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Three Dimensional Integrated Circuit Design

Three Dimensional Integrated Circuit Design Book
Author : Yuan Xie,Jingsheng Jason Cong,Sachin Sapatnekar
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-12-02
ISBN : 144190784X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

We live in a time of great change. In the electronics world, the last several decades have seen unprecedented growth and advancement, described by Moore’s law. This observation stated that transistor density in integrated circuits doubles every 1. 5–2 years. This came with the simultaneous improvement of individual device perf- mance as well as the reduction of device power such that the total power of the resulting ICs remained under control. No trend remains constant forever, and this is unfortunately the case with Moore’s law. The trouble began a number of years ago when CMOS devices were no longer able to proceed along the classical scaling trends. Key device parameters such as gate oxide thickness were simply no longer able to scale. As a result, device o- state currents began to creep up at an alarming rate. These continuing problems with classical scaling have led to a leveling off of IC clock speeds to the range of several GHz. Of course, chips can be clocked higher but the thermal issues become unmanageable. This has led to the recent trend toward microprocessors with mul- ple cores, each running at a few GHz at the most. The goal is to continue improving performance via parallelism by adding more and more cores instead of increasing speed. The challenge here is to ensure that general purpose codes can be ef?ciently parallelized. There is another potential solution to the problem of how to improve CMOS technology performance: three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs).

Three Dimensional Integrated Circuit Design

Three Dimensional Integrated Circuit Design Book
Author : Vasilis F. Pavlidis,Ioannis Savidis,Eby G. Friedman
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2017-07-04
ISBN : 0124104843
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit Design, Second Eition, expands the original with more than twice as much new content, adding the latest developments in circuit models, temperature considerations, power management, memory issues, and heterogeneous integration. 3-D IC experts Pavlidis, Savidis, and Friedman cover the full product development cycle throughout the book, emphasizing not only physical design, but also algorithms and system-level considerations to increase speed while conserving energy. A handy, comprehensive reference or a practical design guide, this book provides effective solutions to specific challenging problems concerning the design of three-dimensional integrated circuits. Expanded with new chapters and updates throughout based on the latest research in 3-D integration: Manufacturing techniques for 3-D ICs with TSVs Electrical modeling and closed-form expressions of through silicon vias Substrate noise coupling in heterogeneous 3-D ICs Design of 3-D ICs with inductive links Synchronization in 3-D ICs Variation effects on 3-D ICs Correlation of WID variations for intra-tier buffers and wires Offers practical guidance on designing 3-D heterogeneous systems Provides power delivery of 3-D ICs Demonstrates the use of 3-D ICs within heterogeneous systems that include a variety of materials, devices, processors, GPU-CPU integration, and more Provides experimental case studies in power delivery, synchronization, and thermal characterization

Three dimensional Integrated Circuit Design

Three dimensional Integrated Circuit Design Book
Author : Vasilis F. Pavlidis,Eby G. Friedman
Publisher : Morgan Kaufmann
Release : 2010-07-28
ISBN : 9780080921860
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With vastly increased complexity and functionality in the "nanometer era" (i.e. hundreds of millions of transistors on one chip), increasing the performance of integrated circuits has become a challenging task. Connecting effectively (interconnect design) all of these chip elements has become the greatest determining factor in overall performance. 3-D integrated circuit design may offer the best solutions in the near future. This is the first book on 3-D integrated circuit design, covering all of the technological and design aspects of this emerging design paradigm, while proposing effective solutions to specific challenging problems concerning the design of 3-D integrated circuits. A handy, comprehensive reference or a practical design guide, this book provides a sound foundation for the design of 3-D integrated circuits. * Demonstrates how to overcome "interconnect bottleneck" with 3-D integrated circuit design...leading edge design techniques offer solutions to problems (performance/power consumption/price) faced by all circuit designers * The FIRST book on 3-D integrated circuit design...provides up-to-date information that is otherwise difficult to find * Focuses on design issues key to the product development cycle...good design plays a major role in exploiting the implementation flexibilities offered in the 3-D * Provides broad coverage of 3-D integrated circuit design, including interconnect prediction models, thermal management techniques, and timing optimization...offers practical view of designing 3-D circuits

Three Dimensional Integrated Circuit Layout

Three Dimensional Integrated Circuit Layout Book
Author : A. C. Harter
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1991-11-28
ISBN : 0521416302
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

First published in 1991, this thesis concentrates upon the design of three-dimensional, rather than the traditional two-dimensional, circuits. The theory behind such circuits is presented in detail, together with experimental results.

Physical Design for 3D Integrated Circuits

Physical Design for 3D Integrated Circuits Book
Author : Aida Todri-Sanial,Chuan Seng Tan
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-12-19
ISBN : 1498710379
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Physical Design for 3D Integrated Circuits reveals how to effectively and optimally design 3D integrated circuits (ICs). It also analyzes the design tools for 3D circuits while exploiting the benefits of 3D technology. The book begins by offering an overview of physical design challenges with respect to conventional 2D circuits, and then each chapter delivers an in-depth look at a specific physical design topic. This comprehensive reference: Contains extensive coverage of the physical design of 2.5D/3D ICs and monolithic 3D ICs Supplies state-of-the-art solutions for challenges unique to 3D circuit design Features contributions from renowned experts in their respective fields Physical Design for 3D Integrated Circuits provides a single, convenient source of cutting-edge information for those pursuing 2.5D/3D technology.

Three Dimensional Integrated Circuit Design

Three Dimensional Integrated Circuit Design Book
Author : Yuan Xie,Jingsheng Jason Cong,Sachin Sapatnekar
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2010-05-19
ISBN : 9781441907851
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

We live in a time of great change. In the electronics world, the last several decades have seen unprecedented growth and advancement, described by Moore’s law. This observation stated that transistor density in integrated circuits doubles every 1. 5–2 years. This came with the simultaneous improvement of individual device perf- mance as well as the reduction of device power such that the total power of the resulting ICs remained under control. No trend remains constant forever, and this is unfortunately the case with Moore’s law. The trouble began a number of years ago when CMOS devices were no longer able to proceed along the classical scaling trends. Key device parameters such as gate oxide thickness were simply no longer able to scale. As a result, device o- state currents began to creep up at an alarming rate. These continuing problems with classical scaling have led to a leveling off of IC clock speeds to the range of several GHz. Of course, chips can be clocked higher but the thermal issues become unmanageable. This has led to the recent trend toward microprocessors with mul- ple cores, each running at a few GHz at the most. The goal is to continue improving performance via parallelism by adding more and more cores instead of increasing speed. The challenge here is to ensure that general purpose codes can be ef?ciently parallelized. There is another potential solution to the problem of how to improve CMOS technology performance: three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs).

Arbitrary Modeling of TSVs for 3D Integrated Circuits

Arbitrary Modeling of TSVs for 3D Integrated Circuits Book
Author : Khaled Salah,Yehea Ismail,Alaa El-Rouby
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-08-21
ISBN : 3319076116
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a wide-band and technology independent, SPICE-compatible RLC model for through-silicon vias (TSVs) in 3D integrated circuits. This model accounts for a variety of effects, including skin effect, depletion capacitance and nearby contact effects. Readers will benefit from in-depth coverage of concepts and technology such as 3D integration, Macro modeling, dimensional analysis and compact modeling, as well as closed form equations for the through silicon via parasitics. Concepts covered are demonstrated by using TSVs in applications such as a spiral inductor and inductive-based communication system and bandpass filtering.

VLSI SoC Design Methodologies for SoC and SiP

VLSI SoC  Design Methodologies for SoC and SiP Book
Author : Christian Piguet,Ricardo Reis,Dimitrios Soudris
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-04-06
ISBN : 3642122663
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book contains extended and revised versions of the best papers that were p- sented during the 16th edition of the IFIP/IEEE WG10.5 International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration, a global System-on-a-Chip Design & CAD conference. The 16th conference was held at the Grand Hotel of Rhodes Island, Greece (October 13–15, 2008). Previous conferences have taken place in Edinburgh, Trondheim, V- couver, Munich, Grenoble, Tokyo, Gramado, Lisbon, Montpellier, Darmstadt, Perth, Nice and Atlanta. VLSI-SoC 2008 was the 16th in a series of international conferences sponsored by IFIP TC 10 Working Group 10.5 and IEEE CEDA that explores the state of the art and the new developments in the field of VLSI systems and their designs. The purpose of the conference was to provide a forum to exchange ideas and to present industrial and research results in the fields of VLSI/ULSI systems, embedded systems and - croelectronic design and test.

Designing TSVs for 3D Integrated Circuits

Designing TSVs for 3D Integrated Circuits Book
Author : Nauman Khan,Soha Hassoun
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-09-22
ISBN : 1461455081
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book explores the challenges and presents best strategies for designing Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) for 3D integrated circuits. It describes a novel technique to mitigate TSV-induced noise, the GND Plug, which is superior to others adapted from 2-D planar technologies, such as a backside ground plane and traditional substrate contacts. The book also investigates, in the form of a comparative study, the impact of TSV size and granularity, spacing of C4 connectors, off-chip power delivery network, shared and dedicated TSVs, and coaxial TSVs on the quality of power delivery in 3-D ICs. The authors provide detailed best design practices for designing 3-D power delivery networks. Since TSVs occupy silicon real-estate and impact device density, this book provides four iterative algorithms to minimize the number of TSVs in a power delivery network. Unlike other existing methods, these algorithms can be applied in early design stages when only functional block- level behaviors and a floorplan are available. Finally, the authors explore the use of Carbon Nanotubes for power grid design as a futuristic alternative to Copper.

Three Dimensional Integrated Circuit Design and Test

Three Dimensional Integrated Circuit Design and Test Book
Author : Jing Xie
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The emerging three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) is one of the most promising solutions for future IC designs. 3D stacking enables much higher memory bandwidth and much lower overhead in multi-power domain design, which provides solutions for chip-multiprocessor design in mitigating the "memory wall" and "dark-silicon" problem. At the same time, 3D technology leads to new opportunities and challenges in the field of circuit and system design techniques, EDA tools and chip testing mechanism. This dissertation presents two killer applications for the modern 3D system and one 3D testing solution. The first contribution of this dissertation is to propose a killer application for TSV based system - the 3D memory stacking. This dissertation presents a 3D memory stacking system that leverages the massive number of TSVs between memory layers to help high-bandwidth checkpointing/restore. To validate the proposed scheme, 2-layer TSV-based SRAM-SRAM 3D-stacked chip is implemented to mimic the high-bandwidth and fast data transfer from one memory layer to another memory layer, so that the in-memory checkpointing/restore scheme can be enabled for the future exascale computing. The capacity of each SRAM layer is 1 Mbit. Each layer contains 64 banks, with each bank contains 256 words and the word length is 64-bit. The final footprint including I/O pad is 2.9mm X 2mm. The SRAM dies were taped out in GlobalFoundries using its 130nm low power process, and the 3D stacking was done by using Tezzaron's TSV technology. The prototyping chip can perform checkpointing/restore at the speed of 4K/cycle with 1Ghz clock.This dissertation also gives an applicable solution for 3D testing. Testing for 3D ICs based on through-silicon-via (TSV) is one of the major challenges for improving the system yield and reducing the overall cost. The lack of pads on most tiers and the mechanical vulnerability of tiers after wafer thinning make it difficult to perform 3D Known-Good-Die (KGD) test with the existing 2D IC probing methods. This dissertation presents a novel and time-efficient 3D testing flow. In this Known-Good-Stack (KGS) flow, a yield-aware TSV defect searching and replacing strategy is introduced. The Build-in-Self-Test (BIST) design with TSV redundancy scheme help improve the system yield for today's imperfect TSV fabrication process. Our study shows that less than 6 redundant TSVs is enough to increase the TSV yield to 98% for a TSV cluster with a size under 16 X 16 with relatively low initial TSV yield. The average TSV cluster testing and self-fixing time is about 3-16 testing cycle depending on the initial TSV yield.The second killer application for 3D system in this dissertation is multi-power domain system design utilizing the monolithic technology. Optimizing energy consumption for electronic systems has been an important design consideration. Among all the techniques, multi-power domain design is a widely used one for low power and high performance applications. In order to perform the data transfer between these different power domains, we needs a cross power domain interface (CPDI). The existing level-conversion flip-flop (LCFF) structures all require dual power rails, which results in large area and performance overhead. We proposed a scan-able CPDI circuit utilizing monolithic 3D technology. This interface functions as a flip-flop and provides reliable data conversion from one power domain to another. It also has built-in scan feature which makes it testable. Our design separates power rails in each tier, substantially reduced physical design complexity and area penalty. The design is implemented in a 20nm, 28nm and 45nm low power technology. It shows 20%-35% smaller D to Q comparing with normal designs. The proposed design also shows scalability and better energy consumption than precious LCFF design.Finally, we presented a dual power domain deep pipeline circuit architecture for future power-efficient systems. We reduce the power consumption by putting all the combinational logics in a lower power domain, while all the FFs and clock network operate at normal voltage for smaller insertion delay and better clock control. In order to realize these functions and system benefits, we proposed a novel level conversion flip flop omega design, which has 30% insertion delay than the normal flop design and could be easily integrated into today's synthesis flow. This work provides guideline on how to design a dual power domain system with less power under the same system throughput requirement. A system level estimation shows that the 3D dual power supply system could consume about 15% less energy by using our design methodology.

Design Methodology for Three dimensional CMOS Integrated Circuits

Design Methodology for Three dimensional CMOS Integrated Circuits Book
Author : Branislav Jovan Vajdic
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1984
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Design Methodology for Three dimensional CMOS Integrated Circuits book written by Branislav Jovan Vajdic, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Handbook of Approximation Algorithms and Metaheuristics

Handbook of Approximation Algorithms and Metaheuristics Book
Author : Teofilo F. Gonzalez
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-05-15
ISBN : 1351235400
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Approximation Algorithms and Metaheuristics, Second Edition reflects the tremendous growth in the field, over the past two decades. Through contributions from leading experts, this handbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the underlying theory and methodologies, as well as the various applications of approximation algorithms and metaheuristics. Volume 1 of this two-volume set deals primarily with methodologies and traditional applications. It includes restriction, relaxation, local ratio, approximation schemes, randomization, tabu search, evolutionary computation, local search, neural networks, and other metaheuristics. It also explores multi-objective optimization, reoptimization, sensitivity analysis, and stability. Traditional applications covered include: bin packing, multi-dimensional packing, Steiner trees, traveling salesperson, scheduling, and related problems. Volume 2 focuses on the contemporary and emerging applications of methodologies to problems in combinatorial optimization, computational geometry and graphs problems, as well as in large-scale and emerging application areas. It includes approximation algorithms and heuristics for clustering, networks (sensor and wireless), communication, bioinformatics search, streams, virtual communities, and more. About the Editor Teofilo F. Gonzalez is a professor emeritus of computer science at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He completed his Ph.D. in 1975 from the University of Minnesota. He taught at the University of Oklahoma, the Pennsylvania State University, and the University of Texas at Dallas, before joining the UCSB computer science faculty in 1984. He spent sabbatical leaves at the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education and Utrecht University. He is known for his highly cited pioneering research in the hardness of approximation; for his sublinear and best possible approximation algorithm for k-tMM clustering; for introducing the open-shop scheduling problem as well as algorithms for its solution that have found applications in numerous research areas; as well as for his research on problems in the areas of job scheduling, graph algorithms, computational geometry, message communication, wire routing, etc.

Three Dimensional System Integration

Three Dimensional System Integration Book
Author : Antonis Papanikolaou,Dimitrios Soudris,Riko Radojcic
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-12-07
ISBN : 1441909621
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) stacking is the next big step in electronic system integration. It enables packing more functionality, as well as integration of heterogeneous materials, devices, and signals, in the same space (volume). This results in consumer electronics (e.g., mobile, handheld devices) which can run more powerful applications, such as full-length movies and 3D games, with longer battery life. This technology is so promising that it is expected to be a mainstream technology a few years from now, less than 10-15 years from its original conception. To achieve this type of end product, changes in the entire manufacturing and design process of electronic systems are taking place. This book provides readers with an accessible tutorial on a broad range of topics essential to the non-expert in 3D System Integration. It is an invaluable resource for anybody in need of an overview of the 3D manufacturing and design chain.

Design and Verification Methodology for Complex Three Dimensional Digital Integrated Circuit

Design and Verification Methodology for Complex Three Dimensional Digital Integrated Circuit Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits (3DICs) have recently attracted great interest from researchers and IC designers as a possible solution to fill the gap between device and interconnect scaling. Various studies have demonstrated the potential performance improvement of 3DICs by eliminating long interconnects, repeaters, and clock buffers. Though 3DICs are attractive, there are significant challenges associated with this topic. The most fundamental issue in 3DIC is heat dissipation. The thermal effect has impacted the conventional high-performance 2DICs in deep sub-micron technology nodes. Its effect will aggravate 3DICs due to two major reasons: higher power density, and lower thermal conductivity caused by more insulating dielectric layers. Furthermore, while 3D integration provides more design flexibility, this technology also introduces much higher design complexity. The existing 2D physical design methodology cannot be simply extended to a 3D case because of the huge obstacles in the z-direction and thermal constraints. Efficient design flows and algorithms must be developed to facilitate 3DIC design. This dissertation proposes a design and verification methodology, along with analyses of delay, thermal, and reliability of a 3D system. The methodology uses commercial 2D CAD tools with Python and Tcl scripts to link them together. The scripts modify the output files (or databases) of the commercial tools and add 3D features to them. The entire flow achieves RTL-to-GDSII physical design automation for 3DICs. Design trade-offs and timing reliability of 3D systems are two other major issues of this dissertation. Non-idealities threaten to diminish the benefit and may cause reliability problems in 3D systems. These non-idealities must be monitored during the design procedure. With a fast yet accurate temperature dependency model, these non-idealities were successfully taken into consideration during both design and verification phases. The final performance analy.

Prototype device Fabricaton and Modeling for All semiconductor Three dimensional Integrated Circuits

Prototype device Fabricaton and Modeling for All semiconductor Three dimensional Integrated Circuits Book
Author : Ronald David Schrimpf
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1986
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Prototype device Fabricaton and Modeling for All semiconductor Three dimensional Integrated Circuits book written by Ronald David Schrimpf, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Design of 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems

Design of 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems Book
Author : Rohit Sharma
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-09-03
ISBN : 1466589426
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Three-dimensional (3D) integration of microsystems and subsystems has become essential to the future of semiconductor technology development. 3D integration requires a greater understanding of several interconnected systems stacked over each other. While this vertical growth profoundly increases the system functionality, it also exponentially increases the design complexity. Design of 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems tackles all aspects of 3D integration, including 3D circuit and system design, new processes and simulation techniques, alternative communication schemes for 3D circuits and systems, application of novel materials for 3D systems, and the thermal challenges to restrict power dissipation and improve performance of 3D systems. Containing contributions from experts in industry as well as academia, this authoritative text: Illustrates different 3D integration approaches, such as die-to-die, die-to-wafer, and wafer-to-wafer Discusses the use of interposer technology and the role of Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) Presents the latest improvements in three major fields of thermal management for multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs) Explores ThruChip Interface (TCI), NAND flash memory stacking, and emerging applications Describes large-scale integration testing and state-of-the-art low-power testing solutions Complete with experimental results of chip-level 3D integration schemes tested at IBM and case studies on advanced complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) integration for 3D integrated circuits (ICs), Design of 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems is a practical reference that not only covers a wealth of design issues encountered in 3D integration but also demonstrates their impact on the efficiency of 3D systems.

Thermal driven Placement in 3 dimensional Integrated Circuits

Thermal driven Placement in 3 dimensional Integrated Circuits Book
Author : Wei Li
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Thermal driven Placement in 3 dimensional Integrated Circuits book written by Wei Li, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Design Automation and Analysis of Three dimensional Integrated Circuits

Design Automation and Analysis of Three dimensional Integrated Circuits Book
Author : Shamik Das
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

(Cont.) technologies may be leveraged to maintain acceptable die temperatures in 3-D ICs. Finally, we explore two issues for the future of 3-D integration. We determine how technology scaling impacts the effect of 3-D integration on circuit performance. We also consider how to improve the performance of digital components in a mixed-signal 3-D integrated circuit. We conclude with a look towards future 3-D IC design tools.

Proceedings

Proceedings Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Proceedings book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.