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Thin Film Solar Cells From Earth Abundant Materials

Thin Film Solar Cells From Earth Abundant Materials Book
Author : Subba Ramaiah Kodigala
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-11-14
ISBN : 0123971829
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The fundamental concept of the book is to explain how to make thin film solar cells from the abundant solar energy materials by low cost. The proper and optimized growth conditions are very essential while sandwiching thin films to make solar cell otherwise secondary phases play a role to undermine the working function of solar cells. The book illustrates growth and characterization of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film absorbers and their solar cells. The fabrication process of absorber layers by either vacuum or non-vacuum process is readily elaborated in the book, which helps for further development of cells. The characterization analyses such as XPS, XRD, SEM, AFM etc., lead to tailor the physical properties of the absorber layers to fit well for the solar cells. The role of secondary phases such as ZnS, Cu2-xS,SnS etc., which are determined by XPS, XRD or Raman, in the absorber layers is promptly discussed. The optical spectroscopy analysis, which finds band gap, optical constants of the films, is mentioned in the book. The electrical properties of the absorbers deal the influence of substrates, growth temperature, impurities, secondary phases etc. The low temperature I-V and C-V measurements of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film solar cells are clearly described. The solar cell parameters such as efficiency, fill factor, series resistance, parallel resistance provide handful information to understand the mechanism of physics of thin film solar cells in the book. The band structure, which supports to adjust interface states at the p-n junction of the solar cells is given. On the other hand the role of window layers with the solar cells is discussed. The simulation of theoretical efficiency of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film solar cells explains how much efficiency can be experimentally extracted from the cells. One of the first books exploring how to conduct research on thin film solar cells, including reducing costs Detailed instructions on conducting research

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Based Thin Film Solar Cells

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Based Thin Film Solar Cells Book
Author : Kentaro Ito
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-02-23
ISBN : 111843787X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground–mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth–abundant, low–cost and non–toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and toxicity issues. The device performance of CZTS–based thin film solar cells has been steadily improving over the past 20 years, and they have now reached near commercial efficiency levels (10%). These achievements prove that CZTS–based solar cells have the potential to be used for large–scale deployment of photovoltaics. With contributions from leading researchers from academia and industry, many of these authors have contributed to the improvement of its efficiency, and have rich experience in preparing a variety of semiconducting thin films for solar cells.

Fabrication and Characterization of Low Cost Solar Cells based on Earth Abundant Materials for Sustainable Photovoltaics

Fabrication and Characterization of Low Cost Solar Cells based on Earth Abundant Materials for Sustainable Photovoltaics Book
Author : Mahmoud Abdelfatah
Publisher : Cuvillier Verlag
Release : 2016-07-08
ISBN : 3736982968
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The low cost and low temperature electrochemical deposition technique was employed to grow Cu2O thin films and ZnO:Al thin films were deposited by d.c. magnetron sputtering in order to fabricate solar cells. The potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrodeposition modes were used to deposit the Cu2O thin films. Raman spectra of thin films have shown characteristic frequencies of crystalline Cu2O. The contact between Cu2O and Au is found to be an Ohmic contact. The devices grown by a potentiostatic mode have higher efficiency than those grown by a galvanostatic mode. The optimum thickness of Cu2O thin films as an absorber layer in solar cells. was found to be around 3 µm respect to a high efficiency. Flexible and light weight solar cell was fabricated on plastic substrate.

Earth Abundant Materials for Solar Cells

Earth Abundant Materials for Solar Cells Book
Author : Sadao Adachi
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-10-28
ISBN : 1119052831
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Systematically describes the physical and materials properties of copper-based quaternary chalcogenide semiconductor materials, enabling their potential for photovoltaic device applications. Intended for scientists and engineers, in particular, in the fields of multinary semiconductor physics and a variety of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices.

Alternative Substrates for Sustainable and Earth abundant Thin Film Photovoltaics

Alternative Substrates for Sustainable and Earth abundant Thin Film Photovoltaics Book
Author : Ignacio Becerril Romero
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The development of sustainable energy sources with a high energy return on energy investment (EROI) that can substitute fossil fuels is a must in order to avoid the collapse of our current civilization. In this context, this work explores the feasibility of fabricating efficient Cu2ZnSn(Sx,Se1-x)4 (kesterite) solar cells on three strategic substrates: polyimide, ceramic and SnO2:F-coated soda-lime glass (SLG/FTO). These substrates present several advantages with respect to the standard SLG/Mo. Polyimide is compatible with roll-to-toll production processes and easily integrable in many applications thanks to its light weight and flexibility, ceramics have a direct application in building-integrated photovoltaics as solar tiles and the transparency of SLG/FTO enables advanced photovoltaic concepts like bifacial and tandem solar cells as well as the fabrication of semi-transparent devices. Their combination with a sustainable thin film photovoltaic technology based on Earth-abundant materials like kesterites has the potential of decreasing the energy fabrication cost and, thus, of increasing the EROI of photovoltaics through: 1) high throughput production, 2) integration and 3) advanced applications and functionality. However, these substrates also present several drawbacks. Alkalis, especially Na, are fundamental to achieve high efficiency devices but polyimide and ceramics are alkali-free materials. Likewise, FTO acts as a barrier for alkalis. In addition, polyimide presents a low thermal robustness that limits process temperatures below 500oC, ceramics are very rough and possess detrimental impurities and the use of FTO as back contact leads to a non-optimum p-kesterite/n-FTO interface. This work focuses on the implementation of specific strategies to adapt the kesterite solar cell fabrication process to the characteristics of the different substrates. A combination of alkaline doping and low-temperature annealings is studied for the fabrication of Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cells on polyimide. While doping with NaF and KF is found to lead to critical improvements, working at low temperature is linked to the formation of SnSe2. This phase decreases the open-circuit voltage of the devices and is the main factor controlling their performance. Further experimentation leads to a 4.9% efficiency record device by combining NaF and Ge doping and a 480oC annealing. In the case of ceramic, vitreous enamels with controlled amounts of Na2O in their composition are used as surface smoothers, Na sources and impurity barriers, simultaneously. However, large amounts of Na2O in the enamel composition result in high densities of surface defects: undulations, pinholes and cracks. While undulations and pinholes are rather benign, cracks strongly deteriorate the back contact. In addition, the annealing time needs to be controlled to avoid the formation of SnSe2. Besides these issues, enamelled ceramic substrates are observed to behave similarly to SLG yielding a record Cu2ZnSnSe4 device with a 7.5% efficiency. Regarding SLG/FTO, the addition of transition metal oxides (TMOs) and/or Mo:Na nanolayers is studied as an approach to improve the back interface of the devices. Mo:Na is found to alleviate shunting and recombination issues and to protect FTO from degradation during annealing which leads to highly improved devices, especially for Cu2ZnSnS4. On the other hand, TMOs introduce a severe current blockage. However, the combination of the TiO2 and V2O5 with Mo:Na is observed to boost the beneficial effects of the latter in Cu2ZnSnSe4 and Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 devices. Although these multi-layered back interfaces exhibit a complex behaviour, this approach results in record efficiencies of 6.2%, 6.1% and 7.9% for Cu2ZnSnSe4, Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 devices, respectively. These results represent the highest efficiencies ever reported for kesterite solar cells fabricated on polyimide, ceramic and transparent substrates and give proof of their large potential for sustainable kesterite-based photovoltaics." -- TDX.

Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices

Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices Book
Author : Jaydeep Sarkar
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2010-12-13
ISBN : 0815519877
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall productivity of various processes. Two unique chapters of this book deal with productivity and troubleshooting issues. The content of the book has been divided into two sections: (a) the first section (Chapter 1 to Chapter 3) has been prepared for the readers from a range of disciplines (e.g. electrical, chemical, chemistry, physics) trying to get an insight into use of sputtered films in various devices (e.g. semiconductor, display, photovoltaic, data storage), basic of sputtering and performance of sputtering target in relation to productivity, and (b) the second section (Chapter 4 to Chapter 8) has been prepared for readers who already have background knowledge of sputter deposition of thin films, materials science principles and interested in the details of sputtering target manufacturing methods, sputtering behavior and thin film properties specific to semiconductor, liquid crystal display, photovoltaic and magnetic data storage applications. In Chapters 5 to 8, a general structure has been used, i.e. a description of the applications of sputtered thin films, sputtering target manufacturing methods (including flow charts), sputtering behavior of targets (e.g. current - voltage relationship, deposition rate) and thin film properties (e.g. microstructure, stresses, electrical properties, in-film particles). While discussing these topics, attempts have been made to include examples from the actual commercial processes to highlight the increased complexity of the commercial processes with the growth of advanced technologies. In addition to personnel working in industry setting, university researchers with advanced knowledge of sputtering would also find discussion of such topics (e.g. attributes of target design, chamber design, target microstructure, sputter surface characteristics, various troubleshooting issues) useful. . Unique coverage of sputtering target manufacturing methods in the light of semiconductor, displays, data storage and photovoltaic industry requirements Practical information on technology trends, role of sputtering and major OEMs Discussion on properties of a wide variety of thin films which include silicides, conductors, diffusion barriers, transparent conducting oxides, magnetic films etc. Practical case-studies on target performance and troubleshooting Essential technological information for students, engineers and scientists working in the semiconductor, display, data storage and photovoltaic industry

Electronic Characterisation of Earth Abundant Sulphides for Solar Photovoltaics

Electronic Characterisation of Earth   Abundant Sulphides for Solar Photovoltaics Book
Author : Thomas James Whittles
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-07-31
ISBN : 3319916653
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book examines the electronic structure of earth-abundant and environmentally friendly materials for use as absorber layers within photovoltaic cells. The corroboration between high-quality photoemission measurements and density of states calculations yields valuable insights into why these materials have demonstrated poor device efficiencies in the vast literature cited. The book shows how the materials’ underlying electronic structures affect their properties, and how the band positions make them unsuitable for use with established solar cell technologies. After explaining these poor efficiencies, the book offers alternative window layer materials to improve the use of these absorbers. The power of photoemission and interpretation of the data in terms of factors generally overlooked in the literature, such as the materials’ oxidation and phase impurity, is demonstrated. Representing a unique reference guide, the book will be of considerable interest and value to members of the photoemission community engaged in solar cell research, and to a wider materials science audience as well.

Materials Processing Technology ICAMMP2011

Materials Processing Technology  ICAMMP2011 Book
Author : Xiang Hua Liu,Zheng Yi Jiang,Jing Tao Han
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release : 2011-12-06
ISBN : 3038137782
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

These volumes comprise papers, on the topic of “Materials Processing Technology”, selected from the second International Conference on Advances in Materials and Manufacturing (ICAMMP 2011) held on the 16-18th December 2011 in Guilin, China. The 469 peer-reviewed papers are grouped into the chapters: 1: Advanced Engineering Materials, 2: Surface Engineering/Coatings, 3: Materials Forming, Machining and Joining, 4: Laser Processing, 5: Powder Metallurgy and Plastic Deformation, 6: Friction and Wear, 7: Waste-to-Energy, Waste Management and Waste Disposal, 8: CAD/CAE/CAM, 9: Product Design and Development, 10: Other Related Topics.

Terawatt Solar Photovoltaics

Terawatt Solar Photovoltaics Book
Author : Meng Tao
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2014-04-07
ISBN : 1447156439
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Solar energy will undoubtedly become a main source of energy in our life by the end of this century, but how big of a role will photovoltaics play in this new energy infrastructure? Besides cost and efficiency, there are other barriers for current solar cell technologies to become a noticeable source of energy in the future. Availability of raw materials, energy input, storage of solar electricity, and recycling of dead modules can all prevent or hinder a tangible impact by solar photovoltaics. This book is intended for readers with minimal technical background and aims to explore not only the fundamentals but also major issues in large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaics. Thought-provoking ideas to overcoming some of the barriers are discussed.

Energy and Environmental Materials II

Energy and Environmental Materials II Book
Author : Yafang Han,Jiatao Zhang,Jianguo Zhu
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release : 2015-03-12
ISBN : 3038267791
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the Chinese Materials Congress 2014 (CMC 2014), July 4-7, 2014, Chengdu, China. The 89 papers are grouped as follows: Symposium A: Energy Related Composites and Nano-Materials; Symposium B: Photocatalytic Materials and Its Applications In the Field of Energy and Environment; Symposium C: Minerals And Resources, Materials for Oil-Gas Field Engineering, Structure Building Applications; Symposium D: Environment Technologies and Functional Materials, Environmental Emission and Protection

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Thin Films for Photovoltaics

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Thin Films for Photovoltaics Book
Author : Jonathan J. Scragg
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-09-01
ISBN : 9783642229190
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Jonathan Scragg documents his work on a very promising material suitable for use in solar cells. Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide (CZTS) is a low cost, earth-abundant material suitable for large scale deployment in photovoltaics. Jonathan pioneered and optimized a low cost route to this material involving electroplating of the three metals concerned, followed by rapid thermal processing (RTP) in sulfur vapour. His beautifully detailed RTP studies – combined with techniques such as XRD, EDX and Raman – reveal the complex relationships between composition, processing and photovoltaic performance. This exceptional thesis contributes to the development of clean, sustainable and alternative sources of energy

Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials II

Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials II Book
Author : Guo Hui Yang
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release : 2013-09-27
ISBN : 3038262560
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the 2013 2nd International Conference on Nanotechnology Technology and Advanced Materials (ICNTAM 2013), August 4-5, 2013, Los Angeles, CA, USA. The 43 papers are grouped as follows: Chapter 1: Material Science and Chemical Engineering; Chapter 2: Nanotechnology; Chapter 3: Management, Analysis and Engineering Research; Chapter 4: Control, Automation and Detection Technologies. 2013 serves as good platforms for academics, researchers, and engineers to meet and exchange innovative ideas and information on all aspects of nanotechnology and material technologies. Nanotechnology is the study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale.Nanotechnology entails the application of fields of science as diverse as surface science, organicchemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, microfabrication, etc. There is much debateon the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many newmaterials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in medicine, electronics,biomaterials and energy production. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the sameissues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact ofnanomaterials, and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about variousdoomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governmentson whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted.

Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells

Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells Book
Author : M. Parans Paranthaman,Winnie Wong-Ng,Raghu N. Bhattacharya
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-09-16
ISBN : 3319203312
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book reviews the current status of semiconductor materials for conversion of sunlight to electricity, and highlights advances in both basic science and manufacturing. Photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology will be a significant contributor to world energy supplies when reliable, efficient PV power products are manufactured in large volumes at low cost. Expert chapters cover the full range of semiconductor materials for solar-to-electricity conversion, from crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon to cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium sulfide selenides, dye sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and environmentally friendly copper zinc tin sulfide selenides. The latest methods for synthesis and characterization of solar cell materials are described, together with techniques for measuring solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce costs, with particular focus on how to reduce the gap between laboratory scale efficiency and commercial module efficiency. This book will aid materials scientists and engineers in identifying research priorities to fulfill energy needs, and will also enable researchers to understand novel semiconductor materials that are emerging in the solar market. This integrated approach also gives science and engineering students a sense of the excitement and relevance of materials science in the development of novel semiconductor materials. · Provides a comprehensive introduction to solar PV cell materials · Reviews current and future status of solar cells with respect to cost and efficiency · Covers the full range of solar cell materials, from silicon and thin films to dye sensitized and organic solar cells · Offers an in-depth account of the semiconductor material strategies and directions for further research · Features detailed tables on the world leaders in efficiency demonstrations · Edited by scientists with experience in both research and industry

Modeling and Simulation of Charge Carrier Recombination Dynamics in Cu In Ga Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells

Modeling and Simulation of Charge Carrier Recombination Dynamics in Cu In Ga Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells Book
Author : José Fabio López Salas
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Solar cells with thin Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 absorber films are well established in the photovoltaics market. They offer an advantage over other thin film technologies thanks to their lower content of elements with high toxicity or low earth abundance like Cd and Te. One approach to further improve the quality of production of these cells is to develop a method of material quality assessment during production that is fast, contactless and non-destructive. Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements offer all these characteristics. This work aims to establish the requirements to extract meaningful information about charge carrier recombination dynamics and solar cell performance parameters from TRPL measurements. To achieve this goal experiments and simulations are carried out. The material parameters are extracted from experiments and then built into the simulation model. Results from experiments also serve as the basis to verify the validity of this model. Parameter variations within the simulations function as one of the main methods in this work to gain deeper physical insight into the processes taking place during TRPL measurements. engl.

Physics and Technology of Nanostructured Materials IV

Physics and Technology of Nanostructured Materials IV Book
Author : Nikolay G. Galkin
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release : 2018-09-14
ISBN : 3035734771
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fourth Asian School-Conference on Physics and Technology of Nanostructured Materials (ASCO-Nanomat 2018) has been held in Vladivostok (Russia) on September 23-28, 2018. The main goal of ASCO-NANOMAT 2018 was the presentation of the latest findings and the development of the new synergies in the field of physics of nanostructured materials, recent nanotechnology and related subjects of the materials science.

Thin Film WSe2 for Use as a Photovoltaic Absorber Material

Thin Film WSe2 for Use as a Photovoltaic Absorber Material Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

ABSTRACT: An excellent candidate for an earth abundant absorber material is WSe2 which can be directly grown as a p-type semiconductor with a band gap near 1.4 eV. In this work we present the structural, optical, and electrical properties of thin film WSe2 grown via the selenization of sputter deposited tungsten films. We will show that highly textured films with an optical band gap in range of 1.4 eV, and absorption coefficients greater than 10 5 /cm across the visible spectrum can be easily achieved. In addition we will present Hall Effect and carrier density measurements as well, where will show densities in the 10 17 cm -3 range and p-type Hall mobilities greater than 10 cm 2 /V-s range can be obtained. We employ these results to numerically simulate solar cells based on this material, where we will show efficiencies greater than 20% are possible.

Frontiers of Manufacturing and Design Science III

Frontiers of Manufacturing and Design Science III Book
Author : Wen Pei Sung,Ran Chen
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release : 2012-12-27
ISBN : 3038139599
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS). This book brings together 340 pieces of peer-reviewed papers on Frontiers of Manufacturing and Design Science. This book promotes the development of Manufacturing, Design and Materials Science, strengthening the international academic cooperation and communications, and exchanging research ideas.

Deposition and Characterization of Post growth Annealed ZnSnN2 Thin Films

Deposition and Characterization of Post growth Annealed ZnSnN2 Thin Films Book
Author : Sudheer Korlam
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In order to cater to modern day photovoltaic and solar needs, semiconductor materials which are earth abundant with a direct bandgap (Eg) around 1.5eV are necessary[1,2] . Of the commonly known semiconductor materials like Si, Ge or binary III-V (Where III = B, A, Ga, In and V = N, P, As, Sb) and II-VI (Where II = Zn, Cd; and VI = O, S, Se, Te), only a few candidates consist of bandgaps which are in the range 1.0-2.0 eV. The requirement for efficient, high quality photovoltaics energy conversion and opto-electronic devices which can be an alternative to the current available semiconductor materials inspires the search for other earth abundant materials [3]. One way to search for these new materials is by studying ternary or multi-ternary semiconductor materials which have more opto-electronic properties. The Zn-IV-N2 group of semiconductor materials has been attracting a lot of attention following the synthesis of Sn containing material, ZnSnN2[4-5]. These novel Zn-IV-N2 group of semiconductor materials can act as a potential earth abundant alternative to InGaN and other thin film solar cell materials such as CdTe and CuInGaSe2 for use in light generation and light absorption applications. For materials such as Zn(Ge,Sn)N2 alloys, absorption edges which are in the range of 2.0 - 3.1eV have been shown already[6]. And an even larger spectral distribution from the infrared region to the ultraviolet region is expected for Zn(Si,Sn)N2 alloys. Even wider spectral coverage from the infrared to the ultraviolet is predicted for Zn(Si,Sn)N2 alloys[7]. Of all the potential options, the ZnSnN2 material exhibits properties such as large optical absorption coefficient and a tunable bandgap range among others that make it a really good potential material as the absorber layer for the next generation PV devices. One of the major challenges facing this material is the discrepancies between the measured and calculated bandgap values. The calculated bandgap values are in the range of 0.35 - 2.64 eV depending on the crystal structure assumed[39] . Whereas the value of the experimental bandgap lies between 1.7 -2.1 eV [40]. One of the reasons for this inability to converge on a bandgap value has been attributed to the bandgap filling due to the degenerate carrier concentration of the material[38] (around 1021 - 1022 per cm-3). In this dissertation, issues related to the carrier concentration in ZnSnN2 material are studied. Most of the work done focuses on efforts to reduce the carrier concentration in ZnSnN2 films to around 1018 per cm-3 range. The growth method used for growing the ZnSnN2 films was RF sputtering using Zn-Sn cathodes containing Zn-Sn in the ratio 3:1. RF Sputtering was chosen because it produces films that are more uniform than the films fabricated using other methods like vapor-liquid-solid plasma assisted growth or CVD[41]. The films were grown on c-plane Sapphire and (0001) GaN substrates. The so obtained films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Hall Effect measurement. The films were later subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at various temperatures to study the effect of rapidly heating the samples to high temperatures, holding them for a given time and cooling them quickly. The samples subjected to RTA were characterized by XRD, SEM and Hall Effect measurements. The results indicated a significance decrease in the electron concentration of the material after the annealing process which could make ZnSnN2 an interesting alternative as an earth abundant semiconductor material for future absorber layers.

Proceedings

Proceedings Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1984
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Proceedings book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Renewable Energy

Renewable Energy Book
Author : Shyamal K. Majumdar,Eugene Willard Miller,Assad I. Panah
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2002
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Renewable Energy book written by Shyamal K. Majumdar,Eugene Willard Miller,Assad I. Panah, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.