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Tin Oxide Materials

Tin Oxide Materials Book
Author : Marcelo Ornaghi Orlandi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-10-05
ISBN : 0128162791
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Tin Oxide Materials: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications discusses the latest in metal oxides, an emerging area in electronic materials. As more is learned about this important materials system, more functionalities and applications have been revealed. This key reference on the topic covers important material that is ideal for materials scientists, materials engineers and materials chemists who have been introduced to metal oxides as a general category of materials, but want to take the next step and learn more about a specific material. Provides a complete resource on tin oxide materials systems, including in-depth discussions of properties, their synthesis, modelling methods, and applications Presents information on the well-investigated SnO2, but also includes discussions on its emerging stoichiometries, such as SnO and Sn3O4 Includes the most relevant applications in varistors, sensing devices, fuel cells, transistors, biological studies, and much more

Novel Gas Sensors and Catalysis Based on Tin Oxide Materials

Novel Gas Sensors and Catalysis Based on Tin Oxide Materials Book
Author : Colin David Alan Bulpitt
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Novel Gas Sensors and Catalysis Based on Tin Oxide Materials book written by Colin David Alan Bulpitt, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Synthesis and Characterisation of Oxide Materials

Synthesis and Characterisation of Oxide Materials Book
Author : A. Ayeshamariam
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2014-10
ISBN : 9783659610127
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This study helps to new researchers to learn about oxide semiconducting materials and its some properties, the doping of these two materials gave Indium tin oxide materials which has plenty of optoelectronic applications.Indium tin oxide (In2O3: Sn) is an n-type semiconducting material with wide band gap. With oxygen deficiency they become conducting whereas in stoichiometric condition insulators. The resistance variation when exposed to gaseous atmosphere plays crucial role in gas sensing applications of these materials. Gas sensing materials should have large surface area so that contacting area between the grains and gaseous molecules will be increased manifold, which will enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of sensors. In2O3, SnO2 and In2O3: Sn have been used in powder, thick film and thin film form as gas sensing material out of which powder based sensing elements provide a single step way of making low cost sensors. For these purpose powders of these semiconductor oxides are to be prepared with nano grains having large specific surface are

Characterisation of Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide Sensor Materials

Characterisation of Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide Sensor Materials Book
Author : Steven Davis
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1997
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Characterisation of Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide Sensor Materials book written by Steven Davis, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Synthesis and Characterization of Tin Oxide based Anode Materials

Synthesis and Characterization of Tin Oxide based Anode Materials Book
Author : Li Ping Teo
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Synthesis and Characterization of Tin Oxide based Anode Materials book written by Li Ping Teo, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Tin Oxide Based Anode Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

Tin Oxide Based Anode Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries Book
Author : Ruifen Zhang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Tin Oxide Based Anode Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries book written by Ruifen Zhang, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Preparation and Post Annealing Effects on the Optical Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films

Preparation and Post Annealing Effects on the Optical Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films Book
Author : Rongxin Wang,王榮新
Publisher : Open Dissertation Press
Release : 2017-01-26
ISBN : 9781361207796
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This dissertation, "Preparation and Post-annealing Effects on the Optical Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films" by Rongxin, Wang, 王榮新, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Abstract of thesis entitled PREPARATION AND POST-ANNEALING EFFECTS ON THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF INDIUM TIN OXIDE THIN FILMS Submitted by WANG Rong Xin for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at The University of Hong Kong in April 2005 Many opto-electronic devices, such as III-V compound devices, liquid crystal displays, solar cells, organic and inorganic light emitting devices, and ultraviolet photodetectors, demand transparent electrode materials simultaneously having high electrical conductance. To meet the requirements for particular applications, a great deal of basic research and studies have been carried out on the electrical and optical properties of these materials. As a most promising candidate for such materials, indium tin oxide (ITO) has attracted interest in recent years. Furthermore, ITO has many unique properties such as excellent adhesion on the substrate, thermal stability and ease of patterning. The deposition of high-quality ITO thin films is a key step for successful application of ITO thin films as transparent electrode materials. To obtain optimal electrical and optical properties of ITO films, the growth parameters and conditions must be determined. Moreover, the optical and electrical properties of ITO contact layers, which can either be on the top side or the bottom side of a device, are influenced by various post-deposition treatments. For the present work, ITO thin films were deposited on glass and quartz substrates using e-beam evaporation with different deposition rates. The influence of substrate material, deposition rate, deposition gas environment and post-deposition annealing on the optical properties of the films was investigated in detail. Atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was employed to obtain information on the chemical state and crystallization of the films. Analysis of these data suggests that the substrate material, deposition rate, deposition gas environment and post-deposition annealing conditions strongly affect the chemical composition and the microstructure of the ITO films and these in turn influence the optical properties of the film. Oxygen incorporation transfers the In O phase to the In O phase and removes metallic In to form both indium oxide 2 3-x 2 3 phases. Both of these reactions are beneficial for the optical transmittance of ITO thin films. Moreover, it was found that the incorporation and decomposition reactions of oxygen can be controlled so as to change the optical properties of the ITO thin films reversibly. DOI: 10.5353/th_b3154617 Subjects: Thin films - Optical properties Indium compounds Annealing of metals

Microwave Assisted Synthesis of ETS 4 ETS 10 ZIF 8 NTHU 4 and Fluorinated Tin Oxide Materials

Microwave Assisted Synthesis of ETS 4  ETS 10  ZIF 8  NTHU 4 and Fluorinated Tin Oxide Materials Book
Author : Jose Antonio Losilla Yamasaki
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 9781109811865
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microwave heating is a relatively new and unexplored field in molecular sieve synthesis. Microwave radiation allows a fast and efficient way to obtain diverse products. The rapid microwave synthesis of ETS-4, ETS-10, ZIF-8, NTHU-4 and FTO particles compared with conventional heating is presented. ETS-4, ETS-10 and ZIF-8 are promising nanoporous materials for applications such as gas adsorption, while the white light emitting NTHU-4 and conductive FTO are related to optical applications.

Sol Gel Synthesis and Characterization of Tin Oxide and Doped tin Oxide Nanosized Materials Used for Gas sensing

Sol Gel Synthesis and Characterization of Tin Oxide and Doped tin Oxide Nanosized Materials Used for Gas sensing Book
Author : Hongmei Deng
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Sol Gel Synthesis and Characterization of Tin Oxide and Doped tin Oxide Nanosized Materials Used for Gas sensing book written by Hongmei Deng, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Sensitivity Enhancement of Metal oxide Chemical Sensors for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

Sensitivity Enhancement of Metal oxide Chemical Sensors for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds Book
Author : John F. Hughes
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Metal-oxide chemical sensor technology has been praised as a cheap and efficient method of detecting both reducing and oxidizing gases depending on the metal-oxide’s carrier type. The research conducted in this thesis explored methods of enhancing the sensitivity of an n-type metal-oxide material (indium tin oxide, ITO) to a volatile organic compound (VOC) through changes in both device and testing characteristics. Two methods of testing prototype sensors were developed which consisted of short and long-term exposure to ethanol at different temperatures and concentrations. Maximum sensitivity at 2000 ppm was achieved in devices with thin, annealed metal-oxide layers with a high temperature of operation; this sensitivity measurement was achieved using a prolonged exposure test with 100-nm of annealed ITO at an operating temperature of 360°C and yielded a sensitivity of 32.5%. A fabrication process consisting of two lift-off processes for the metal-oxide and contact metal was developed to create the prototype devices. Preliminary characterization on the metal-oxide materials confirmed its thickness, crystallinity / crystal structure, and grain size. In addition to the electrical tests, a future work chemical sensor was thermally and electrically simulated using SolidWorks and Silvaco Atlas, respectively; a proposed fabrication process of the device is also presented, along with a basic outline of future work experiments to further study sensitivity enhancements through other metal-oxide materials, noble catalytic metals, device architecture, and signal processing of proposed electrical testing."--Abstract.

Transparent Oxide Electronics

Transparent Oxide Electronics Book
Author : Pedro Barquinha,Rodrigo Martins,Luis Pereira,Elvira Fortunato
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-03-15
ISBN : 1119967740
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Transparent electronics is emerging as one of the most promising technologies for the next generation of electronic products, away from the traditional silicon technology. It is essential for touch display panels, solar cells, LEDs and antistatic coatings. The book describes the concept of transparent electronics, passive and active oxide semiconductors, multicomponent dielectrics and their importance for a new era of novel electronic materials and products. This is followed by a short history of transistors, and how oxides have revolutionized this field. It concludes with a glance at low-cost, disposable and lightweight devices for the next generation of ergonomic and functional discrete devices. Chapters cover: Properties and applications of n-type oxide semiconductors P-type conductors and semiconductors, including copper oxide and tin monoxide Low-temperature processed dielectrics n and p-type thin film transistors (TFTs) – structure, physics and brief history Paper electronics – Paper transistors, paper memories and paper batteries Applications of oxide TFTs – transparent circuits, active matrices for displays and biosensors Written by a team of renowned world experts, Transparent Oxide Electronics: From Materials to Devices gives an overview of the world of transparent electronics, and showcases groundbreaking work on paper transistors

Investigation of the Christiansen Effect in Indium Tin Oxide Bulk Materials

Investigation of the Christiansen Effect in Indium Tin Oxide Bulk Materials Book
Author : Md Abu Sufian
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Christiansen Effect occurs when the refractive index (n) of a given material matches that of its surrounding medium at a particular wavelength, leading to a transmission window. When air is chosen as the medium, the Christiansen Effect is observed when the refractive index of a given material passes through n =1 at a specific wavelength (λc), and subsequently produces a transmission at wavelength λc. In general, materials that exhibit a refractive index of n =1 in the near infrared are of particular interest for a variety of glass optics and imaging applications. In this study, we demonstrate for the first-time the realization of the Christiansen effect at the surface of bulk ITO materials, i.e. the realization of a refractive index of n =1 at specific wavelengths within the near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) regions. It was found that conductivities of greater than a few hundred thousand S/m is required for desired optical properties. Thermal treatment of the bulk ITO wafers was also carried out to study its impact on the conductivity and tunability of the wavelength of transmission. Additionally, we hypothesized that the Christiansen effect should also be observed in suspensions containing ITO particles. This was tested by milling ITO target wafers into powders and subsequently suspending the particles in a suitable solvent. Unfortunately, initial evaluation of ITO suspensions did not manifest the Christiansen effect. We suggest that this was due to inadequate Sn substitution in the milled nanoparticles, relative to the bulk material. We hypothesize that Sn substitution occurred only at the boundaries between the pressed In2O3 and SnO2 particles, and that after the target wafer was milled, the individual In2O3 and SnO2 particles did not exhibit the sufficient conductivity for producing an n =1 wavelength.

Development of Oxide Semiconductors

Development of Oxide Semiconductors Book
Author : Hai Q. Chiang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The aim of this dissertation is to develop oxide semiconductors by radio-frequency sputtering for thin-film transistor (TFT) applications. A variety of oxide semiconductors are used as the TFT channel layer, including indium gallium oxide (IGO), zinc tin oxide (ZTO), and indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO). The variety of materials used underscores the abundance of materials options available within this nascent technology, with each material exhibiting unique chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties. The influence of several deposition parameters is explored; oxygen partial pressure of the deposition ambient is found to have a profound effect on the electrical characteristics of each material. With optimized deposition conditions, TFTs based on these materials exhibit excellent electrical properties, even when annealed at low-temperature (175°C). Specifically, ZTO-based TFTs which are subjected to a 175° C post-deposition anneal exhibit a channel mobility near 9 cm2V−1s−1. However, advancement of this technology also requires research in integration-related issues. Therefore, the effect of channel layer passivation and of TFT stability is evaluated. Passivation of the oxide semiconductor surface is required for circuits which employ multiple levels of interconnect and for mechanical/chemical protection of devices. Here, successful passivation of IGO, ZTO, and IGZO-based TFTs is demonstrated using SU-8, a negative tone epoxy-based photoresist. To appraise TFT stability, a constant voltage bias stress test of 1000 minutes is utilized, where the drain current, ID, is monitored throughout the duration of testing and the turn-on voltage, Von, is evaluated before and after stressing. TFT stability is found to be correlated to the turn-on voltage of a device and to the thickness of the semiconductor layer. IGZO-based TFTs with excellent stability are demonstrated, exhibiting almost no decrease in ID or any shift in Von throughout the duration of bias stress testing.

Biocatalysis on Nanostructured Surfaces

Biocatalysis on Nanostructured Surfaces Book
Author : Stefano Frasca
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this thesis, different aspects within the research field of protein spectro- and electro-chemistry on nanostructured materials are addressed. On the one hand, this work is related to the investigation of nanostructured transparent and conductive metal oxides as platform for the immobilization of electroactive enzymes. On the other hand the second part of this work is related to the immobilization of sulfite oxidase on gold nanoparticles modified electrode. Finally direct and mediated spectroelectrochemistry protein with high structure complexity such as the xanthine dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus and its high homologues the mouse aldehyde oxidase homolog 1. Stable immobilization and reversible electrochemistry of cytochrome c in a transparent and conductive tin-doped and tin-rich indium oxide film with a well-defined mesoporosity is reported. The transparency and good conductivity, in combination with the large surface area of these materials, allow the incorporation of a high amount of electroactive biomolecules (between 250 and 2500 pmol cm-2) and their electrochemical and spectroscopic investigation. Both, the electrochemical behavior and the immobilization of proteins are influenced by the geometric parameters of the porous material, such as the structure and pore shape, the surface chemistry, as well as the protein size and charge. UV-Vis and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in combination with direct protein voltammetry, are employed for the characterization of cytochrome c immobilized in the mesoporous indium tin oxide and reveal no perturbation of the structural integrity of the redox protein. A long term protein immobilization is reached using these unmodified mesoporous indium oxide based materials, i.e. more than two weeks even at high ionic strength. The potential of this modified material as an amperometric biosensor for the detection of superoxide anions is demonstrated. A sensitivity of about 100 A M-1 m-2, in a linear measuring range of the superoxide concentration between 0.13 and 0.67 [mu]M, is estimated. In addition an electrochemical switchable protein-based optical device is designed with the core part composed of cytochrome c immobilized on a mesoporous indium tin oxide film. A color developing redox sensitive dye is used as switchable component of the system. The cytochrome c-catalyzed oxidation of the dye by hydrogen peroxide is spectroscopically investigated. When the dye is co-immobilized with the protein, its redox state is easily controlled by application of an electrical potential at the supporting material. This enables to electrochemical reset the system to the initial state and repetitive signal generation. The case of negative charged proteins, which does not have a good interaction with the negative charged indium oxide based films, is also explored. The modification of an indium tin oxide film with a positive charged polymer and the employment of a antimony doped tin oxide film were investigated in this work in order to overcome the repulsion induced by similar charges of the protein and electrode. Human sulfite oxidase and its separated heme-containing domain are able to direct exchange electrons with the supporting material. A study of a new approach for sulfite biosensing, based on enhanced direct electron transfer of a human sulfite oxidase immobilized on a gold nanoparticles modified electrode is reported. The spherical gold nanoparticles were prepared via a novel method by reduction of HAuCl4 with branched poly(ethyleneimine) in an ionic liquid resulting in particles of about 10 nm in hydrodynamic diameter. These nanoparticles were covalently attached to a mercaptoundecanoic acid modified Au-electrode and act as platform where human sulfite oxidase is adsorbed. An enhanced interfacial electron transfer and electrocatalysis is therefore achieved. UV-Vis and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in combination with direct protein voltammetry, were employed for the characterization of the system and reveal no perturbation of the structural integrity of the redox protein. The proposed biosensor exhibited a quick steady-state current response, within 2 s and a linear detection range between 0.5 and 5.4 [mu]M with high sensitivity (1.85 nA [mu]M-1). The investigated system provides remarkable advantages, since it works at low applied potential and at very high ionic strength. Therefore these properties could make the proposed system useful in the development of bioelectronic devices and its application in real samples. Finally protein with high structure complexity such as the xanthine dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus and the mouse aldehyde oxidase homolog 1 were spectroelectrochemically studied. It could be demonstrated that different cofactors present in the protein structure, like the FAD and the molybdenum cofactor, are able to directly exchange electrons with an electrode and are displayed as a single peak in a square wave voltammogram. Protein mutants bearing a serine substituted to the cysteines, bounding to the most exposed iron sulfur cluster additionally showed direct electron transfer which can be attributable to this cluster. On the other hand a mediated spectroelectrochemical titration of the protein bound FAD cofactor was performed in presence of transparent iron and cobalt complex mediators. The results showed the formation of the stable semiquinone and the fully reduced flavin. Two formal potentials for each single electron exchange step were then determined.

Fabrication and Characterization of Silicon Carbide SiC MESFET

Fabrication and Characterization of Silicon Carbide  SiC  MESFET Book
Author : Kaushal D. Patel
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This research work is dealt with the fabrication of the optically triggered silicon carbide MESFET. The fabrication of the silicon carbide MESFET device has been chronologically described to study the device structure, process development, and material properties. In order to understand the fabrication process, the optimization of photo-resist processing, ion implanted doping process, chemical etching process, silicon oxide growth on SiC material, stoichiometry silicon oxide with SiC material and comparative study of silicon oxide growth for silicon and carbon faces of SiC, nickel and indium tin oxide materials deposition for ohmic and Schottky contacts have been studied to optimize the unit steps of fabrication process. A detailed study on ion implantation, high-temperature annealing, and electrical device isolation has been performed. Different failure analyses for wafer and device level have been conducted to monitor the device performance, fabrication processing and material properties. I-V characteristics of fabricated SiC MESFET device has been measured by the curve tracer and compared with other fabricated GaN MESFE device.

Nanostructured Titanium Dioxide Materials

Nanostructured Titanium Dioxide Materials Book
Author : Ali Reza Khataee,G. Ali Mansoori
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9814374725
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

During the past decade, research and development in the area of synthesis and applications of different nanostructured titanium dioxide have become tremendous. This book briefly describes properties, production, modification and applications of nanostructured titanium dioxide focusing in particular on photocatalytic activity. The physicochemical properties of nanostructured titanium dioxide are highlighted and the links between properties and applications are emphasized. The preparation of TiO2 nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires, nanosheets, nanofibers, and nanotubes are primarily categorized by their preparation method (sol-gel and hydrothermal processes). Examples of early applications of nanostructured titanium dioxide in dye-sensitized solar cells, hydrogen production and storage, sensors, rechargeable batteries, electrocatalysis, self-cleaning and antibacterial surfaces and photocatalytic cancer treatment are reviewed. The review of modifications of TiO2 nanomaterials is mainly focused on the research related to the modifications of the optical properties of TiO2 nanomaterials, since many applications of TiO2 nanomaterials are closely related to their optical properties. Photocatalytic removal of various pollutants using pure TiO2 nanomaterials, TiO2-based nanoclays and non-metal doped nanostructured TiO2 are also discussed.

1 dimensional Zinc Oxide Nanomaterial Growth and Solar Cell Applications

1 dimensional Zinc Oxide Nanomaterial Growth and Solar Cell Applications Book
Author : Hyung Woo Choi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted much interest during last decades as a functional material. Furthermore, ZnO is a potential material for transparent conducting oxide material competing with indium tin oxide (ITO), graphene, and carbon nanotube film. It has been known as a conductive material when doped with elements such as indium, gallium and aluminum. The solubility of those dopant elements in ZnO is still debatable; but, it is necessary to find alternative conducting materials when their form is film or nanostructure for display devices. This is a consequence of the ever increasing price of indium. In addition, a new generation solar cell (nanostructured or hybrid photovoltaics) requires compatible materials which are capable of free standing on substrates without seed or buffer layers and have the ability introduce electrons or holes pathway without blocking towards electrodes. The nanostructures for solar cells using inorganic materials such as silicon (Si), titanium oxide (TiO2), and ZnO have been an interesting topic for research in solar cell community in order to overcome the limitation of efficiency for organic solar cells. This dissertation is a study of the rational solution-based synthesis of 1-dimentional ZnO nanomaterial and its solar cell applications. These results have implications in cost effective and uniform nanomanufacturing for the next generation solar cells application by controlling growth condition and by doping transition metal element in solution.

Electrical Contacts

Electrical Contacts Book
Author : Paul G. Slade
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1999-03-31
ISBN : 9780824719340
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Covering the choice, attachment, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction, presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms, discusses the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken, investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections, relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints, details arcing effects on contacts including contact erosion, welding, and contamination, and contains nearly 2800 references, tables, equations, drawings, and photographs.