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Thin Film Solar Cells From Earth Abundant Materials

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Thin Film Solar Cells From Earth Abundant Materials

Thin Film Solar Cells From Earth Abundant Materials Book
Author : Subba Ramaiah Kodigala
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-11-13
ISBN : 9780128101568
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The fundamental concept of the book is to explain how to make thin film solar cells from the abundant solar energy materials by low cost. The proper and optimized growth conditions are very essential while sandwiching thin films to make solar cell otherwise secondary phases play a role to undermine the working function of solar cells. The book illustrates growth and characterization of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film absorbers and their solar cells. The fabrication process of absorber layers by either vacuum or non-vacuum process is readily elaborated in the book, which helps for further development of cells. The characterization analyses such as XPS, XRD, SEM, AFM etc., lead to tailor the physical properties of the absorber layers to fit well for the solar cells. The role of secondary phases such as ZnS, Cu2-xS,SnS etc., which are determined by XPS, XRD or Raman, in the absorber layers is promptly discussed. The optical spectroscopy analysis, which finds band gap, optical constants of the films, is mentioned in the book. The electrical properties of the absorbers deal the influence of substrates, growth temperature, impurities, secondary phases etc. The low temperature I-V and C-V measurements of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film solar cells are clearly described. The solar cell parameters such as efficiency, fill factor, series resistance, parallel resistance provide handful information to understand the mechanism of physics of thin film solar cells in the book. The band structure, which supports to adjust interface states at the p-n junction of the solar cells is given. On the other hand the role of window layers with the solar cells is discussed. The simulation of theoretical efficiency of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film solar cells explains how much efficiency can be experimentally extracted from the cells. One of the first books exploring how to conduct research on thin film solar cells, including reducing costs Detailed instructions on conducting research

Thin Film Solar Cells From Earth Abundant Materials

Thin Film Solar Cells From Earth Abundant Materials Book
Author : Subba Ramaiah Kodigala
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-11-14
ISBN : 0123971829
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The fundamental concept of the book is to explain how to make thin film solar cells from the abundant solar energy materials by low cost. The proper and optimized growth conditions are very essential while sandwiching thin films to make solar cell otherwise secondary phases play a role to undermine the working function of solar cells. The book illustrates growth and characterization of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film absorbers and their solar cells. The fabrication process of absorber layers by either vacuum or non-vacuum process is readily elaborated in the book, which helps for further development of cells. The characterization analyses such as XPS, XRD, SEM, AFM etc., lead to tailor the physical properties of the absorber layers to fit well for the solar cells. The role of secondary phases such as ZnS, Cu2-xS,SnS etc., which are determined by XPS, XRD or Raman, in the absorber layers is promptly discussed. The optical spectroscopy analysis, which finds band gap, optical constants of the films, is mentioned in the book. The electrical properties of the absorbers deal the influence of substrates, growth temperature, impurities, secondary phases etc. The low temperature I-V and C-V measurements of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film solar cells are clearly described. The solar cell parameters such as efficiency, fill factor, series resistance, parallel resistance provide handful information to understand the mechanism of physics of thin film solar cells in the book. The band structure, which supports to adjust interface states at the p-n junction of the solar cells is given. On the other hand the role of window layers with the solar cells is discussed. The simulation of theoretical efficiency of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film solar cells explains how much efficiency can be experimentally extracted from the cells. One of the first books exploring how to conduct research on thin film solar cells, including reducing costs Detailed instructions on conducting research

Earth Abundant Materials for Solar Cells

Earth Abundant Materials for Solar Cells Book
Author : Sadao Adachi
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-10-28
ISBN : 1119052831
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Systematically describes the physical and materials properties of copper-based quaternary chalcogenide semiconductor materials, enabling their potential for photovoltaic device applications. Intended for scientists and engineers, in particular, in the fields of multinary semiconductor physics and a variety of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices.

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Based Thin Film Solar Cells

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Based Thin Film Solar Cells Book
Author : Kentaro Ito
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-12-11
ISBN : 1118437845
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and toxicity issues. The device performance of CZTS-based thin film solar cells has been steadily improving over the past 20 years, and they have now reached near commercial efficiency levels (10%). These achievements prove that CZTS-based solar cells have the potential to be used for large-scale deployment of photovoltaics. With contributions from leading researchers from academia and industry, many of these authors have contributed to the improvement of its efficiency, and have rich experience in preparing a variety of semiconducting thin films for solar cells.

Advanced Concepts in Photovoltaics

Advanced Concepts in Photovoltaics Book
Author : Arthur J. Nozik,Gavin Conibeer,Matthew C Beard
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2014-07-10
ISBN : 1849739951
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Photovoltaic systems enable the sun’s energy to be converted directly into electricity using semiconductor solar cells. The ultimate goal of photovoltaic research and development is to reduce the cost of solar power to reach or even become lower than the cost of electricity generated from fossil and nuclear fuels. The power conversion efficiency and the cost per unit area of the phototvoltaic system are critical factors that determine the cost of photovoltaic electricity. Until recently, the power conversion efficiency of single-junction photovoltaic cells has been limited to approximately 33% - the so-called Shockley-Queisser limit. This book presents the latest developments in photovoltaics which seek to either reach or surpass the Shockley-Queisser limit, and to lower the cell cost per unit area. Progress toward this ultimate goal is presented for the three generations of photovoltaic cells: the 1st generation based on crystalline silicon semiconductors; the 2nd generation based on thin film silicon, compound semiconductors, amorphous silicon, and various mesoscopic structures; and the 3rd generation based on the unique properties of nanoscale materials, new inorganic and organic photoconversion materials, highly efficient multi-junction cells with low cost solar concentration, and novel photovoltaic processes. The extent to which photovoltaic materials and processes can meet the expectations of efficient and cost effective solar energy conversion to electricity is discussed. Written by an international team of expert contributors, and with researchers in academia, national research laboratories, and industry in mind, this book is a comprehensive guide to recent progress in photovoltaics and essential for any library or laboratory in the field.

Fabrication and Characterization of Low Cost Solar Cells based on Earth Abundant Materials for Sustainable Photovoltaics

Fabrication and Characterization of Low Cost Solar Cells based on Earth Abundant Materials for Sustainable Photovoltaics Book
Author : Mahmoud Abdelfatah
Publisher : Cuvillier Verlag
Release : 2016-07-08
ISBN : 3736982968
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The low cost and low temperature electrochemical deposition technique was employed to grow Cu2O thin films and ZnO:Al thin films were deposited by d.c. magnetron sputtering in order to fabricate solar cells. The potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrodeposition modes were used to deposit the Cu2O thin films. Raman spectra of thin films have shown characteristic frequencies of crystalline Cu2O. The contact between Cu2O and Au is found to be an Ohmic contact. The devices grown by a potentiostatic mode have higher efficiency than those grown by a galvanostatic mode. The optimum thickness of Cu2O thin films as an absorber layer in solar cells. was found to be around 3 µm respect to a high efficiency. Flexible and light weight solar cell was fabricated on plastic substrate.

Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules

Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules Book
Author : Abdulkerim Gok
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-01-08
ISBN : 1789848229
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy is expected to be the world's largest source of electricity in the future. To enhance the long-term reliability of PV modules, a thorough understanding of failure mechanisms is of vital importance. In addition, it is important to address the potential downsides to this technology. These include the hazardous chemicals needed for manufacturing solar cells, especially for thin-film technologies, and the large number of PV modules disposed of at the end of their lifecycles. This book discusses the reliability and environmental aspects of PV modules.

Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices

Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices Book
Author : Jaydeep Sarkar
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2010-12-13
ISBN : 0815519877
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall productivity of various processes. Two unique chapters of this book deal with productivity and troubleshooting issues. The content of the book has been divided into two sections: (a) the first section (Chapter 1 to Chapter 3) has been prepared for the readers from a range of disciplines (e.g. electrical, chemical, chemistry, physics) trying to get an insight into use of sputtered films in various devices (e.g. semiconductor, display, photovoltaic, data storage), basic of sputtering and performance of sputtering target in relation to productivity, and (b) the second section (Chapter 4 to Chapter 8) has been prepared for readers who already have background knowledge of sputter deposition of thin films, materials science principles and interested in the details of sputtering target manufacturing methods, sputtering behavior and thin film properties specific to semiconductor, liquid crystal display, photovoltaic and magnetic data storage applications. In Chapters 5 to 8, a general structure has been used, i.e. a description of the applications of sputtered thin films, sputtering target manufacturing methods (including flow charts), sputtering behavior of targets (e.g. current - voltage relationship, deposition rate) and thin film properties (e.g. microstructure, stresses, electrical properties, in-film particles). While discussing these topics, attempts have been made to include examples from the actual commercial processes to highlight the increased complexity of the commercial processes with the growth of advanced technologies. In addition to personnel working in industry setting, university researchers with advanced knowledge of sputtering would also find discussion of such topics (e.g. attributes of target design, chamber design, target microstructure, sputter surface characteristics, various troubleshooting issues) useful. . Unique coverage of sputtering target manufacturing methods in the light of semiconductor, displays, data storage and photovoltaic industry requirements Practical information on technology trends, role of sputtering and major OEMs Discussion on properties of a wide variety of thin films which include silicides, conductors, diffusion barriers, transparent conducting oxides, magnetic films etc. Practical case-studies on target performance and troubleshooting Essential technological information for students, engineers and scientists working in the semiconductor, display, data storage and photovoltaic industry

Sulfide and Selenide Based Materials for Emerging Applications

Sulfide and Selenide Based Materials for Emerging Applications Book
Author : Goutam Kumar Dalapati,Terence Kin Shun Wong,Subrata Kundu,Amit Kumar Chakraborty,Siarhei Zhuk
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2022-06-17
ISBN : 0323998828
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sulfide and Selenide-Based Materials for Emerging Applications explores a materials and device-based approach to the transition to low-cost sustainable thin film photovoltaic devices and energy storage systems. Part 1 examines recent advances in renewable technologies and materials for sustainable development, as well as photovoltaic energy storage devices. Part 2 discusses thin film solar cells with earth abundant materials, highlighting the power conversion efficiency of the kesterite-based solar cells. Kesterite film technology including different synthesis and doping method designs are also discussed, along with emerging sulfide semiconductors with potential in thin film photovoltaics/flexible devices. In Part 3 sulfur- and selenides-based materials for thermoelectric applications are explored. Part 4 covers chalcogenide semiconductors with applications in electrochemical water splitting for green hydrogen generation and oxygen generation, as well as the latest research on layered 2D transition metal chalcogenides for electrochemical water splitting. To conclude, part 5 discusses recent developments of storage technologies such as Li-S batteries, sulfide-based supercapacitors and metal-ion batteries, and the development of 3D printing sulfides/selenides for energy conversion and storage. This book is a useful resource for those involved in green energy technology and decarbonization and is designed for a broad audience, from students to experienced scientists. Discusses the emerging sulfide/selenide based thin film absorber materials and their deposition methods Previews device engineering techniques that have been developed to enhance the power conversion efficiency and lifetime of sulfide/selenide based thin film solar cells Provides an update on what low cost sulfide/selenide based electro-catalysts have become available and the comparison of their performance vs. noble metal catalysts

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Based Thin Film Solar Cells

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Based Thin Film Solar Cells Book
Author : Kentaro Ito
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-02-23
ISBN : 111843787X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and toxicity issues. The device performance of CZTS-based thin film solar cells has been steadily improving over the past 20 years, and they have now reached near commercial efficiency levels (10%). These achievements prove that CZTS-based solar cells have the potential to be used for large-scale deployment of photovoltaics. With contributions from leading researchers from academia and industry, many of these authors have contributed to the improvement of its efficiency, and have rich experience in preparing a variety of semiconducting thin films for solar cells.

Solar Cells

Solar Cells Book
Author : S. K. Sharma,Khuram Ali
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-01-07
ISBN : 3030363546
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book addresses the rapidly developing class of solar cell materials and designed to provide much needed information on the fundamental principles of these materials, together with how these are employed in photovoltaic applications. A special emphasize have been given for the space applications through study of radiation tolerant solar cells. This book present a comprehensive research outlining progress on the synthesis, fabrication and application of solar cells from fundamental to device technology and is helpful for graduate students, researchers, and technologists engaged in research and development of materials.

Earth Abundant Materials for Solar Cells

Earth Abundant Materials for Solar Cells Book
Author : Sadao Adachi
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-10-28
ISBN : 1119052785
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Systematically describes the physical and materials properties of copper-based quaternary chalcogenide semiconductor materials, enabling their potential for photovoltaic device applications. Intended for scientists and engineers, in particular, in the fields of multinary semiconductor physics and a variety of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices.

Electrode Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion

Electrode Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion Book
Author : Mesfin A. Kebede,Fabian I. Ezema
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-11-17
ISBN : 1000457869
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments and materials used in electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices, including lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, zinc-ion batteries, supercapacitors and conversion materials for solar and fuel cells. Chapters introduce the technologies behind each material, in addition to the fundamental principles of the devices, and their wider impact and contribution to the field. This book will be an ideal reference for researchers and individuals working in industries based on energy storage and conversion technologies across physics, chemistry and engineering. FEATURES Edited by established authorities, with chapter contributions from subject-area specialists Provides a comprehensive review of the field Up to date with the latest developments and research Editors Dr. Mesfin A. Kebede obtained his PhD in Metallurgical Engineering from Inha University, South Korea. He is now a principal research scientist at Energy Centre of Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa. He was previously an assistant professor in the Department of Applied Physics and Materials Science at Hawassa University, Ethiopia. His extensive research experience covers the use of electrode materials for energy storage and energy conversion. Prof. Fabian I. Ezema is a professor at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. He obtained his PhD in Physics and Astronomy from University of Nigeria, Nsukka. His research focuses on several areas of materials science with an emphasis on energy applications, specifically electrode materials for energy conversion and storage.

Thin Film Structures in Energy Applications

Thin Film Structures in Energy Applications Book
Author : Suresh Babu Krishna Moorthy
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-03-10
ISBN : 3319147749
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive overview of thin film structures in energy applications. Each chapter contains both fundamentals principles for each thin film structure as well as the relevant energy application technologies. The authors cover thin films for a variety of energy sectors including inorganic and organic solar cells, DSSCs, solid oxide fuel cells, thermoelectrics, phosphors and cutting tools.

Terawatt Solar Photovoltaics

Terawatt Solar Photovoltaics Book
Author : Meng Tao
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2014-04-07
ISBN : 1447156439
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Solar energy will undoubtedly become a main source of energy in our life by the end of this century, but how big of a role will photovoltaics play in this new energy infrastructure? Besides cost and efficiency, there are other barriers for current solar cell technologies to become a noticeable source of energy in the future. Availability of raw materials, energy input, storage of solar electricity, and recycling of dead modules can all prevent or hinder a tangible impact by solar photovoltaics. This book is intended for readers with minimal technical background and aims to explore not only the fundamentals but also major issues in large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaics. Thought-provoking ideas to overcoming some of the barriers are discussed.

Theory of Graded Bandgap Thin Film Solar Cells

Theory of Graded Bandgap Thin Film Solar Cells Book
Author : Faiz Ahmad,Akhlesh Lakhtakia,Peter B. Monk
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022-05-31
ISBN : 3031020243
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thin-film solar cells are cheap and easy to manufacture but require improvements as their efficiencies are low compared to that of the commercially dominant crystalline-silicon solar cells. An optoelectronic model is formulated and implemented along with the differential evolution algorithm to assess the efficacy of grading the bandgap of the CIGS, CZTSSe, and AlGaAs photon-absorbing layer for optimizing the power-conversion efficiency of thin-film CIGS, CZTSSe, and AlGaAs solar cells, respectively, in the two-terminal single-junction format. Each thin-film solar cell is modeled as a photonic device as well as an electronic device. Solar cells with two (or more) photon-absorbing layers can also be handled using the optolelectronic model, whose results will stimulate experimental techniques for bandgap grading to enable ubiquitous small-scale harnessing of solar energy.

Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells

Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells Book
Author : M. Parans Paranthaman,Winnie Wong-Ng,Raghu N. Bhattacharya
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-09-16
ISBN : 3319203312
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book reviews the current status of semiconductor materials for conversion of sunlight to electricity, and highlights advances in both basic science and manufacturing. Photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology will be a significant contributor to world energy supplies when reliable, efficient PV power products are manufactured in large volumes at low cost. Expert chapters cover the full range of semiconductor materials for solar-to-electricity conversion, from crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon to cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium sulfide selenides, dye sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and environmentally friendly copper zinc tin sulfide selenides. The latest methods for synthesis and characterization of solar cell materials are described, together with techniques for measuring solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce costs, with particular focus on how to reduce the gap between laboratory scale efficiency and commercial module efficiency. This book will aid materials scientists and engineers in identifying research priorities to fulfill energy needs, and will also enable researchers to understand novel semiconductor materials that are emerging in the solar market. This integrated approach also gives science and engineering students a sense of the excitement and relevance of materials science in the development of novel semiconductor materials. · Provides a comprehensive introduction to solar PV cell materials · Reviews current and future status of solar cells with respect to cost and efficiency · Covers the full range of solar cell materials, from silicon and thin films to dye sensitized and organic solar cells · Offers an in-depth account of the semiconductor material strategies and directions for further research · Features detailed tables on the world leaders in efficiency demonstrations · Edited by scientists with experience in both research and industry

Thin Film Solar Cells

Thin Film Solar Cells Book
Author : Jef Poortmans,Vladimir Arkhipov
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2006-10-16
ISBN : 0470091266
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thin-film solar cells are either emerging or about to emerge from the research laboratory to become commercially available devices finding practical various applications. Currently no textbook outlining the basic theoretical background, methods of fabrication and applications currently exist. Thus, this book aims to present for the first time an in-depth overview of this topic covering a broad range of thin-film solar cell technologies including both organic and inorganic materials, presented in a systematic fashion, by the scientific leaders in the respective domains. It covers a broad range of related topics, from physical principles to design, fabrication, characterization, and applications of novel photovoltaic devices.

Computational Materials System Design

Computational Materials System Design Book
Author : Dongwon Shin,James Saal
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-11-10
ISBN : 3319682806
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides state-of-the-art computational approaches for accelerating materials discovery, synthesis, and processing using thermodynamics and kinetics. The authors deliver an overview of current practical computational tools for materials design in the field. They describe ways to integrate thermodynamics and kinetics and how the two can supplement each other.

Advances in Energy Research Vol 1

Advances in Energy Research  Vol  1 Book
Author : Suneet Singh,Venkatasailanathan Ramadesigan
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-05-07
ISBN : 9811526664
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents selected papers from the 6th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER 2017), which cover topics ranging from energy optimization, generation, storage and distribution, and emerging technologies, to energy management, policy, and economics. The book is inter-disciplinary in scope and addresses a host of different areas relevant to energy research, making it of interest to scientists, policymakers, students, economists, rural activists, and social scientists alike.