landmark educational tool that will serve as the definitive reference for MD and PhD students while also meeting the needs of established researchers and healthcare professionals. Immunotherapy-based approaches are now inducing long-lasting clinical responses across multiple histological types of neoplasia, in previously difficult-to-treat metastatic cancers. The future challenges for oncologists are to understand and exploit the cellular and molecular components of complex immune networks, to optimize combinatorial regimens, to avoid immune-related side effects, and to plan immunomonitoring studies for biomarker discovery. The editors hope that this book will guide future and established health professionals toward the effective application of cancer immunology and immunotherapy and contribute significantly to further progress in the field.

Interaction between Hyaluronic Acid and Its Receptors CD44 RHAMM Regulates the Activity of Inflammation and Cancer

Interaction between Hyaluronic Acid and Its Receptors  CD44  RHAMM  Regulates the Activity of Inflammation and Cancer Book
Author : David Naor
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-07-18
ISBN : 2889199134
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The biological outcome of Hyaluronan (also hyaluronic acid, abbreviated HA) interaction with its CD44 or RHAMM receptors recently attracted much attention within the scientific community owing to a Nature article by Tian X et al. (Nature 2013; 499:346-9). The article described a life span exceeding 30 years in naked mole rats, whereas the maximal lifespan of mice, to which the naked mole rat is related, is only 4 years. This observation is accompanied by the finding that the naked mole rat, in contrast to the mouse, does not develop spontaneous tumors during this exceptional longevity. The article provides evidence that interaction of long tissue HA (6000-12,000 kDa) of the naked mole rat with cell surface CD44, in contrast to the interaction of short tissue HA (less than 3000 kDa) with the mouse CD44, makes the difference. More specifically, this communication shows that the interaction of short HA with fibroblasts’ CD44 imposes on them susceptibility for malignant transformation, whereas the corresponding interaction with long HA imposes on the fibroblasts a resistance to malignant transformation. The article does not explain the mechanism that underlines these findings. However, the articles, that will be published in the proposed Research Topic in the Inflammation section of Frontiers in Immunology, can bridge not only this gap, but also may explain why interaction between short HA and cell surface CD44 (or RHAMM, an additional HA receptor) enhances the development of inflammatory and malignant diseases. Furthermore, the articles included in the proposed Frontiers Research Topic will show that cancer cells and inflammatory cells share several properties related to the interaction between short HA and cell surface CD44 and/or RHAMM. These shared properties include: 1. Support of cell migration, which allows tumor metastasis and accumulation of inflammatory cells at the inflammation site; 2. Delivery of intracellular signaling, which leads to cell survival of either cancer cells or inflammatory cells; 3. Delivery of intracellular signaling, which activates cell replication and population expansion of either cancer cells or inflammatory cells; and 4. Binding of growth factors to cell surface CD44 of cancer cells or inflammatory cells (i.e., the growth factors) and their presentation to cells with cognate receptors (endothelial cells, fibroblasts), leading to pro-malignant or pro-inflammatory activities. Going back to the naked mole rat story, we may conclude from the proposed articles of this Frontiers Research Topic that the long HA, which displays anti-malignant effect, interferes with the above described pro-malignant potential of the short HA (perhaps by competing on the same CD44 receptor). Extrapolating this concept to Inflammation, the same mechanism (competition?) may be valid for inflammatory (and autoimmune) activities. If this is the case, long HA may be used for therapy of both malignant and inflammatory diseases. Moreover, targeting the interaction between short HA and CD44 (e.g. by anti-CD44 blocking antibodies) may display also a therapeutic effect on both malignant and inflammatory diseases, an issue that encourages not only fruitful exchange of views, but also practical experimental collaboration.

Cancer Associated Thrombosis

Cancer Associated Thrombosis Book
Author : Alok A. Khorana,Charles W. Francis
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2007-09-26
ISBN : 9781420048001
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Showcasing the expertise of top-tier specialists who contributed to the newly released guidelines for the care of thrombosis in cancer patients, this exciting guide was written and edited by members of the American Society of Clinical Oncology panel, (ASCO), on the prevention and treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis, among others, and provides an authoritative discussion of strategies to effectively implement and interpret the new ASCO/NCCN directives. Standing as the only up-to-date source to readily examine exciting new translational science findings regarding the biology of cancer-associated thrombosis, as well as new clinical recommendations, this guide supplies an authoritative and current discussion of the mechanisms, management, and prevention of cancer-associated thrombosis.

Innate and Adaptive Immunity in the Tumor Microenvironment

Innate and Adaptive Immunity in the Tumor Microenvironment Book
Author : Eitan Yefenof
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-12-20
ISBN : 140206750X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Traditionally, the interplay between cancer cells and host immunity has been studied systemically. Recent studies, however, indicate that the tumor microenvironment is unique in providing both supportive and inhibitory factors that determine the fate of the tumor and its host. This volume compiles reviews on innate and adaptive immune responses at the tumor microenvironment with emphasis on positive and negative outcomes that affect the progression of the disease.

Cancer Genome and Tumor Microenvironment

Cancer Genome and Tumor Microenvironment Book
Author : Andrei Thomas-Tikhonenko
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-01-23
ISBN : 9781441907110
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes had been traditionally studied in the context of cell proliferation, differentiation, senescence, and survival, four relatively cell-autonomous processes. Consequently, in the late ’80s-early ’90s, neoplastic growth was described largely as an imbalance between net cell accumulation and loss, brought about through mutations in cancer genes. In the last ten years, a more holistic understanding of cancer has slowly emerged, stressing the importance of interactions between neoplastic and various stromal components: extracellular matrix, basement membranes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells of blood and lymphatic vessels, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, etc. The commonly held view is that changes in tumor microenvironment are “soft-wired”, i.e., epigenetic in nature and often reversible. Yet, there exists a large body of evidence suggesting that well-known mutations in cancer genes profoundly affect tumor milieu. In fact, these non-cell-autonomous changes might be one of the primary reasons such mutations are preserved in late-stage tumors.

The Molecular Basis of Cancer E Book

The Molecular Basis of Cancer E Book Book
Author : John Mendelsohn,Peter M. Howley,Mark A. Israel,Joe W. Gray,Craig B. Thompson
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2014-01-04
ISBN : 0323261965
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Stay current with the latest discoveries in molecular and genomic research. Sweeping revisions throughout include eight brand-new chapters on: Tumor Suppressor Genes; Inflammation and Cancer; Cancer Systems Biology: The Future; Biomarkers Assessing Risk of Cancer; Understanding and Using Information About Cancer Genomes; The Technology of Analyzing Nucleic Acids in Cancer; Molecular Abnormalities in Kidney Cancer; and Molecular Pathology.

Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy Book
Author : Mansoor M. Amiji,Lara Scheherazade Milane
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-08-18
ISBN : 012823637X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Delivery Technologies for Immuno-Oncology: Volume 1: Delivery Strategies and Engineering Technologies in Cancer Immunotherapy examines the challenges of delivering immuno-oncology therapies. Immuno-oncology (IO) is a growing field of medicine at the interface of immunology and cancer biology leading to development of novel therapeutic approaches, such as chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) and immune checkpoint blockade antibodies, that are clinically approved approaches for cancer therapy. Although currently approved IO approaches have shown tremendous promise for select types of cancers, broad application of IO strategies could even further improve the clinical success, especially for diseases such as pancreatic cancer, brain tumors where the success of IO so far has been limited. Nanotechnology-based targeted delivery strategies could improve the delivery efficiency of IO agents as well as provide additional avenues for novel therapeutic and vaccination strategies. Additionally, a number of locally-administered immunogenic scaffolds and therapeutic strategies, such as the use of STING agonist, could benefit from rationally designed biomaterials and delivery approaches. Delivery Technologies for Immuno-Oncology: Volume 1: Delivery Strategies and Engineering Technologies in Cancer Immunotherapy creates a comprehensive treaty that engages the scientific and medical community who are involved in the challenges of immunology, cancer biology, and therapeutics with possible solutions from the nanotechnology and drug delivery side. Comprehensive treaty covering all aspects of immuno-oncology (IO) Novel strategies for delivery of IO therapeutics and vaccines Forecasting on the future of nanotechnology and drug delivery for IO

Sirtuin Biology in Cancer and Metabolic Disease

Sirtuin Biology in Cancer and Metabolic Disease Book
Author : Kenneth Maiese
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-02-20
ISBN : 0128224843
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Sirtuin Biology in Cancer and Metabolic Disease: Cellular Pathways for Clinical Discovery offers a compelling and thought-provoking perspective for the examination of the intriguing biology of sirtuins that ties cancer and metabolic disease together and provides a critical platform for the development of sirtuin-based novel therapeutic strategies to effectively treat cancer and metabolic disorders with precision in order to minimize any potentially detrimental clinical outcomes. An exciting prospect for the development of innovative therapeutics for cancer and metabolic disorders involves sirtuins. Sirtuins are histone deacetylases that have an intricate role in the onset and development of cancer and metabolic disease. Implementing a translational medicine format, this innovative reference highlights the ability of sirtuins to oversee critical pathways that involve stem cell maintenance, cellular proliferation, metabolic homeostasis, apoptosis, and autophagy that can impact cellular dysfunction and unchecked cellular growth that can occur during cancer and metabolic disease. Each chapter offers an intuitive perspective of advances on the application of sirtuin pathways for cancer and metabolic disease that will be become a "go-to" resource for a broad audience of scientists, physicians, pharmaceutical industry experts, nutritionists, and students. Chapters are authored by internationally recognized experts who elucidate the intimate relationship between cancer and metabolic disease that intersects with sirtuin pathways Presents the basic and clinical role of sirtuins in regard to cancer and metabolic disease Summarizes the multidiscipline views and publications for this exciting field of sirtuins for the development of new clinical treatments for cancer and metabolic disease Provides a vital foundation for a broad audience of healthcare providers, scientists, drug developers, and students in both clinical and research settings

The Tumor Microenvironment

The Tumor Microenvironment Book
Author : Rebecca G. Bagley
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-09-02
ISBN : 9781441966155
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The fact that tumors are composed of both tumor cells and host cells has long been known. These tumor-associated cells include vascular endothelial cells and pe- cytes, as well as inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells and eosinophils, and lymphocytes. The tumor cells also interact with stromal cells and with elements of the tissue extracellular matrix. What has been less appreciated is the role that these cells could have in modulating the growth, invasion, and metastasis of the tumor. Early on, the elements of what we now call the tumor microenvironment were considered to be more or less innocent bysta- ers to the role of the tumor cells as they grew and invaded local sites. Today, there is an increased understanding of the critical role of the tumor microenvironment as dramatically influencing the course of tumor development and dissemination. This volume represents a superb compilation of the latest thoughts and data regarding the role of each essential component of the tumor microenvironment in cancer development and progression. Perhaps, the earliest recognition of the role of nonmalignant cells as cancer re- lators was the recognition that lymphocytes can participate in what was termed “immune surveillance” in the 1960s. Our understanding of tumor immunity has improved markedly since then, and there are now successful clinical studies sh- ing the potential use of immune-based therapies in cancer treatment.

Immunotherapy of Cancer

Immunotherapy of Cancer Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-07-29
ISBN : 0128025549
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Immunotherapy of Cancer provides information on cancer research related to inflammation and immunity, containing outstanding reviews by experts in the field. It is suitable for researchers and students who have an interest in cancer immunobiology. Provides information on cancer research, including outstanding and original reviews Covers the current progress and emerging concepts in cancer inflammation, immunology, and immunotherapy Suitable for researchers and students studying, and interested in, the field of immunotherapy for cancer Ideal for those studying cancer inflammation, tumor immunology, cancer immunotherapy, dendritic cell, antigen presentation, immune checkpoint, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, macrophages, and tumor environments

Translational Research in Breast Cancer

Translational Research in Breast Cancer Book
Author : Erwei Song,Hai Hu
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-12-28
ISBN : 9811060207
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book offers a comprehensive introduction to translational efforts in breast cancer, addressing the latest approaches to precision medicine based on the current state of understanding of breast cancer. With the latest developments in breast cancer research, our understanding of the genomic changes and the oncogenic signaling cascade of breast cancer has made considerable strides. Further, the immuno-environment has been demonstrated as the barrier to clinical cancer. In addition, major advances in cancer biology, immunology, genomics and metabolism have broken new ground for designing therapeutic approaches and selecting appropriate treatments on the basis of more precise information on the individual patient. As a result of these two trends, a clearer picture of the molecular landscape of breast cancers has facilitated the development of diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for clinical oncology. All these aspects are addressed in this volume, which offers a comprehensive resource for researchers, graduate students and oncologists in cancer research.

Tumor Microenvironment and Myelomonocytic Cells

Tumor Microenvironment and Myelomonocytic Cells Book
Author : Subhra Biswas
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2012-03-30
ISBN : 953510439X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Tumor microenvironment represents an extremely dynamic niche shaped by the interplay of different cell types (e.g. tumor cells, stromal cells), their soluble products (e.g.cytokines, chemokines and growth factors) and varied physico-chemical conditions (e.g low oxygen concentration or hypoxia). Recent studies have identified myelomonocytic cells as key players in regulating the tumor microenvironment and hence, tumor progression in a variety of cancers. In view of these findings, the present book attemps to provide a comprehensive account of the diversity of tumor microenvironment across different cancers and how myelomonocytic cells have taken the center-stage in regulating this niche to direct cancer progression. A better understanding of the myelomonocytic cells and the mechanisms by which they regulate cancer progression will open new vistas in cancer therapeutics.

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy Book
Author : George C. Prendergast,Elizabeth M. Jaffee
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-06-04
ISBN : 0123946336
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

There has been major growth in understanding immune suppression mechanisms and its relationship to cancer progression and therapy. This book highlights emerging new principles of immune suppression that drive cancer, and it offers radically new ideas about how therapy can be improved by attacking these principles. Following work that firmly establishes immune escape as an essential trait of cancer, recent studies have now defined specific mechanisms of tumor immune suppression. It also demonstrates how attacking tumors with molecular targeted therapeutics or traditional chemotherapeutic drugs can produce potent anti-tumor effects in preclinical models. This book provides basic, translational, and clinical cancer researchers with an indispensable overview of immune escape as a critical trait in cancer and how applying specific combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to attack this trait may radically improve the treatment of advanced disease. Offers a synthesis of concepts that are useful to cancer immunologists and pharmacologists, who tend to work in disparate fields with little cross-communication Drs. Prendergast and Jaffee are internationally recognized leaders in cancer biology and immunology who have created a unique synthesis of fundamental and applied concepts in this important new area of cancer research Summarizes the latest insights into how immune escape defines an essential trait of cancer Includes numerous illustrations, including how molecular-targeted therapeutic drugs or traditional chemotherapy can be combined with immunotherapy to improve anti-tumor efficacy and how reversing immune suppression by the tumor can cause tumor regression

Metabolism of Cancer Cells and Immune Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment

Metabolism of Cancer Cells and Immune Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment Book
Author : Yongsheng Li,Bo Zhu
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-03-20
ISBN : 2889457850
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Metabolism of glucose, lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides represents the fundamental capability of host to utilize distinct nutrients and energy to support diverse function of different cell lineages. Cancer cells undergo the Warburg Effect to adapt to the microenvironment composed by stromal cells and immune cells. The crosstalk among cancer cells and immune cells orchestrate tumor progression. In the tumor microenvironment, immune cells also show metabolic reprogramming. For example, naive or memory T cells switch from the oxidation of fatty acids to glycolysis and glutaminolysis after activation; meanwhile massive glucose and glutamine are transported into cells to meet their metabolic demands. Defective glucose or glutamine metabolism impairs the differentiation and expansion of helper T cells. The molecular pathways that control immune cell metabolism and function are intimately linked. Understanding such metabolic reprogramming of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment could offer new directions in manipulation of peripheral immune responses. Recent findings in immune cell metabolism hold the promising possibilities by metabolic manipulation of immune cells towards clinical therapeutics for treating cancer. This Research Topic includes updated findings and views in the metabolism of cancer cells and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment.

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Tumor Stromal Modulators

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Tumor Stromal Modulators Book
Author : Marcela Bolontrade,Mariana García
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-10-24
ISBN : 0128031034
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Mesenchymal stromal/ stem cells (MSCs) represent a heterogeneous cell population with immunomodulating, tissue repairing, differentiating, migratory and angiogenic abilities, making them important tools for clinical and translational research. An understanding of the role of MSCs in modulating tumor growth provides a glimpse into their role in non-pathological tissue remodeling and potential regenerative tissue therapies. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Tumor Stromal Modulators is a comprehensive source for the understanding of the role of MSCs as ubiquitous connective tissue cell components, which may have both direct and indirect effects on the tumor microenvironment and potential for regenerative therapeutics for various diseases. Using cancer as a model disease, this book explores the transformative role MSCs play in the recruitment of disease cells, cell repair and immunological defenses. Explores the biology of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and tissue related function Discusses the bidirectional communication between tumor stroma and MSCs derived from bone marrow, from adipose tissue and from other tissue types Provides in-depth analysis of the effects of MSCs on key processes that regulate disease progression, such as angiogenesis, metastatic potential, invasion, proliferation, tumor immune privileges

Immunotherapy of Cancer

Immunotherapy of Cancer Book
Author : Mary L. Disis
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-10-28
ISBN : 1597450111
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Expert bench and clinical scientists join forces to concurrently review both the state-of-the-art in tumor immunology and its clinical translation into promising practical treatments. The authors explain in each chapter the scientific basis behind such therapeutic agents as monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, vaccines, and T-cells, and illustrate their clinical manipulation to combat cancer. Additional chapters address statistical analysis-both of clinical trials and assay evaluations-methods for the discovery of antigens, adoptive T cell therapy, and adaptive and innate immunity. The challenges in clinical trial design, the need for biomarkers of response-such as novel imaging techniques and immunologic monitoring-and the new advances and directions in cancer immunotherapy are also fully examined.

NK Myeloid Cell Interactions in the Tumor Microenvironment Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy

NK Myeloid Cell Interactions in the Tumor Microenvironment  Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy Book
Author : Erik Wennerberg,Andreas Lundqvist,Yumeng Mao,Dimitrios Mougiakakos
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-09-08
ISBN : 2889712710
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download NK Myeloid Cell Interactions in the Tumor Microenvironment Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy book written by Erik Wennerberg,Andreas Lundqvist,Yumeng Mao,Dimitrios Mougiakakos, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Role of TNF TNFR2 Signal in Immunosuppressive Cells and its Therapeutic Implications

The Role of TNF TNFR2 Signal in Immunosuppressive Cells and its Therapeutic Implications Book
Author : Xin Chen,Magdalena Plebanski
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-01-20
ISBN : 2889633063
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an indispensable role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis and prevention of autoimmune diseases, and represent a major cellular mechanism of tumor immune evasion. Targeting of Tregs has great potential in the treatment of some major human diseases, including autoimmunity, transplant rejection, GvHD, and cancer, and are critical controllers of immunity to infectious pathogens. It is expected they will also be central to the control of allergic and inflammatory diseases. Understanding the biological pathways crucial for the regulation of Treg activity is a prerequisite for harnessing the immense therapeutic potential of Tregs. TNF is generally believed to be a master pro-inflammatory cytokine, and anti-TNF therapy has become a mainstay treatment for some autoimmune diseases. However, experimental evidence indicates that TNF preferentially activates Tregs, resulting in the expansive proliferation, phenotypic stability, and enhanced suppressive capacity of these immune suppressors. This effect of TNF is mediated by TNFR2, which is preferentially expressed by human and mouse Tregs. Furthermore, expression of TNFR2 is able to identify the most suppressive subset of Tregs. Although counterintuitive and contradictory to earlier reports, these findings have been supported by increasing experimental evidence from both human and mouse studies. These recent studies revealing the Treg-promoting effect of TNF not only leads to the redefinition of the immunological biology of this pleiotropic cytokine, they are also helpful in designing novel therapies in the treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and GvHD, as well as enhancing current vaccines and immunomodulators. In this article collection, current knowledge on the cellular and molecular aspects of the Treg-stimulatory effect of the TNF-TNFR2 pathway will be discussed. An insight of the physiological and pathological roles of such effects of TNF in an inflammatory reaction and immune response will be provided. The seemingly contradictory Treg-promoting effect of TNF and immunosuppressive effect of anti-TNF therapy will be analyzed. Recent efforts to translate such discoveries into therapeutic benefits will be introduced. The novel strategies in the treatment of cancer and GvHD, by down- or up-regulation of Treg activity through targeting TNFR2, will be highlighted. In addition to Tregs, TNFR2 has also been found to play a key role in the accumulation and immunosuppressive function of myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) and Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Therefore, the current understanding of the role of TNF-TNFR2 signal in other type of immunosuppressive cells, as well as its clinical and therapeutic implications, have also been considered.