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Toxicological Evaluation Of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems

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Toxicological Evaluation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Products

Toxicological Evaluation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Products Book
Author : Manuel Peitsch,Julia Hoeng
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-01-14
ISBN : 0128209356
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Toxicological Evaluation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Products (ENDP) discusses the scientific basis for the toxicological assessment and evaluation of ENDPs. The book covers aerosol chemistry, in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical studies. It provides the basis for the evaluation of short and long term-effects, along with relative risks. It also examines the potential role of ENDPs in tobacco harm reduction and how they may reduce the risk of disease in smokers who switch to them. This book is a comprehensive resource for toxicologists, health practitioners and public health professionals who want the scientific information necessary to assess the relative risk of ENDPs when compared with cigarette smoking and cessation. Delivers a comprehensive overview of current state of science Offers an integrated analysis of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products Provides guidance for methodologies

Comparative Risk Assessment of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems e cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes

Comparative Risk Assessment of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems   e cigarettes   and Conventional Cigarettes Book
Author : Jinsong Chen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Introduction: The use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) is controversial. Among the issues of concern is safety: some people think ECs are safer alternatives to conventional cigarettes (CCs), while others are concerned about the possible health effects of using ECs. Although many studies have identified hazards in EC emissions, there is only limited information about exposure levels and the likely health risks of using ECs. Methods: This study aimed to characterise the health risks of using ECs and compare them with the risks of using CCs by utilizing the U.S. EPA health risk assessment model. Hazards were identified and profiled (toxicological and exposure) using document review. The risk from exposure to hazards was thus identified and the overall health risks of using ECs and CCs were compared, and then benchmarked with international guideline levels for each hazard to evaluate whether the detected hazards might pose a significant health risk to users or not, given comparable exposures. Results: Exposures to toxicants of concern identified in EC emissions (acetaldehyde, acrolein, formaldehyde, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, cadmium, nickel, NNK, and NNN) are almost all far lower than in CC emissions, indicating EC use under standard use conditions is likely to be far safer than smoking. As most hazards’ exposure levels in EC emissions are lower than the defined guideline levels, ECs are also likely to be of low risk to health. Conclusions & Recommendations: The health risks of using ECs are lower than CCs. In a few studies of some ECs, some toxicant levels exceeded levels regarded as safe by international standards. However, studies of ECs lack standardisation in the assessment methods for EC product performance, usage patterns and exposure. Future studies should adhere to a standard methodology to enable ready comparisons. Regulation of EC manufacture and sales is needed to prevent the sale of low quality ECs. Lastly, health professionals and the general public need more information on ECs as safer alternatives to cigarette smoking.

Public Health Consequences of E Cigarettes

Public Health Consequences of E Cigarettes Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on the Review of the Health Effects of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2018-05-18
ISBN : 030946837X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Millions of Americans use e-cigarettes. Despite their popularity, little is known about their health effects. Some suggest that e-cigarettes likely confer lower risk compared to combustible tobacco cigarettes, because they do not expose users to toxicants produced through combustion. Proponents of e-cigarette use also tout the potential benefits of e-cigarettes as devices that could help combustible tobacco cigarette smokers to quit and thereby reduce tobacco-related health risks. Others are concerned about the exposure to potentially toxic substances contained in e-cigarette emissions, especially in individuals who have never used tobacco products such as youth and young adults. Given their relatively recent introduction, there has been little time for a scientific body of evidence to develop on the health effects of e-cigarettes. Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes reviews and critically assesses the state of the emerging evidence about e-cigarettes and health. This report makes recommendations for the improvement of this research and highlights gaps that are a priority for future research.

Electronic Cigarettes and Vape Devices

Electronic Cigarettes and Vape Devices Book
Author : Susan Chu Walley,Karen Wilson
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021
ISBN : 3030786722
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes), also known as vape devices or by trade names such as JUUL, are handheld devices that aerosolize liquid commonly containing nicotine, humectants and flavorings. Used by 1 in 5 high school students in 2020, they are the most common tobacco product used by youth. E-cigarette use has been associated with a variety of health issues such as nicotine addiction, e-cigarette or vaping associated lung illness (EVALI), seizures, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This first-of-its-kind book begins with an introduction and background on the historical context of tobacco products. The next chapters provide an overview of the e-cigarette landscape and reviews the e-cigarette devices and solutions and the evolution of these products. This is followed by reviews of the health effects of e-cigarettes on users and non-users and includes recommendations for prevention and treatment of youth e-cigarette use. The last few chapters address the public health impact of e-cigarettes with a review of the evidence of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation. The book closes with policy and advocacy approaches and a resource page. E-cigarette and vape device use pose a public health crisis. This book contains succinct practical information and is a key reference for pediatricians as well as clinicians of all specialities. It also serves as a resource for health professionals, including tobacco dependence treatment providers and public health experts.

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals Book
Author : Gunnar F. Nordberg,Max Costa
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-12-10
ISBN : 0128232935
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Fifth Edition, Volume I: General Considerations is the first volume of a two-volume work that gives an overview and reviews topics of general importance including reviews of various health effects of trace metals. The book emphasizes toxic effects in humans, along with discussions on the toxic effects of animals and biological systems in vitro when relevant. The book has been systematically updated with the latest studies and advances in technology and contains several new chapters. As a multidisciplinary resource that integrates both human and environmental toxicology, the book is a comprehensive and valuable reference for toxicologists, physicians, pharmacologists, and environmental scientists in the fields of environmental, occupational and public health. Contains peer-reviewed chapters that deal with the effects of metallic elements and their compounds on biological systems Includes information on sources, transport and the transformation of metals in the environment Covers the ecological effects of metals to provide a basis for better understanding of the potential for adverse effects on human health Provides critical information on the properties, use, biological monitoring, dose-response relationships, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of metallic elements and compounds

Case Studies in Medical Toxicology

Case Studies in Medical Toxicology Book
Author : Leslie R. Dye,Christine Murphy,Diane P. Calello,Michael D. Levine,Aaron Skolnik
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-12-22
ISBN : 3319564498
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ACMT National Case Conference (NCC) is a monthly discussion of novel or interesting cases in medical toxicology. Participation is through online webinar, and the conferences are recorded to allow for review at any time. The cases in this book are taken from recordings of NCC with edits and revisions by contributors and editors to demonstrate educational points. The majority of the case information is from the original recording and represents actual patient presentations. However, some of the details have been changed and fictional information added to enhance the educational value. This volume covers a broad range of toxicological topics, and specialty guidance is offered at the end of every case to aid non-toxicologists. The dilemmas are applicable to both academic and clinical medicine. A list of relevant questions is also provided for each case. Subjects include common toxicological problems, rare presentations of common problems, common problems with controversial treatments or difficult diagnoses, and rare problems. Case Studies in Medical Toxicology from the American College of Medical Toxicology is a detailed reference text on specific toxicological issues and also serves as a practical review for those taking board exams. As a result, this volume is an important and necessary resource for medical students, residents, and fellows, as well as primary-care physicians, intensivists, and toxicologistsCase Studies in Medical Toxicology from the American College of Medical Toxicology is a detailed reference text on specific toxicological issues and also serves as a practical review for those taking board exams. As a result, this volume is an important and necessary resource for medical students, residents, and fellows, as well as primary-care physicians, intensivists, and toxicologists. All proceeds from this book will be donated to the Medical Toxicology Foundation.

Biomarkers in Toxicology

Biomarkers in Toxicology Book
Author : Ramesh C. Gupta
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-02-13
ISBN : 0128146567
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomarkers in Toxicology, Second Edition, is a timely and comprehensive reference dedicated to all aspects of biomarkers that relate to chemical exposure and their effects on biological systems. This revised and completely updated edition includes both vertebrate and non-vertebrate species models for toxicological testing and the development of biomarkers. Divided into several key sections, this reference volume contains new chapters devoted to topics in microplastics, neuroimmunotoxicity and nutraceuticals, along with a look at the latest cutting-edge technologies used to detect biomarkers. Each chapter contains several references to current literature and important resources for further reading. Given this comprehensive treatment, this book is an essential reference for anyone interested in biomarkers across the scientific and biomedical fields. Evaluates the expansive literature, providing one resource covering all aspects of toxicology biomarkers Includes completely revised chapters, along with additional chapters on the newest developments in the field Identifies and discusses the most sensitive, accurate, unique and validated biomarkers used as indicators of exposure Covers special topics and applications of biomarkers, including chapters on molecular toxicology biomarkers, biomarker analysis for nanotoxicology, development of biomarkers for drug efficacy evaluation, and much more

Barile s Clinical Toxicology

Barile   s Clinical Toxicology Book
Author : Frank A. Barile
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-04-24
ISBN : 1498765386
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As with the two previous editions, Barile’s Clinical Toxicology: Principles and Mechanisms, Third edition, examines the complex interactions associated with clinical toxicological events as a result of therapeutic drug administration or chemical exposure. With special emphasis placed on signs and symptoms of diseases and pathology caused by toxins and clinical drugs, the new edition, examines the complex interactions associated with clinical toxicological events as a result of therapeutic drug administration or chemical exposure. The new edition presents the latest, up-to-date protocols for managing various toxic ingestions, and the antidotes and treatments associated with their pathology. In addition, the effect of toxins on a limited number of body systems and drug-induced adverse drug reactions are also covered. KEY FEATURES • Discusses source of the drug or chemical, pharmacological and toxicological mechanisms of action, detection, identification, and treatment • Examines the complex interactions associated with clinical toxicological events • Emphasizes the signs and symptoms of diseases and pathology caused by toxins and clinical drugs • Covers effect of toxins on body systems and drug-induced adverse reactions • Offers a unique perspective for toxicology, pharmacology, pharmacy and health professions students The target audience for this book is undergraduate and graduate toxicology students, clinical pharmacy (Pharm.D.) students, emergency medical personnel, regulatory agencies, and other related health science professionals. It satisfies an essential need for a concise yet detailed authoritative, fundamental text addressing the current principles of clinical toxicology.

Characteristics and Composition of Aerosol Generated by Electronic Cigarettes What is the Impact on Human Health

Characteristics and Composition of Aerosol Generated by Electronic Cigarettes  What is the Impact on Human Health  Book
Author : Dominic L. Palazzolo
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-09-29
ISBN : 2889713881
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Characteristics and Composition of Aerosol Generated by Electronic Cigarettes What is the Impact on Human Health book written by Dominic L. Palazzolo, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Toxicology of the Gastrointestinal Tract Second Edition

Toxicology of the Gastrointestinal Tract  Second Edition Book
Author : Shayne Cox Gad
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-10-26
ISBN : 0429781431
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The gastrointestinal tract is the most important of the three major routes of entry (and clearance) of xenobiotics and biologic entities into the bodies of mammals. As such, it is also the major route for administration of pharmaceuticals to humans. Gastrointestinal Toxicology, Second Edition describes the mechanism for entry and clearance of xenobiotics, as well as the barriers, immunologic and metabolic issues, and functions present in the GI tract. Appearing in this volume are also considerations of the microbiome and its actions and influence on the function of the GI tract and on the toxicity and pharmacodynamics of ingested substances (including nutrients, toxins, and therapeutics). These fifteen chapters written by experienced experts in the field address methods to evaluate GI function; specifics of GI function and toxicity assessment in canines and minipigs; classes of compounds with their toxicity; species differences; and the toxicity (and promise) of nanoparticles. Those needing to understand the structure, function, and methods of studying the GI tract will find this volume a singular source of reference.

WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation Report on the scientific basis of tobacco product regulation

WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation  Report on the scientific basis of tobacco product regulation Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release : 2021-05-04
ISBN : 9240022724
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This eighth report of the Study Group addresses electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS), electronic non-nicotine delivery system (ENNDS) and heated tobacco product (HTPs); however, it does not cover all aspects of these products, because many of the papers were written to meet the request of COP8, which was to review understanding on novel and emerging tobacco products (FCTC/COP8). Continued research is necessary on these products; the Study Group will cover other products of interest (including traditional products, such as waterpipes, cigarettes and smokeless tobacco) in its next report, guided by countries’ regulatory requirements and pertinent issues in tobacco product regulation. This will ensure continued, timely technical support to all countries and address all products, recognizing that their availability depends on the jurisdiction.

Handbook of Nanotoxicology Nanomedicine and Stem Cell Use in Toxicology

Handbook of Nanotoxicology  Nanomedicine and Stem Cell Use in Toxicology Book
Author : Saura C. Sahu,Daniel A. Casciano
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-04-22
ISBN : 1118855868
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Handbook of Nanotoxicology, Nanomedicine and Stem Cell Use in Toxicology provides an insight into the current trends and future directions of research in these rapidly developing scientific fields. Written by leading scientists and experts, the Handbook will be of interest to various scientific disciplines including toxicology, medicine, and pharmacology, as well as food, drug, and other regulatory sciences.

Bioenvironmental Issues Affecting Men s Reproductive and Sexual Health

Bioenvironmental Issues Affecting Men s Reproductive and Sexual Health Book
Author : Suresh C Sikka,Wayne J.G. Hellstrom
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-11-14
ISBN : 0128013133
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bioenvironmental Issues Affecting Men's Reproductive and Sexual Health is structured into two parts related to men’s reproductive and sexual health with eight sections designed to enable a logical flow of such knowledge. The book is focused on the biology of key organs involved in male reproduction and the environmental influences affecting their functions with particular emphasis on clinical aspects. Individual chapters within the book range from basic to translational aspects, but all hold clinical relevance. This is an essential reference for those working and learning in the field of human reproduction, reproductive toxicology and environmental influences on reproductive and sexual health. Brings together the leading authorities working in the field of male reproduction and sexual health and how the environment affects these issues. Provides guidelines and reference values of various reproductive hormones, semen parameters, inclusion/exclusion criteria for clinical trials. Discover the most efficient methods by which to design clinical protocols for sperm safety studies and reproductive toxicology trials.

Environmental Toxicants

Environmental Toxicants Book
Author : Morton Lippmann,George D. Leikauf
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-03-03
ISBN : 1119438918
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An Updated Reference on Human Exposure to Environmental Toxicants and A Study of Their Impact on Public Health With the 4th edition of Environmental Toxicants: Human Exposures and Their Health Effects, readers have access to up-to-date information on the study and science of environmental toxicology and public health worldwide. Practitioners and professionals can use this resource to understand newly discovered information on the adverse health effects of toxins and pollutants in air, water, and occupational and environmental environments on large human populations. The 4th edition of this book is updated to reflect new knowledge and research on: ● Performing risk assessments on exposed individuals ● Assessing the effects of toxicants and substances on large populations for health and medical professionals ● Patterns of human exposure to select chemical toxicants ● World Trade Center dust, agents for chemical terrorism, and nanoparticles For health professionals, including health authorities, public health officials, physicians, and industrial managers, who are seeking new research and techniques for managing environmental substances, this invaluable reference will guide you through in a thorough, easy- to-read manner.

Review of EPA s Updated Problem Formulation and Protocol for the Inorganic Arsenic IRIS Assessment

Review of EPA s Updated Problem Formulation and Protocol for the Inorganic Arsenic IRIS Assessment Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee to Evaluate the IRIS Protocol for Inorganic Arsenic
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2019-10-31
ISBN : 0309497027
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a program within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that is responsible for developing toxicologic assessments of environmental contaminants. An IRIS assessment contains hazard identifications and dose-response assessments of various chemicals related to cancer and noncancer outcomes. Although the program was created to increase consistency among toxicologic assessments within the agency, federal, state, and international agencies and other organizations have come to rely on IRIS assessments for setting regulatory standards, establishing exposure guidelines, and estimating risks to exposed populations. The EPA has been working on its IRIS assessment of inorganic arsenic (iAs) for many years, and recently released its plans for completing it in the Updated Problem Formulation and Protocol for the Inorganic Arsenic IRIS Assessment. Much of the update was made in response to recommendations in a 2013 report made by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The National Academies recently convened another evaluation of whether the various elements of the IRIS iAs assessment plan are appropriate to synthesize the scientific evidence and quantitate estimates of iAs toxicity. Review of EPA's IRIS Assessment Plan for Inorganic Arsenic explores the EPA's approach to prioritizing health outcomes, EPA's systematic review methods, EPA's consideration of potential health effects from early life exposures, mode-of-action information to inform dose-response analyses, and various approaches to investigate dose-response relationships.

The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines in Psychiatry

The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines in Psychiatry Book
Author : David M. Taylor,Thomas R. E. Barnes,Allan H. Young
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2021-05-06
ISBN : 1119772249
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Maudsley® Prescribing Guidelines in Psychiatry The new edition of the world-renowned reference guide on the use of medications for patients presenting with mental health problems The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines in Psychiatry is the essential evidence-based handbook on the safe and effective prescribing of psychotropic agents. Covering both common and complex prescribing situations encountered in day-to-day clinical practice, this comprehensive resource provides expert guidance on drug choice, minimum and maximum doses, adverse effects, switching medications, prescribing for special patient groups, and more. Each clear and concise chapter includes an up-to-date reference list providing easy access to the evidence on which the guidance is based. The fourteenth edition has been fully updated to incorporate the latest available research, the most recent psychotropic drug introductions, and all psychotropic drugs currently used in the UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Several new sections cover topics such as deprescribing of major psychiatric drugs, prescribing psychotropics at the end of life, the treatment of agitated delirium, the genetics of clozapine prescribing, the use of weekly penfluridol, and the treatment of psychotropic withdrawal. Featuring contributions by an experienced team of psychiatrists and specialist pharmacists, the new edition of The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines in Psychiatry: Provides succinct coverage of drug treatment of psychiatric conditions and formulating prescribing policy in mental health Covers a wide range of psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety, borderline personality, eating disorders, and many others Provides advice on prescribing for children and adolescents, older people, pregnant women, and other special patient groups Offers new sections on genetic prescribing, long-acting injectable formulations, ketamine administration and uses, and dopamine super-sensitivity Includes referenced information on off-label prescribing, potential interactions with other substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine, and treating patients with comorbid physical conditions Whether in the doctor’s office, in the clinic, or on the ward, The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines in Psychiatry, Fourteenth Edition is a must-have for psychiatrists, pharmacists, neuropharmacologists, clinical psychologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals working in mental health, as well as trainees and students in medicine, pharmacy, and nursing.

Textbook of Natural Medicine E Book

Textbook of Natural Medicine   E Book Book
Author : Joseph E. Pizzorno,Michael T. Murray
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2020-06-26
ISBN : 0323523803
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Textbook of Natural Medicine - E-Book

Lung Cancer A Practical Approach to Evidence Based Clinical Evaluation and Management

Lung Cancer  A Practical Approach to Evidence Based Clinical Evaluation and Management Book
Author : Lynn T. Tanoue,Frank C Detterbeck
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2018-05-30
ISBN : 0323496067
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Get a quick, expert overview of the many key facets of lung cancer evaluation and management with this concise, practical resource by Drs. Lynn T. Tanoue and Frank Detterbeck. This easy-to-read reference presents a summary of today’s best evidence-based approaches to diagnosis and management in this critical area. Covers diagnosis and evaluation, treatment considerations, and comprehensive care options for patients with lung cancer. Provides insight on evidence for today’s best practices, as well as future directions in the field. Consolidates today’s evidence-based information on the clinical aspects of lung cancer into one convenient resource.

Middleton s Allergy E Book

Middleton s Allergy E Book Book
Author : A Wesley Burks,Stephen T Holgate,Robyn E O'Hehir,Leonard B. Bacharier,David H. Broide,Gurjit K. Khurana Hershey,R. Stokes Peebles, Jr.
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2019-09-25
ISBN : 0323546986
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Through eight outstanding editions, Middleton’s Allergy: Principles and Practice has been the reference of choice for both clinicians and researchers as both a practical reference and an effective self-assessment tool for board preparation. The 9th Edition continues the tradition of excellence with comprehensive coverage of all basic science and clinical applications regarding allergy practice and disease mechanisms. It brings you fully up to date with recent innovations in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of allergic disorders, including emerging global issues, the advent of precision medicine, and new immunologic therapies. Offers unparalleled depth and up-to-date guidance on the full spectrum of allergy across the lifespan, with significant updates throughout. Contains new chapters on Innate Lymphoid Cells, Systems Biology, and Treatment of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases. Discusses emerging topics such as epidemic thunderstorm asthma and precision medicine in allergic disorders. Features more than 730 full-color illustrations, including many new cellular and molecular drawings of disease mechanisms. Includes new Summary of Important Concepts boxes, plus new multiple-choice questions online with explanations and answers. Features a new team of expert editors and more international contributors for a global perspective of this complex field.

Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Diseases

Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Diseases Book
Author : Consolato M. Sergi
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2019-12-10
ISBN : 3039219669
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A screenshot of some the most rapidly evolving fields in Neonatology and Pediatrics with articles reviewing some metabolic dysregulations as well as non-oncologic diseases that may occur in infancy, childhood, youth. The illustrative material with original photographs and drawings highlighting some pathogenetic concepts are keystones of this book.