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Thresholds Of Genotoxic Carcinogens

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Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens

Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens Book
Author : Takehiko Nohmi,Shoji Fukushima
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-05-20
ISBN : 0128018038
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens: From Mechanisms to Regulation brings together current opinion and research activities from Japan, the US, and Europe on the subject of genotoxic thresholds. In regulation, it is an adage that genotoxic carcinogens have no thresholds for action, and that they impose cancer risk on humans even at very low levels. This policy is frequently called into question as humans possess a number of defense mechanisms including detoxication, DNA repair, and apoptosis, meaning there is a threshold at which these genotoxic carcinogens take action. The book examines these potential thresholds, describing the potential cancer risks of daily low-level exposure, the mechanisms involved (such as DNA repair, detoxication, translesion DNA synthesis), chemical and statistical methods of analysis, and the ways in which these may be utilized to inform policy. Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens: From Mechanisms to Regulation is an essential reference for any professional researchers in genetic toxicology and those involved in toxicological regulation. Unites an international team of experts to provide a balanced overview of the current opinion on thresholds of genotoxic carcinogens Provides all the information readers need to determine a safe threshold for potential genotoxic carcinogens Includes information on the mechanisms of genotoxic carcinogens and how these can inform regulation Serves as an essential reference for any professional researchers in genetic toxicology and those involved in toxicological regulation

The Cellular Response to the Genotoxic Insult

The Cellular Response to the Genotoxic Insult Book
Author : Helmut Greim,Richard Albertini
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2015-11-09
ISBN : 1782626042
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genotoxic carcinogens can lead to DNA mutations with the potential to cause cancer. Typically, a series of mutation events are needed before malignancy occurs so a single, small exposure may not result in disease. Also, cells have an armoury of defence mechanisms which, to a degree, counter the effects of mutagens. Distinguishing the point at which exposure to a carcinogen increases mutation rates beyond the background level is challenging. In fact, there is now general agreement that, for genotoxic carcinogens, no specific threshold can be identified. However, NOAELs (No Observed Adverse Effect Levels) may be used in the process of establishing a dose-response relationship. These denote the level of exposure at which there is no significant increase in adverse effects in the exposed population when compared to an appropriate control. Such a scientifically defendable threshold allows us to propose health based exposure limits for genotoxic carcinogens. This book describes the various cellular defence mechanisms individually and explains how they are regulated. The processes covered include metabolic inactivation, epigenetic regulation, scavenging mechanisms, DNA-repair and apoptosis. It also considers dose-dependent threshold mechanisms of carcinogenesis and the rate limiting parameters. Aimed at graduate level and above, the book discusses the consequences of genotoxic evaluation and urges readers to question the idea that even low exposures present a cancer risk.

Cancer Risk Assessment

Cancer Risk Assessment Book
Author : Ching-Hung Hsu,Todd Stedeford
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2010-12-08
ISBN : 9781118035122
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With a weight-of-the-evidence approach, cancer risk assessment indentifies hazards, determines dose-response relationships, and assesses exposure to characterize the true risk. This book focuses on the quantitative methods for conducting chemical cancer risk assessments for solvents, metals, mixtures, and nanoparticles. It links these to the basic toxicology and biology of cancer, along with the impacts on regulatory guidelines and standards. By providing insightful perspective, Cancer Risk Assessment helps researchers develop a discriminate eye when it comes to interpreting data accurately and separating relevant information from erroneous.

2nd International Symposium on Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Thresholds

2nd International Symposium on Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Thresholds Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download 2nd International Symposium on Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Thresholds book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

International Symposium on Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Thresholds

International Symposium on Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Thresholds Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download International Symposium on Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Thresholds book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Information Resources in Toxicology

Information Resources in Toxicology Book
Author : Steve Gilbert,Asish Mohapatra,Sol Bobst,Antoinette Hayes,Sara T. Humes
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-05-16
ISBN : 0128137258
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This new fifth edition of Information Resources in Toxicology offers a consolidated entry portal for the study, research, and practice of toxicology. Both volumes represents a unique, wide-ranging, curated, international, annotated bibliography, and directory of major resources in toxicology and allied fields such as environmental and occupational health, chemical safety, and risk assessment. The editors and authors are among the leaders of the profession sharing their cumulative wisdom in toxicology’s subdisciplines. This edition keeps pace with the digital world in directing and linking readers to relevant websites and other online tools. Due to the increasing size of the hardcopy publication, the current edition has been divided into two volumes to make it easier to handle and consult. Volume 1: Background, Resources, and Tools, arranged in 5 parts, begins with chapters on the science of toxicology, its history, and informatics framework in Part 1. Part 2 continues with chapters organized by more specific subject such as cancer, clinical toxicology, genetic toxicology, etc. The categorization of chapters by resource format, for example, journals and newsletters, technical reports, organizations constitutes Part 3. Part 4 further considers toxicology’s presence via the Internet, databases, and software tools. Among the miscellaneous topics in the concluding Part 5 are laws and regulations, professional education, grants and funding, and patents. Volume 2: The Global Arena offers contributed chapters focusing on the toxicology contributions of over 40 countries, followed by a glossary of toxicological terms and an appendix of popular quotations related to the field. The book, offered in both print and electronic formats, is carefully structured, indexed, and cross-referenced to enable users to easily find answers to their questions or serendipitously locate useful knowledge they were not originally aware they needed. Among the many timely topics receiving increased emphasis are disaster preparedness, nanotechnology, -omics, risk assessment, societal implications such as ethics and the precautionary principle, climate change, and children’s environmental health. Introductory chapters provide a backdrop to the science of toxicology, its history, the origin and status of toxicoinformatics, and starting points for identifying resources. Offers an extensive array of chapters organized by subject, each highlighting resources such as journals, databases,organizations, and review articles. Includes chapters with an emphasis on format such as government reports, general interest publications, blogs, and audiovisuals. Explores recent internet trends, web-based databases, and software tools in a section on the online environment. Concludes with a miscellany of special topics such as laws and regulations, chemical hazard communication resources, careers and professional education, K-12 resources, funding, poison control centers, and patents. Paired with Volume Two, which focuses on global resources, this set offers the most comprehensive compendium of print, digital, and organizational resources in the toxicological sciences with over 120 chapters contributions by experts and leaders in the field.

Hayes Principles and Methods of Toxicology Sixth Edition

Hayes  Principles and Methods of Toxicology  Sixth Edition Book
Author : A. Wallace Hayes,Claire L. Kruger
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-10-10
ISBN : 1842145363
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hayes’ Principles and Methods of Toxicology has long been established as a reliable reference to the concepts, methodologies, and assessments integral to toxicology. The new sixth edition has been revised and updated while maintaining the same high standards that have made this volume a benchmark resource in the field. With new authors and new chapters that address the advances and developments since the fifth edition, the book presents everything toxicologists and students need to know to understand hazards and mechanisms of toxicity, enabling them to better assess risk. The book begins with the four basic principles of toxicology—dose matters, people differ, everything transforms, and timing is crucial. The contributors discuss various agents of toxicity, including foodborne, solvents, crop protection chemicals, radiation, and plant and animal toxins. They examine various methods for defining and measuring toxicity in a host of areas, including genetics, carcinogenicity, toxicity in major body systems, and the environment. This new edition contains an expanded glossary reflecting significant changes in the field. New topics in this edition include: The importance of dose–response Systems toxicology Food safety The humane use and care of animals Neurotoxicology The comprehensive coverage and clear writing style make this volume an invaluable text for students and a one-stop reference for professionals.

Encyclopedia of Quantitative Risk Analysis and Assessment

Encyclopedia of Quantitative Risk Analysis and Assessment Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2008-09-02
ISBN : 0470035498
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Leading the way in this field, the Encyclopedia of Quantitative Risk Analysis and Assessment is the first publication to offer a modern, comprehensive and in-depth resource to the huge variety of disciplines involved. A truly international work, its coverage ranges across risk issues pertinent to life scientists, engineers, policy makers, healthcare professionals, the finance industry, the military and practising statisticians. Drawing on the expertise of world-renowned authors and editors in this field this title provides up-to-date material on drug safety, investment theory, public policy applications, transportation safety, public perception of risk, epidemiological risk, national defence and security, critical infrastructure, and program management. This major publication is easily accessible for all those involved in the field of risk assessment and analysis. For ease-of-use it is available in print and online.

Dealing with Contaminated Sites

Dealing with Contaminated Sites Book
Author : Frank A. Swartjes
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-01-12
ISBN : 9789048197576
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This standard work on contaminated site management covers the whole chain of steps involved in dealing with contaminated sites, from site investigation to remediation. An important focus throughout the book is on Risk Assessment. In addition, the book includes chapters on characterisation of natural and urban soils, bioavailability, natural attenuation, policy and stakeholder viewpoints and Brownfields. Typically, the book includes in-depth theories on soil contamination, along with offering possibilities for practical applications. More than sixty of the world’s top experts from Europe, the USA, Australia and Canada have contributed to this book. The twenty-five chapters in this book offer relevant information for experienced scientists, students, consultants and regulators, as well as for ‘new players’ in contaminated site management

Practical Toxicology

Practical Toxicology Book
Author : David Woolley,Adam Woolley
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-03-16
ISBN : 1498709303
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Practical Toxicology: Evaluation, Prediction, and Risk, Third Edition shows how to conduct a program of safety evaluation and testing and then to interpret and apply the resulting data and information in the real world, beginning with the basic concepts in toxicology and progressing to the interpretation of the resulting data. Revised and updated chapters on risk assessment guide the reader to setting the foundations necessary for submission to regulatory authorities. In addition, a new chapter in the book reviews the errors in toxicology, mistakes, misuse, mismanagement, and misunderstanding with a view to avoiding these in the future. New Chapters in the Third Edition: Toxicology in silico Errors in Toxicology Safety Assessment of Extractables and Leachables. This new edition follows a practical sequence from introducing the basics of toxicology (including the vital concept of normality in controls) to describing a test program and then interpreting the data and translating that to risk assessment that can be used in a number of real world situations where safety and secure risk assessment are essential. Although written primarily from the perspective of pharmaceutical development, the test designs and toxicological problems encountered in that field are entirely relevant to those with other classes of chemicals, the only difference being the regulatory context. Toxicology is an international discipline and the book has been written to take into account some of the differences in regulatory nuance between the main regions of the world. Completely revised and written in an easily accessible style, the text address several audiences—from students and post-graduates coming to the subject for the first time to established professionals who find themselves needing to learn about toxicology, toxicity testing, interpretation of the results, and risk assessment. It is intended primarily as a textbook, with case studies and information on where to go to ask questions, but can also be used as a practical reference book. It covers all the basics of toxicology and the main aspects of safety evaluation testing and risk assessment while reviewing critically the current state of the discipline. It also provides a foundation for those seeking registration or certification.

A Guide to Practical Toxicology

A Guide to Practical Toxicology Book
Author : David Woolley,Adam Woolley
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2003-02-20
ISBN : 142002292X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Toxicology is a means to an important end: safety. The effective toxicologist begins with this in mind, and uses a clear understanding of safety as a relative concept, together with a rational view of the current safety evaluation paradigm to direct their work. Too often this approach is ignored or discouraged by traditional practice. This lucid, readable book encourages both experienced toxicologists and those in training to place toxicological investigation in such a framework. It looks at the importance of toxicological normality, reviews toxicity testing methods, and explores new and 'alternative' methods of safety evaluation. The interpretation of toxicity findings in individual studies and data packages and the prediction of human-relevant hazards are reviewed, followed by an introduction to risk and how we perceive and assess risk in the light of known hazards and the probability of their occurrence. The final stage of the toxicological process, risk assessment and management, is reviewed with particular reference to the work-place. A Guide to Practical Toxicology uses text boxes to give background information on specific subjects or to act as simple guides to toxicological method or process; this is supported by tables and case-studies intended to illustrate method, study design and interpretation. These features mean the book works at different levels, suitable for professional and student toxicologists as well as those from outside the field who require some knowledge of toxicological method and interpretation, for instance in occupational hygiene or medicine and veterinary surgery.

Regulatory Toxicology in the European Union

Regulatory Toxicology in the European Union Book
Author : Tim Marrs,Kevin Woodward
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2018-02-21
ISBN : 1788014049
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Consumer and environmental protection depend on the careful regulation of all classes of chemicals. Toxicology is the key science used to evaluate safety and so underpins regulatory decisions on chemicals. With the growing body of EU legislation involved in chemical regulation, there is a concomitant need to understand the toxicological principles underlying safety assessments Regulatory Toxicology in the European Union is the first book to cover regulatory toxicology specifically in Europe. It addresses the need for a wider understanding of the principles of regulatory toxicology and their application and presents the relationship between toxicology and legislative processes in regulating chemical commodities across Europe. This title has a broad scope, covering historical and current chemical regulation in Europe, the role of European agencies and institutions, and also the use of toxicology data for important classes of chemicals, including human and veterinary medicines, animal feed and food additives, biocides, pesticides and nanomaterials. This book is therefore extremely pertinent and timely in the toxicology field at present. This book is an essential reference for regulatory authorities, industrialists, academics, undergraduates and postgraduates working within safety and hazards, toxicology, the biological sciences, and the medicinal and pharmaceutical sciences across the European Union.

Toxicology and Risk Assessment

Toxicology and Risk Assessment Book
Author : Helmut Greim,Robert Snyder
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2018-08-22
ISBN : 1119135931
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides a complete understanding of how our bodies respond to toxicants, and the principles used to assess the health risks of specific exposure scenarios Toxicology and Risk Assessment: A Comprehensive Introduction, Second Edition reflects recent advances in science and technology, and provides the scientific background and methodological issues to enable the reader to understand the basic principles in toxicology and to evaluate the health risks of specific exposure scenarios. Completely updated with the latest information, this book offers a concise introduction to the subject. It is divided into five sections: Principles in Toxicology, Organ Toxicology, Methods in Toxicology, Regulatory Toxicology, and Specific Toxicity. The 2nd Edition adds new chapters that cover recent scientific and technological advances and current topics including the endocrine system, alternatives to animal testing, risk assessment and thresholds for carcinogens, European and international regulation, nanomaterials, fuels, fragrances, and agrochemicals. Concentrates on the basic concepts of toxicology and provides sufficient information for the reader to become familiar with them in order to understand the principles and to evaluate the risks at given exposures 30% new chapters cover recent scientific and technological advances including alternatives to animal testing; genotoxic carcinogens; REACH regulations; nanomaterials; fuels; fragrances; PAHs; and agrochemicals Written by a team of international specialists, and edited by two outstanding scientists in the field Fully updated and expanded, Toxicology and Risk Assessment: A Comprehensive Introduction, Second Edition is an essential text for any student or researcher with an interest in toxicology and related risk assessments.

Pharmaceutical Industry Practices on Genotoxic Impurities

Pharmaceutical Industry Practices on Genotoxic Impurities Book
Author : Heewon Lee
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-08-29
ISBN : 1439874204
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A great deal of confusion and uncertainty over genotoxic impurity (GTI) identification, assessment, and control exists in the pharmaceutical industry today. Pharmaceutical Industry Practices on Genotoxic Impurities strives to facilitate scientific and systematic consensus on GTI management by presenting rationales, strategies, methods, interpretations, practices, and case studies from the pharmaceutical industry. Featuring the contributions of industry leaders from nine major pharmaceutical companies, this authoritative text: Explores the safety, quality, and regulatory aspects of GTIs Provides an overview of the latest FDA and EMEA guidelines Explains the how and why of various GTI control tactics and practices Describes genotoxicity evaluation, acceptable exposure calculation, and analytical methods for testing Includes real-life examples of GTI control in drug substance and drug product development processes Containing case studies from large and small pharmaceutical firms in multiple geographical regions, Pharmaceutical Industry Practices on Genotoxic Impurities supplies an overview of—and a current framework for—GTI control in the pharmaceutical industry, demonstrating how proper management of GTIs can occur with the appropriate guidance, a firm grasp of the practical implications, and effective information sharing between disciplines.

Toxic Substances and Human Risk

Toxic Substances and Human Risk Book
Author : Robert G. Tardiff,Joseph V. Rodricks
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-13
ISBN : 1468452908
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As society has become increasingly aware of the potential threats to human health due to exposures to toxic chemicals in the environment and the workplace and in consumer products, it has placed increased demands upon the still-fledgling science of toxicology. As is often the case when science is called upon to supply firm answers when pertinent information and fundamental knowledge are lack ing, both the scientific and the social issues become confused and new tensions develop. One of the major purposes of this book is to focus on those aspects of the science of toxicology that pertain most to social issues-namely, analysis of risk for purposes of human health protection. Although it is apparent that the discipline of toxicology is not yet prepared to provide firm answers to many questions concerning human risk, it is important that the rigorously derived information be used in the most objective and logical way to yield the closest approximation to the truth. This book is designed to sup ply as much guidance for such tasks as is permitted by the current state of our knowledge. Its emphasis is thus placed on interpretation of toxicity data (broadly defined) for assessing risks to human health. In this way, it differs from other basic toxicology texts, most of which emphasize methods for performing studies or describe various toxicological endpoints and classes of toxic agents.

The International Competitive Implications of Toxicological Standards

The International Competitive Implications of Toxicological Standards Book
Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Subcommittee on International Scientific Cooperation
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1988
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The International Competitive Implications of Toxicological Standards book written by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Subcommittee on International Scientific Cooperation, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Risk Assessment

Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Risk Assessment Book
Author : Wai Nang Choy
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2001-08-31
ISBN : 0824745221
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Presents state-of-the-art regulatory cancer risk assessment models including a biologically based model for two-hit carcinogenesis and cell proliferation! This book comprehensively reviews the various roles of genetic toxicology in human cancer risk assessment conducted by United States and worldwide regulatory agencies-discussing hazard identification, dose-response relationships, exposure assessment, and current practices of risk characterization. Examines predictive values of mutagenicity tests, mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and conventional genotoxicity tests required by the International Conference on Harmonization and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Environmental Protection Agency guidelines! Comprised of contributions from prominent experts and risk assessors and including nearly 1200 references to facilitate further study, Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Risk Assessment reviews contemporary human cancer genetics as related to the mutagenic nature of carcinogenesis calculates acceptable exposure levels based on a carcinogenic threshold dose for nongenotoxic carcinogens reveals the rationale and methodology of quantitative estimation of human cancer risks using mathematical models discusses the threshold concept of carcinogenesis demonstrates how bacterial mutagenicity assays are the most reliable for predicting rodent carcinogens considers structural activity relationship (SAR) analysis of chemical carcinogenicity describes the emergence of the mouse lymphoma microwell and in vitro micronucleus assays illustrates the use of genetic biomarkers for dosimetry analysis and more! Linking human cancer genetics, mutagenicity assays, mechanisms of carcinogenesis, carcinogenic thresholds, molecular epidemiology, mathematical modeling, and quantitative cancer risk analysis, Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Risk Assessment is a must-have reference for toxicologists; oncologists; geneticists; biostatisticians; reproductive, developmental, cell, and molecular biologists; endocrinologists; biochemists; and upper-level undergraduate, graduate, and medical school students in these disciplines.

Alternatives to Laboratory Animals

Alternatives to Laboratory Animals Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Alternatives to Laboratory Animals book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Toxicology and Risk Assessment

Toxicology and Risk Assessment Book
Author : Helmut Greim,Robert Snyder
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2018-08-10
ISBN : 1119135923
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides a complete understanding of how our bodies respond to toxicants, and the principles used to assess the health risks of specific exposure scenarios Toxicology and Risk Assessment: A Comprehensive Introduction, Second Edition reflects recent advances in science and technology, and provides the scientific background and methodological issues to enable the reader to understand the basic principles in toxicology and to evaluate the health risks of specific exposure scenarios. Completely updated with the latest information, this book offers a concise introduction to the subject. It is divided into five sections: Principles in Toxicology, Organ Toxicology, Methods in Toxicology, Regulatory Toxicology, and Specific Toxicity. The 2nd Edition adds new chapters that cover recent scientific and technological advances and current topics including the endocrine system, alternatives to animal testing, risk assessment and thresholds for carcinogens, European and international regulation, nanomaterials, fuels, fragrances, and agrochemicals. Concentrates on the basic concepts of toxicology and provides sufficient information for the reader to become familiar with them in order to understand the principles and to evaluate the risks at given exposures 30% new chapters cover recent scientific and technological advances including alternatives to animal testing; genotoxic carcinogens; REACH regulations; nanomaterials; fuels; fragrances; PAHs; and agrochemicals Written by a team of international specialists, and edited by two outstanding scientists in the field Fully updated and expanded, Toxicology and Risk Assessment: A Comprehensive Introduction, Second Edition is an essential text for any student or researcher with an interest in toxicology and related risk assessments.

Endocrine Disrupters and Carcinogenic Risk Assessment

Endocrine Disrupters and Carcinogenic Risk Assessment Book
Author : North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Scientific Affairs Division
Publisher : IOS Press
Release : 2002
ISBN : 9781586032180
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book is devoted to the study of the endocrine-related effects on human health with special reference to carcinogenesis, and to the assessment of carcinogenic risk. After providing basic information at the general, cellular and molecular levels, the contents focus on the paradigm of Biologically Based Risk Assessment, as developed form Physiologically-Based Toxicokinetic Models. The analysis of this material is proposed as the novel parameters for developing Biologically Based Models of Carcinogenesis, considered to be more relevant to risk assessment than traditional approaches. This data appears unique in an important and rapidly developing field.