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Thermoelectricity And Heat Transport In Graphene And Other 2d Nanomaterials

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Thermoelectricity and Heat Transport in Graphene and Other 2D Nanomaterials

Thermoelectricity and Heat Transport in Graphene and Other 2D Nanomaterials Book
Author : Serhii Shafraniuk
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-07-15
ISBN : 0323444903
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thermoelectricity and Heat Transport in Graphene and Other 2D Nanomaterials describes thermoelectric phenomena and thermal transport in graphene and other 2-dimentional nanomaterials and devices. Graphene, which is an example of an atomic monolayered material, has become the most important growth area in materials science research, stimulating an interest in other atomic monolayeric materials. The book analyses flow management, measurement of the local temperature at the nanoscale level and thermoelectric transducers, with reference to both graphene and other 2D nanomaterials. The book covers in detail the mechanisms of thermoelectricity, thermal transport, interface phenomena, quantum dots, non-equilibrium states, scattering and dissipation, as well as coherent transport in low-dimensional junctions in graphene and its allotropes, transition metal dichalcogenides and boron nitride. This book aims to show readers how to improve thermoelectric transducer efficiency in graphene and other nanomaterials. The book describes basic ingredients of such activity, allowing readers to gain a greater understanding of fundamental issues related to the heat transport and the thermoelectric phenomena of nanomaterials. It contains a thorough analysis and comparison between theory and experiments, complemented with a variety of practical examples. Shows readers how to improve the efficiency of heat transfer in graphene and other nanomaterials with analysis of different methodologies Includes fundamental information on the thermoelectric properties of graphene and other atomic monolayers, providing a valuable reference source for materials scientists and engineers Covers the important models of thermoelectric phenomena and thermal transport in the 2D nanomaterials and nanodevices, allowing readers to gain a greater understanding of the factors behind the efficiency of heat transport in a variety of nanomaterials

2D Monoelements

2D Monoelements Book
Author : Inamuddin,Rajender Boddula,Mohd Imran Ahamed,Abdullah M. Asiri
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-12-30
ISBN : 1119655250
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

2D Monoelements: Properties and Applications explores the challenges, research progress and future developments of the basic idea of two-dimensional monoelements, classifications, and application in field-effect transistors for sensing and biosensing. The thematic topics include investigations such as: Recent advances in phosphorene The diverse properties of two-dimensional antimonene, of graphene and its derivatives The molecular docking simulation study used to analyze the binding mechanisms of graphene oxide as a cancer drug carrier Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-derived carbon (graphene and carbon nanotubes) and MOF-carbon composite materials, with a special emphasis on the use of these nanostructures for energy storage devices (supercapacitors) Two-dimensional monoelements classification like graphene application in field-effect transistors for sensing and biosensing Graphene-based ternary materials as a supercapacitor electrode Rise of silicene and its applications in gas sensing

Graphene Bioelectronics

Graphene Bioelectronics Book
Author : Ashutosh Tiwari
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-11-22
ISBN : 0128133503
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Graphene Bioelectronics covers the expending field of graphene biomaterials, a wide span of biotechnological breakthroughs, opportunities, possibilities and challenges. It is the first book that focuses entirely on graphene bioelectronics, covering the miniaturization of bioelectrode materials, bioelectrode interfaces, high-throughput biosensing platforms, and systemic approaches for the development of electrochemical biosensors and bioelectronics for biomedical and energy applications. The book also showcases key applications, including advanced security, forensics and environmental monitoring. Thus, the evolution of these scientific areas demands innovations in crosscutting disciplines, starting from fabrication to application. This book is an important reference resource for researchers and technologists in graphene bioelectronics—particularly those working in the area of harvest energy biotechnology—employing state-of-the-art bioelectrode materials techniques. Offers a comprehensive overview of state-of-art research on graphene bioelectronics and their potential applications Provides innovative fabrication strategies and utilization methodologies, which are frequently adopted in the graphene bioelectronics community Shows how graphene can be used to make more effective energy harvesting devices

Carbon Based Nanomaterials for Advanced Thermal and Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion

Carbon Based Nanomaterials for Advanced Thermal and Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion Book
Author : Cheng-Te Lin,Yan Wang,Vinodkumar Etacheri,Rajib Paul
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-07-20
ISBN : 0128140844
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbon Based Nanomaterials for Advanced Thermal and Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion presents a comprehensive overview of recent theoretical and experimental developments and prospects on carbon-based nanomaterials for thermal, solar and electrochemical energy conversion, along with their storage applications for both laboratory and industrial perspectives. Large growth in human populations has led to seminal growth in global energy consumption, hence fossil fuel usage has increased, as have unwanted greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, which results in critical environmental concerns. This book discusses this growing problem, aligning carbon nanomaterials as a solution because of their structural diversity and electronic, thermal and mechanical properties. Provides an overview on state-of-the-art carbon nanomaterials and key requirements for applications of carbon materials towards efficient energy storage and conversion Presents an updated and comprehensive review of recent work and the theoretical aspects on electrochemistry Includes discussions on the industrial production of carbon-based materials for energy applications, along with insights from industrial experts

Phonon Thermal Transport in Silicon Based Nanomaterials

Phonon Thermal Transport in Silicon Based Nanomaterials Book
Author : Hai-Peng Li,Rui-Qin Zhang
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-11-01
ISBN : 9811326371
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this Brief, authors introduce the advance in theoretical and experimental techniques for determining the thermal conductivity in nanomaterials, and focus on review of their recent theoretical studies on the thermal properties of silicon–based nanomaterials, such as zero–dimensional silicon nanoclusters, one–dimensional silicon nanowires, and graphenelike two–dimensional silicene. The specific subject matters covered include: size effect of thermal stability and phonon thermal transport in spherical silicon nanoclusters, surface effects of phonon thermal transport in silicon nanowires, and defects effects of phonon thermal transport in silicene. The results obtained are supplemented by numerical calculations, presented as tables and figures. The potential applications of these findings in nanoelectrics and thermoelectric energy conversion are also discussed. In this regard, this Brief represents an authoritative, systematic, and detailed description of the current status of phonon thermal transport in silicon–based nanomaterials. This Brief should be a highly valuable reference for young scientists and postgraduate students active in the fields of nanoscale thermal transport and silicon-based nanomaterials.

Two dimensional Materials

Two dimensional Materials Book
Author : Pramoda Kumar Nayak
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2016-08-31
ISBN : 9535125540
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There are only a few discoveries and new technologies in materials science that have the potential to dramatically alter and revolutionize our material world. Discovery of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the thinnest form of materials to ever occur in nature, is one of them. After isolation of graphene from graphite in 2004, a whole other class of atomically thin materials, dominated by surface effects and showing completely unexpected and extraordinary properties, has been created. This book provides a comprehensive view and state-of-the-art knowledge about 2D materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) and so on. It consists of 11 chapters contributed by a team of experts in this exciting field and provides latest synthesis techniques of 2D materials, characterization and their potential applications in energy conservation, electronics, optoelectronics and biotechnology.

Graphene and Other 2D Layered Nanomaterial Based Films

Graphene and Other 2D Layered Nanomaterial Based Films Book
Author : Federico Cesano,Domenica Scarano
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2019-12-12
ISBN : 3039219022
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is dedicated to highlighting some relevant advances in the field of thin films and coatings based on two-dimensional crystals and layered nanomaterials. Due to their layered structure, graphene and a variety of new 2D inorganic nanosystems, called “graphene analogues”, have all attracted tremendous interest due to their unprecedented properties/superior performance, and may find applications in many fields from electronics to biotechnology. These two-dimensional systems are ultrathin and, hence, tend to be flexible, also presenting distinctive and nearly intrinsic characteristics, including electronic, magnetic, optical, thermal conductivity, and superconducting properties. Furthermore, the combination of different structures and synergetic effects may open new and unprecedented perspectives, making these ideal advanced materials for multifunctional assembled systems. As far as the field of coatings is concerned, new layered nanostructures may offer unique and multifunctional properties, including gas barrier, lubricant, conductive, magnetic, photoactive, self-cleaning, and/or antimicrobial surfaces. This book contains new findings on the synthesis and perspectives of multifunctional films that are at the forefront of the science and coating technologies.

Thermoelectric Transport and Energy Conversion Using Novel 2D Materials

Thermoelectric Transport and Energy Conversion Using Novel 2D Materials Book
Author : Luke J. Wirth
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanomaterials hold great promise for applications in thermal management and thermoelectric power generation. Defects in these are important as they are generally inevitably introduced during fabrication or intentionally engineered to control the properties of the nanomaterials. Here, we investigate how phonon-contributed thermal conductance in narrow graphene, boron nitride (BN), and silicene nanoribbons (NRs), responds to the presence of a vacancy defect and the corresponding geometric distortion, from first principles using the non-equilibrium Green's function method. Analyses are made of the geometries, phonon conductance coefficients, and local densities of states (LDOS) of pristine and defected nanoribbons. It is found that hydrogen absences produce similar reductions in thermal conductance in planar graphene and BN NRs with greater reductions in buckled silicene NRs. Vacancies of larger atoms affect all systems similarly, causing greater reductions than hydrogen absences. Emerging flexible and stiff scattering centers, depending on bond strengths, are shown to cause thermal conductance reduction by changing nearby LDOSs in defected structures relative to pristine ones. This knowledge suggests that inferences on unknown thermal properties of novel defected materials can be made based on understanding how thermal transport behaves in their analogues and how bond characteristics differ between systems under consideration. The thermal conductance contributed by phonons is often a limiting factor to the overall suitability of a material for use in thermoelectric power generation, wherein a voltage is generated in a material by a temperature gradient. The thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) assesses this suitability, in part based on a ratio of electrical conductance to thermal conductance. These two properties can be decoupled in low-dimensional structures like NRs, with lower thermal conductances generally found in narrower materials. Here, ZT is analyzed in graphene, BN, and silicene nanoribbons of two different widths with engineered edges that are designed to increase the ratio of edge length to NR length. This could conceivably be synthesized by either top-down or bottom-up methods. Analyses are made of how width and material change the maximum ZT attainable by controlling the chemical potential of each system, how these maximum ZTs differ in each system as a result of p- or n- type change to chemical potential, how full-width half-maximum values of ZT peaks behave, and how the different factors of ZT affect its final value in these systems. A very high ZT of 6.26 is reported near the bandgap in the narrow chevron silicene NR at room temperature, and a room temperature ZT greater than 3 is also found in the narrow BN NR, suggesting that edge-engineered NRs offer high promise for thermoelectric applications and may be suitable for emissions-free electricity generation from waste heat sources.

Thermal Transport in Carbon Based Nanomaterials

Thermal Transport in Carbon Based Nanomaterials Book
Author : Gang Zhang
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-06-13
ISBN : 0323473466
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thermal Transport in Carbon-Based Nanomaterials describes the thermal properties of various carbon nanomaterials and then examines their applications in thermal management and renewable energy. Carbon nanomaterials include: one-dimensional (1D) structures, like nanotubes; two-dimensional (2D) crystal lattice with only one-atom-thick planar sheets, like graphenes; composites based on carbon nanotube or graphene, and diamond nanowires and thin films. In the past two decades, rapid developments in the synthesis and processing of carbon-based nanomaterials have created a great desire among scientists to gain a greater understanding of thermal transport in these materials. Thermal properties in nanomaterials differ significantly from those in bulk materials because the characteristic length scales associated with the heat carriers, phonons, are comparable to the characteristic length. Carbon nanomaterials with high thermal conductivity can be applied in heat dissipation. This looks set to make a significant impact on human life and, with numerous commercial developments emerging, will become a major academic topic over the coming years. This authoritative and comprehensive book will be of great use to both the existing scientific community in this field, as well as for those who wish to enter it. Includes coverage of the most important and commonly adopted computational and experimental methods to analyze thermal properties in carbon nanomaterials Contains information about the growth of carbon nanomaterials, their thermal properties, and strategies to control thermal properties and applications, allowing readers to assess how to use each material most efficiently Offers a comprehensive overview of the theoretical background behind thermal transport in carbon nanomaterials

Graphene Nanostructures

Graphene Nanostructures Book
Author : Yaser M. Banadaki,Safura Sharifi
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-07-16
ISBN : 0429666594
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Tremendous innovations in electronics and photonics over the past few decades have resulted in the downsizing of transistors in integrated circuits, which are now approaching atomic scales. This will soon result in the creation of a growing knowledge gap between the underlying technology and state-of-the-art electronic device modeling and simulations. This book bridges the gap by presenting cutting-edge research in the computational analysis and mathematical modeling of graphene nanostructures as well as the recent progress on graphene transistors for nanoscale circuits. It inspires and educates fellow circuit designers and students in the field of emerging low-power and high-performance circuit designs based on graphene. While most of the books focus on the synthesis, fabrication, and characterization of graphene, this book shines a light on graphene models and their circuit simulations and applications in photonics. It will serve as a textbook for graduate-level courses in nanoscale electronics and photonics design and appeal to anyone involved in electrical engineering, applied physics, materials science, or nanotechnology research.

Theory and Simulation Methods for Electronic and Phononic Transport in Thermoelectric Materials

Theory and Simulation Methods for Electronic and Phononic Transport in Thermoelectric Materials Book
Author : Neophytos Neophytou
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-03-16
ISBN : 3030386813
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book introduces readers to state-of-the-art theoretical and simulation techniques for determining transport in complex band structure materials and nanostructured-geometry materials, linking the techniques developed by the electronic transport community to the materials science community. Starting from the semi-classical Boltzmann Transport Equation method for complex band structure materials, then moving on to Monte Carlo and fully quantum mechanical models for nanostructured materials, the book addresses the theory and computational complexities of each method, as well as their advantages and capabilities. Presented in language that is accessible to junior computational scientists, while including enough detail and depth with regards to numerical implementation to tackle modern research problems, it offers a valuable resource for computational scientists and postgraduate researchers whose work involves the theory and simulation of electro-thermal transport in advanced materials.

Materials Preparation and Characterization in Thermoelectrics

Materials  Preparation  and Characterization in Thermoelectrics Book
Author : David Michael Rowe
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-12-19
ISBN : 1351832794
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book includes updated theoretical considerations which provide an insight into avenues of research most likely to result in further improvements in material performance. It details the latest techniques for the preparation of thermoelectric materials employed in energy harvesting, together with advances in the thermoelectric characterisation of nanoscale material. The book reviews the use of neutron beams to investigate phonons, whose behaviour govern the lattice thermal conductivity and includes a chapter on patents.

Thermal Behaviour and Applications of Carbon Based Nanomaterials

Thermal Behaviour and Applications of Carbon Based Nanomaterials Book
Author : Dimitrios V. Papavassiliou,Hai M. Duong,Feng Gong
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-04-01
ISBN : 0128176830
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanocomposites with Carbon-based nanofillers (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene sheets and nanoribbons etc.) form a class of extremely promising materials for thermal applications. In addition to exceptional material properties, the thermal conductivity of the carbon-based nanofillers can be higher than any other known material, suggesting the possibility to engineer nanocomposites that are both lightweight and durable, and have unique thermal properties. This potential is hindered by thermal boundary resistance (TBR) to heat transfer at the interface between nanoinclusions and the matrix, and by the difficulty to control the dispersion pattern and the orientation of the nanoinclusions. Thermal Behaviour and Applications of Carbon-Based Nanomaterials: Theory, Methods and Applications explores heat transfer in nanocomposites, discusses techniques predicting and modeling the thermal behavior of carbon nanocomposites at different scales, and methods for engineering applications of nanofluidics and heat transfer. The chapters combine theoretical explanation, experimental methods and computational analysis to show how carbon-based nanomaterials are being used to optimise heat transfer. The applications-focused emphasis of this book makes it a valuable resource for materials scientists and engineers who want to learn more about nanoscale heat transfer. Offers an informed overview of how carbon nanomaterials are currently used for nanoscale heat transfer Discusses the major applications of carbon nanomaterials for heat transfer in a variety of industry sectors Details the major computational methods for the analysis of the thermal properties of carbon nanomaterials

Thermoelectrics and its Energy Harvesting 2 Volume Set

Thermoelectrics and its Energy Harvesting  2 Volume Set Book
Author : David Michael Rowe
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-10-03
ISBN : 1439840423
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Comprising two volumes, Thermoelectrics and Its Energy Harvesting reviews the vast improvements in technology and application of thermoelectric energy with a specific intention to reduce and reuse waste heat and improve novel techniques for the efficient acquisition and use of energy.Materials, Preparation, and Characterization in Thermoelectrics i

Nanoscale Thermoelectrics

Nanoscale Thermoelectrics Book
Author : Xiaodong Wang,Zhiming M. Wang
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-18
ISBN : 3319020129
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

For the efficient utilization of energy resources and the minimization of environmental damage, thermoelectric materials can play an important role by converting waste heat into electricity directly. Nanostructured thermoelectric materials have received much attention recently due to the potential for enhanced properties associated with size effects and quantum confinement. Nanoscale Thermoelectrics describes the theory underlying these phenomena, as well as various thermoelectric materials and nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, SiGe nanowires, and graphene nanoribbons. Chapters written by leading scientists throughout the world are intended to create a fundamental bridge between thermoelectrics and nanotechnology, and to stimulate readers' interest in developing new types of thermoelectric materials and devices for power generation and other applications. Nanoscale Thermoelectrics is both a comprehensive introduction to the field and a guide to further research, and can be recommended for Physics, Electrical Engineering, and Materials Science departments.

Transport Phenomena in Micro and Nanoscale Functional Materials and Devices

Transport Phenomena in Micro  and Nanoscale Functional Materials and Devices Book
Author : Joao B. Sousa,Joao O. Ventura,Andre Pereira
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2021-03-26
ISBN : 0323461247
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Transport Phenomena in Micro- and Nanoscale Functional Materials and Devices offers a pragmatic view on transport phenomena for micro- and nanoscale materials and devices, both as a research tool and as a means to implant new functions in materials. Chapters emphasize transport properties (TP) as a research tool at the micro/nano level and give an experimental view on underlying techniques. The relevance of TP is highlighted through the interplay between a micro/nanocarrier’s characteristics and media characteristics: long/short-range order and disorder excitations, couplings, and in energy conversions. Later sections contain case studies on the role of transport properties in functional nanomaterials. This includes transport in thin films and nanostructures, from nanogranular films, to graphene and 2D semiconductors and spintronics, and from read heads, MRAMs and sensors, to nano-oscillators and energy conversion, from figures of merit, micro-coolers and micro-heaters, to spincaloritronics. Presents a pragmatic description of electrical transport phenomena in micro- and nanoscale materials and devices from an experimental viewpoint Provides an in-depth overview of the experimental techniques available to measure transport phenomena in micro- and nanoscale materials Features case studies to illustrate how each technique works Highlights emerging areas of interest in micro- and nanomaterial transport phenomena, including spintronics

Graphene Science Handbook Six Volume Set

Graphene Science Handbook  Six Volume Set Book
Author : Mahmood Aliofkhazraei,Nasar Ali,William I. Milne,Cengiz S. Ozkan,Stanislaw Mitura,Juana L. Gervasoni
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-04-26
ISBN : 1466591196
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Graphene is the strongest material ever studied and can be an efficient substitute for silicon. This six-volume handbook focuses on fabrication methods, nanostructure and atomic arrangement, electrical and optical properties, mechanical and chemical properties, size-dependent properties, and applications and industrialization. There is no other major reference work of this scope on the topic of graphene, which is one of the most researched materials of the twenty-first century. The set includes contributions from top researchers in the field and a foreword written by two Nobel laureates in physics. Volumes in the set: K20503 Graphene Science Handbook: Mechanical and Chemical Properties (ISBN: 9781466591233) K20505 Graphene Science Handbook: Fabrication Methods (ISBN: 9781466591271) K20507 Graphene Science Handbook: Electrical and Optical Properties (ISBN: 9781466591318) K20508 Graphene Science Handbook: Applications and Industrialization (ISBN: 9781466591332) K20509 Graphene Science Handbook: Size-Dependent Properties (ISBN: 9781466591356) K20510 Graphene Science Handbook: Nanostructure and Atomic Arrangement (ISBN: 9781466591370)

Silicon Nanomaterials Sourcebook

Silicon Nanomaterials Sourcebook Book
Author : Klaus D. Sattler
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-07-28
ISBN : 1351649582
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This comprehensive tutorial guide to silicon nanomaterials spans from fundamental properties, growth mechanisms, and processing of nanosilicon to electronic device, energy conversion and storage, biomedical, and environmental applications. It also presents core knowledge with basic mathematical equations, tables, and graphs in order to provide the reader with the tools necessary to understand the latest technology developments. From low-dimensional structures, quantum dots, and nanowires to hybrid materials, arrays, networks, and biomedical applications, this Sourcebook is a complete resource for anyone working with this materials: Covers fundamental concepts, properties, methods, and practical applications. Focuses on one important type of silicon nanomaterial in every chapter. Discusses formation, properties, and applications for each material. Written in a tutorial style with basic equations and fundamentals included in an extended introduction. Highlights materials that show exceptional properties as well as strong prospects for future applications. Klaus D. Sattler is professor physics at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, having earned his PhD at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich. He was honored with the Walter Schottky Prize from the German Physical Society, and is the editor of the sister work also published by Taylor & Francis, Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook, as well as the acclaimed multi-volume Handbook of Nanophysics.

Graphene Science Handbook

Graphene Science Handbook Book
Author : Mahmood Aliofkhazraei,Nasar Ali,William I. Milne,Cengiz S. Ozkan,Stanislaw Mitura,Juana L. Gervasoni
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-04-27
ISBN : 1466591323
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Discover the Unique Electron Transport Properties of Graphene The Graphene Science Handbook is a six-volume set that describes graphene’s special structural, electrical, and chemical properties. The book considers how these properties can be used in different applications (including the development of batteries, fuel cells, photovoltaic cells, and supercapacitors based on graphene) and produced on a massive and global scale. Volume One: Fabrication Methods Volume Two: Nanostructure and Atomic Arrangement Volume Three: Electrical and Optical Properties Volume Four: Mechanical and Chemical Properties Volume Five: Size-Dependent Properties Volume Six: Applications and Industrialization This handbook describes the fabrication methods of graphene; the nanostructure and atomic arrangement of graphene; graphene’s electrical and optical properties; the mechanical and chemical properties of graphene; the size effects in graphene, characterization, and applications based on size-affected properties; and the application and industrialization of graphene. Volume three is dedicated to graphene’s electrical and optical properties and covers: Graphene and graphene nanoribbons for use in high-frequency transistors, energy-efficient electronics and photonic devices The interface of graphene/high-? dielectrics The strain-induced modifications of plasmons in graphene A possible advanced physical framework for treating graphenic structures Recent progresses in the electric lens based on graphene-like materials The thermal and thermoelectric transport properties of graphene A numerical method for simulating the electromagnetic field interaction with single-layer graphene and more