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Tritium Technologies For Thermonuclear Fusion Reactors

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Tritium Technologies for Thermonuclear Fusion Reactors

Tritium Technologies for Thermonuclear Fusion Reactors Book
Author : Alexander Perevezentsev,Mikhail Rozenkevich
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-06-02
ISBN : 0128243236
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Tritium Technologies for Thermonuclear Fusion Reactors summarizes the most recent research and practice in tritium technologies for the processing of hydrogen isotopes in fuel cycles. Authors Dr. Perevezentsev and Professor Rozenkevich combine their wealth of first-hand experience to present this comprehensive guide which promotes the best radiation protection practices and a more sustainable way to produce power in a thermonuclear reactor plant. Applicable to both magnetic and inertial confinements of plasma, this book covers tritium processing systems, tritium recovery from the plasma chamber, and various safety systems devoted to lessening the impact on the public and environment. The readers are also led through various modeling techniques, such as the separation of hydrogen isotopes, and the detritiation of liquid and gaseous streams in dynamic and steady state operation modes. This book is a practical guide which includes various case studies and examples which will help solidify the reader’s learning. It combines the latest research of tritium technologies with applications for fusion nuclear reactors, and includes solutions and directions for the resolution of various common challenges faced. Engineers, researchers, and students of tritium technologies, fusion energy, and nuclear power generation will gain a detailed and integrated understanding of how tritium can be used within a nuclear setting, for cleaner and more efficient power generation. Guides the reader through problem solving via step-by-step processes and models Includes case studies and examples throughout, from two of the most recognized experts in the field with firsthand knowledge of the subject Presents a comprehensive, practical reference on the tritium fuel cycle for fusion reactors

Tritium Fuel of Fusion Reactors

Tritium  Fuel of Fusion Reactors Book
Author : Tetsuo Tanabe
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-12-05
ISBN : 4431564608
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book focuses on tritium as a fuel for fusion reactors and a next-generation energy source. Following an introduction of tritium as a hydrogen radioisotope, important issues involved in establishing safe and economical tritium fuel cycles including breeding for a fusion reactor are summarized; these include the handling of large amounts of tritium: confinement, leakage, contamination, permeation, regulation and tritium accountancy, and impacts on surrounding areas. Targeting and encouraging the students and technicians who will design and operate fusion reactors in the near future, this book offers a valuable resource on tritium science and technology.

Safety in Tritium Handling Technology

Safety in Tritium Handling Technology Book
Author : F. Mannone
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9401119104
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The use of tritium as a basic fuel material in a thermonuclear fusion reactor raises particular safety issues due to the combined effects of its physico chemical properties and radioactive nature. Furthermore the possibility of attaining further significant progresses in developing and demonstrating the feasibility of tritium burning devices relies on the handling of tritium macroquantities, say ten grammes, in a safe and reliable manner. It is also undoubted that, apart from technological constraints, any validation and exploitation of thermonuclear fusion as a source of energy will be strongly conditioned by the application of stringent operational and environmental safety criteria as it derives from norms of the modern legislation and public acceptance considerations. Even if the safe handling of tritium has already been demonstrated to be feasible on a full fuel cycle scale, it is unanimously recognized that further efforts are still to be concentrated on the improvement of current concepts and development of advanced technologies. Some of the areas requiring substantial additional efforts are plasma exhaust fuel c1ean-up, tritium pellet injection, processing of inert carrier gas, development of large free-oil pumps,tritlUm process analytics, development of large detritiation systems, beryllium-tritium interaction studies, tritium hold-up studies in getter beds, adsorbers and structural materials, tritium recovery from first wall, structural and breeder materials for minimizing tritiated waste arising,tritium storage technology, tritiated waste disposal technolo~y, methodology for routine tritium accountancy,etc . . Most of them are intrinsically related to the safety requirement of tritium technology.

Predictive Methods and Analysis of Time Dependent Tritium Flow Rates and Inventories in Fusion Systems

Predictive Methods and Analysis of Time Dependent Tritium Flow Rates and Inventories in Fusion Systems Book
Author : marco riva
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In nuclear fusion reactors, tritium dynamics plays a dominant role. An unprecedented amount of tritium is consumed in Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) nuclear fusion reactors, ~0.5 kg per day for 3 GW fusion power. However, tritium is radioactive, has short half-life (~12.33 years), and is present in nature in negligible concentration. Because of tritium scarcity, future fusion power reactors must be self-sufficient, i.e. the reactor must have a closed fuel cycle where tritium is produced in greater amounts than it is consumed. Furthermore, nuclear fusion reactors must accumulate and provide tritium start-up inventory for the next generation of fusion power plants, since natural reserves of tritium are very limited. Moreover, because of its radioactive nature, tritium presents a serious hazard to the personnel and has implications to safety and nuclear licensing. Accurate predictive models of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle are required to effectively design the fuel cycle components, understand tritium dynamics in the fusion fuel cycle, and determine the technology and physics requirements to attain tritium self-sufficiency. Moreover, accurate predictions of tritium inventories and flow rates within fusion components, and estimations of tritium releases to the environment are necessary for nuclear licensing. In this dissertation, two numerical models are developed to perform tritium transport assessment within fusion systems. First, a high fidelity numerical model is developed to simulate time-dependent tritium transport within the reactor outer fuel cycle (OFC). Detailed (high resolution) component-level models, where constitutive transport equations are implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics and solved for various fusion sub-systems, are integrated into system-level with the use of MATLAB/Simulink S-Functions to reproduce typical OFC tritium streams. The model is applied to the KOrean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector Test Blanket System (KO-HCCR TBS) which will be tested in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). However, the developed model offers some flexibility and can be applied to other Test Blanket Module (TBM) designs. Second, the overall fusion fuel cycle is modeled analytically by a system of time-dependent zero-dimensional ordinary differential equations with the tritium mean residence time method. This technique yields results useful for understanding the overall fuel cycle dynamics and the importance of certain components and parameters. The analysis of tritium inventories and flow rates is extended to determine the physics and technology requirements to attain tritium self-sufficiency. In particular, the state-of-the-art plasma physics and technology parameters (e.g. tritium burn fraction, fueling efficiency, processing times, etc.) and up-to-date fuel cycle design are considered in the analysis. The tritium self-sufficiency assessment and tritium start-up inventory evaluation are performed to investigate: (i) the effect of the reactor operating scenario and availability factor, e.g. to account for random failures and ordinary maintenance, (ii) the scenarios for commercialization, e.g. risk associated with tritium reserve inventory reduction, (iii) the penetration of fusion energy into power market, e.g. effect of the doubling time, and (iv) the effect of reactor power on tritium start-up inventory, e.g. for plasma-based test facilities, DEMOnstration reactors (DEMO), and power reactors. The results highlight the physics and technology R&D requirements to attain fuel self-sufficiency in fusion reactors.

Proceedings of the Symposium on Tritium Technology Related to Fusion Reactor Systems

Proceedings of the Symposium on Tritium Technology Related to Fusion Reactor Systems Book
Author : W. H. Smith,W. R. Wilkes,L. J. Wittenberg
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1975
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Proceedings of the Symposium on Tritium Technology Related to Fusion Reactor Systems book written by W. H. Smith,W. R. Wilkes,L. J. Wittenberg, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Proceedings of the Symposium on Tritium Technology Related to Fusion Reactor Systems October 1 2 1974

Proceedings of the Symposium on Tritium Technology Related to Fusion Reactor Systems  October 1   2  1974 Book
Author : W. H. Smith,W. R. Wilkes,L. J. Wittenberg
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1975
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Proceedings of the Symposium on Tritium Technology Related to Fusion Reactor Systems October 1 2 1974 book written by W. H. Smith,W. R. Wilkes,L. J. Wittenberg, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Design Technology of Fusion Reactors

Design Technology of Fusion Reactors Book
Author : Minoru Akiyama
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 1991
ISBN : 9789971507275
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book contains the contributions of over 40 outstanding applied physicists from Japan specializing in this area of design technology. Among them are K Miya, S Yamamoto, M Ohnishi, Y Ogawa, Y Sakai, T Kuroda, H Nariai, K Miyazaki, H Madarame, M Saitoh.The topics discussed extensively include: Plasma; First Wall and Impurity Control Engineering; Blanket and Shield; Magnet; Heating; Power Supply; Tritium Systems; Fuel Supply System; Remote Handling; Vacuum System; Building; Cooling System; Fundamentals for Design Technology.

Tritium Interactions of Potential Importance to Fusion Reactor Systems

Tritium Interactions of Potential Importance to Fusion Reactor Systems Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1976
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The tritium technology requirements created by the controlled thermonuclear research program to develop a demonstration fusion power reactor by the year 2000 are reviewed. It is found that the majority of the technological advances which are needed to ensure adequate tritium containment in a tritium breeding power reactor need to be demonstrated on a pilot scale by approximately 1983, so that they may be incorporated into EPR-II, the second of two planned experimental power reactors. The most important advances include development of containment materials with permeabilities to tritium well below measured values for stainless steel; large scale, low inventory deuterium-tritium separation systems; and improved monitoring and assay systems. There are less critical requirements for information about the effects of tritium and helium on the mechanical properties of materials, the effects of tritium on biological systems, and data on physical and chemical properties of tritium. Substantial progress needs to be made on these problems early enough to permit possible solutions to be tested on EPR-I. In addition, major improvements in tritium handling equipment are required for EPR-I. Those technological problems for which solutions have not yet been demonstrated by EPR-II must be solved by 1989 if they are to be assured successful application in the demonstration reactor. (auth).

Physics and Technology of Tritium for Fusion Reactors

Physics and Technology of Tritium for Fusion Reactors Book
Author : International School of Plasma Physics "Piero Caldirola."
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1995
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Physics and Technology of Tritium for Fusion Reactors book written by International School of Plasma Physics "Piero Caldirola.", available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Radiation Effects and Tritium Technology for Fusion Reactors

Radiation Effects and Tritium Technology for Fusion Reactors Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1976
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Radiation Effects and Tritium Technology for Fusion Reactors book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Diagnostics Development on the Route Towards Fusion Reactors

Diagnostics Development on the Route Towards Fusion Reactors Book
Author : Didier Mazon
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2020-03-12
ISBN : 9783030305888
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thermonuclear fusion could offer a feasible and sustainable solution to future energy production needs. In this book, internationally prominent experts present lectures on their experiences with fusion reactors, sharing comprehensive information on diagnostic methods and how to interpret the results obtained with different methods. The lecturers focus on diagnostic developments for a tokamak demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) and for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which will face unprecedented challenges: as it uses tritium to fuel the reaction, it also produces extremely high temperatures, high-energy neutron flux and intense gamma radiation. The lectures cover a diverse range of topics, including magnetic fusion confinement (tokamak, stellerators), Inertial Confinement Fusion lasers, and plasma physics, with a particular focus on measurement applications and associated physics in connection with ITER and DEMO. They describe current developments in theory and experiments, while also discussing the fundamentals of this fusion reactor technology field. As such, the lectures offer a valuable resource for all students and researchers who are new to the field.

Principles of Fusion Energy

Principles of Fusion Energy Book
Author : A. A. Harms,Klaus F.. Schoepf,David Ross Kingdon
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2000
ISBN : 9789812380333
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This textbook accommodates the two divergent developmental paths which have become solidly established in the field of fusion energy: the process of sequential tokamak development toward a prototype and the need for a more fundamental and integrative research approach before costly design choices are made.Emphasis is placed on the development of physically coherent and mathematically clear characterizations of the scientific and technological foundations of fusion energy which are specifically suitable for a first course on the subject. Of interest, therefore, are selected aspects of nuclear physics, electromagnetics, plasma physics, reaction dynamics, materials science, and engineering systems, all brought together to form an integrated perspective on nuclear fusion and its practical utilization.The book identifies several distinct themes. The first is concerned with preliminary and introductory topics which relate to the basic and relevant physical processes associated with nuclear fusion. Then, the authors undertake an analysis of magnetically confined, inertially confined, and low-temperature fusion energy concepts. Subsequently, they introduce the important blanket domains surrounding the fusion core and discuss synergetic fusion-fission systems. Finally, they consider selected conceptual and technological subjects germane to the continuing development of fusion energy systems.

RADIATION EFFECTS AND TRITIUM TECHNOLOGY FOR FUSION REACTORS PROCEEDINGS OF AN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U S ERDA AMERICAN NUCLEAR SOCIETY NUCLEAR METALLURGY COMMITTE OF AIME 4 VOLS

RADIATION EFFECTS AND TRITIUM TECHNOLOGY FOR FUSION REACTORS  PROCEEDINGS OF AN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE  OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY  U S ERDA  AMERICAN NUCLEAR SOCIETY  NUCLEAR METALLURGY COMMITTE OF AIME  4 VOLS  Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021-12-04
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download RADIATION EFFECTS AND TRITIUM TECHNOLOGY FOR FUSION REACTORS PROCEEDINGS OF AN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U S ERDA AMERICAN NUCLEAR SOCIETY NUCLEAR METALLURGY COMMITTE OF AIME 4 VOLS book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Fusion Energy Update

Fusion Energy Update Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1986
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Fusion Energy Update book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Fusion Reactor Design

Fusion Reactor Design Book
Author : Takashi Okazaki
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2021-11-04
ISBN : 3527832947
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fusion Reactor Design Provides a detailed overview of fusion reactor design, written by an international leader in the field Nuclear fusion—generating four times as much energy from the same mass of fuel as nuclear fission—is regarded by its proponents as a viable, eco-friendly alternative to gas-fired, coal-fired, and conventional power plants. Although the physics of nuclear fusion is essentially understood, the construction of prototype reactors currently presents significant technical challenges. Fusion Reactor Design: Plasma Physics, Fuel Cycle System, Operation and Maintenance provides a systematic, reader-friendly introduction to the characteristics, components, and critical systems of fusion reactors. Focusing on the experimental Tokamak reactor, this up-to-date resource covers relevant plasma physics, necessary technology, analysis methods, and the other aspects of fusion reactors. In-depth chapters include derivations of key formulas, figures highlighting physical and structural characteristics of fusion reactors, illustrative numerical calculations, practical design examples, and more. Designed to help researchers and engineers understand and overcome the technological difficulties in making fusion power a reality, this volume: Provides in-depth knowledge on controlled thermonuclear fusion and its large-scale application in both current fusion reactors and future test reactors Covers plasma analysis, plasma equilibrium and stability, and plasma transport and confinement, and safety considerations Explains each component of fusion reactors, including divertors, superconducting coils, plasma heating and current drive systems, and vacuum vessels Discusses safety aspects of fusion reactors as well as computational approaches to safety aspects of fusion reactors Fusion Reactor Design: Plasma Physics, Fuel Cycle System, Operation and Maintenance is required reading for undergraduate and graduate students studying plasma physics and fusion reactor technology, and an important reference for nuclear physicists, nuclear reactor manufacturers, and power engineers involved in fusion reactor research and advanced technology development.

Alternative Fusion Fuels and Systems

Alternative Fusion Fuels and Systems Book
Author : Sergei V. Ryzhkov,Alexei Yu. Chirkov
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-11-13
ISBN : 0429679009
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Explores the systems of magnetic confinement of high-temperature plasma with closed and open magnetic field lines which relate to alternative compact devices of controlled thermonuclear fusion. Energy balance schemes of thermonuclear plasmas and main reactor characteristics are presented as the authors compare conceptual projects based on classical tokamak and stellarator, spherical tokamak and compact torus. They explore the questions and problems of new promising nuclear and thermonuclear power plants that source thermonuclear neutrons on a mixture of deuterium and tritium, and a low-radioactive reactor on a mixture of deuterium and helium-3.

Laser Plasmas and Nuclear Energy

Laser Plasmas and Nuclear Energy Book
Author : Heinrich Hora
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1468420852
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Most of this book was written before October 1973. Thus the statements concerning the energy crisis are now dated, but remain valid nevertheless. However, the term "energy crisis" is no longer the unusual new concept it was when the material was written; it is, rather, a commonplace expression for a condition with which we are all only too familiar. The purpose of this book is to point out that the science and technology of laser-induced nuclear fusion are an extraordinary subject, which in some way not yet completely clear can solve the problem of gaining a pollution-free and really inexhaustible supply of inexpensive energy from the heavy hydrogen (deuterium) atoms found in all terrestrial waters. The concept is very obvious and very simple: To heat solid deuterium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium (superheavy hydrogen) by laser pulses so rapidly that despite the resulting expansion and cooling there still take place so many nuclear fusion reactions tnat the energy produced is greater than the laser energy that had to be applied. Compression of the plasma by the laser radiation itself is a more sophisticated refinement of the process, but one which at the present stage of laser cechnology is needed for the rapid realization of a laser-fusion reactor for power generation. This concept of compression can also be applied to the development of completely safe reactors with controlled microexplosions of laser-compressed fissionable materials such as uranium and even boron, which fission completely safely into nonradioactive helium atoms.

Nuclear Science Abstracts

Nuclear Science Abstracts Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1975
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Nuclear Science Abstracts book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Chemistry of Fusion Technology

The Chemistry of Fusion Technology Book
Author : D. Gruen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461345952
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nuclear energy obtained from thermonuclear fusion of light nuclei is a goal to which an increasing world-wide effort is being committed. The demands on energy reserves and resources are continually increasing as ever more coun tries achieve modern industrial status. All projections agree that conventional means of energy production must be supplemented and indeed supplanted by new methods. Only the date at which the transition becomes imperative is subject to debate. The promise of fusion energy ultimately to pro vide a clean, cheap, dependable and potentially inexhaustible energy source augurs well for the future of the human race. If there were illusions at the start of the quest for controlled thermonuclear power that solutions would be easily found, the past two decades have dlspelled them. Unwarranted optimism has been replaced by a realistic recognition of the immense scientific and technological challenges that arise in bringing about practical fusion energy. Broadly speaking, problems can be put into two categories--those having to do with heating the fuel to thermonuclear temperatures at high enough particle densities and for sufficiently long confine ment times to yield a net power return and those having to do with the actual construction of a power producing fusion reactor.