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Thermal Ablation Therapy

Thermal Ablation Therapy Book
Author : Amira S. Ashour,Yanhui Guo,Waleed S. Mohamed
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-05-18
ISBN : 0128231564
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thermal Ablation Therapy: Theory and Simulation includes detailed theoretical and technical concepts of thermal ablation therapy in different body organs. Concepts of ablation technology based on different thermal ablation methods are introduced, along with changes in the tissues’ mechanical properties due to thermal denaturation. The book emphasizes the mathematical and engineering concepts of RF and MW energy propagation through tissues and where high heating rates produced by MW systems can overcome the heat-sink effects from nearby vessels. The design and tuning of the MW antennas to deliver energy efficiently to specific organ systems such as the liver or lung is also covered. Other sections cover the computational modeling of radiofrequency ablation and microwave ablation procedures for developing and implementing new efficient ablation in clinical systems, numerical simulations for different scenarios of different organs with different size using RF and MW ablation systems with different antennas’/probes design and configurations, and numerical techniques for temperature profile in tissues. Presents the latest mathematical models of microwave and RF ablation theories Discusses the biological responses and engineering principles by which thermal ablation techniques can provide temperature-elevation within the organs of the human body, including action mechanisms, required equipment, needle characteristics and treatment techniques Highlights the different techniques of thermal ablation, including radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, laser ablation, and ultrasound ablation, nanotechnology, and the different metrics used to evaluate the performance of the used antenna within the ablation needle

Tumor Ablation

Tumor Ablation Book
Author : Eric van Sonnenberg,William McMullen,Luigi Solbiati
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-09-08
ISBN : 0387286748
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There is an enormous sense of excitement in the communities of cancer research and cancer care as we move into the middle third of the ?rst decade of the 21st century. For the ?rst time,there is a true sense of c- ?dence that the tools provided by the human genome project will enable cancer researchers to crack the code of genomic abnormalities that allow tumor cells to live within the body and provide highly speci?c, virtually non-toxic therapies for the eradication,or at least ?rm control of human cancers. There is also good reason to hope that these same lines of inquiry will yield better tests for screening, early detection, and prev- tion of progression beyond curability. While these developments provide a legitimate basis for much op- mism, many patients will continue to develop cancers and suffer from their debilitating effects, even as research moves ahead. For these in- viduals, it is imperative that the cancer ?eld make the best possible use of the tools available to provide present day cancer patients with the best chances for cure, effective palliation, or, at the very least, relief from symptoms caused by acute intercurrent complications of cancer. A modality that has emerged as a very useful approach to at least some of these goals is tumor ablation by the use of physical or physiochemical approaches.

Physics of Thermal Therapy

Physics of Thermal Therapy Book
Author : Eduardo Moros
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release : 2016-04-19
ISBN : 1439848920
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The field of thermal therapy has been growing tenaciously in the last few decades. The application of heat to living tissues, from mild hyperthermia to high-temperature thermal ablation, has produced a host of well-documented genetic, cellular, and physiological responses that are being researched intensely for medical applications, particularly fo

Elasticity Imaging for Monitoring Thermal Ablation Therapy in Liver

Elasticity Imaging for Monitoring Thermal Ablation Therapy in Liver Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Elasticity Imaging for Monitoring Thermal Ablation Therapy in Liver book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Microwave Ablation Treatment of Solid Tumors

Microwave Ablation Treatment of Solid Tumors Book
Author : Ping Liang,Xiao-ling Yu,Jie Yu
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-11-17
ISBN : 9401793158
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microwave ablation is a simple, affordable, and highly precise technique. After its successful application in treating liver tumors, it is now widely used to combat renal tumors, adrenal tumors, thyroid nodes, uterine fibroids and other solid tumors. This book presents 40 successful cases of treating these diseases. A series of picture before treatment, after treatment and from different angles is provided for each kind of tumor treatment. In each chapter, step by step operative techniques and illustrations are included. This book also examines CT, NMR and ultrasonography to evaluate the effect of microwave ablation. Editor Ping Liang, is the Director and Professor at Dept. of Interventional Ultrasound, General Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China. Editor Xiaoling Yu is Professor and Chief physician, Editor Jie Yu is Associate Chief physician at the same department.

Radiofrequency Ablation for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Radiofrequency Ablation for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma Book
Author : Minshan Chen,Yaojun Zhang,W.Y. Lau
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-11-26
ISBN : 9401772584
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive guide to the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (sHCC) using a minimally invasive technique: radiofrequency ablation (RFA). RFA has emerged as a new treatment modality and become the main modality of locoregional therapy. Extensive clinical research indicates that RFA is as effective as surgical resection for sHCC, and it has the advantage of being less invasive. However, the outcomes after RFA are largely dependent on the operators’ experience- known as the “learning curve”. This book presents the characteristics of sHCC and discusses why sHCC is the best candidate for RFA. Then it introduces all the commercially available RFA systems, and their working principles, advantages, disadvantages and so on. It goes on to demonstrate how to perform RFA under the guidance of ultrasound, CT, laparoscopy, or during open operation. Finally, it discusses the radiologic assessment and follow‐up after RFA, as well as adjuvant therapies and clinical trials on RFA. The authors are experts from the fields of pathology, radiology, surgery, and gastroenterology, as well as manufacturers. With this book, readers gain have a clear idea of when and how to do RFA. It aims to standardize and generalize the procedure of RFA, which will be very helpful in improving the outcome of RFA for sHCC.

A Novel Combination of Thermal Ablation and Heat Inducible Gene Therapy for Breast Cancer Treatment

A Novel Combination of Thermal Ablation and Heat Inducible Gene Therapy for Breast Cancer Treatment Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a rapidly developing technique for cancer thermal ablation with secondary biological effects, such as heat shock response, that may be harnessed for adjunct therapies. To gain further insight into the potential for HIFU to be utilized in conjunction with gene therapy, a transparent cell-embedded tissue mimicking phantom was developed. Most physical parameters of the agrose-based hydrogel fell within the accepted range of values for soft tissues. Lesions produced under different combinations of HIFU intensity and exposure duration could be visualized inside the phantoms. GFP positive cells were primarily found within a circumferential region surrounding the primary site of lesion formation. The thermal necrosis boundary (EM43=240min) fell into this gene activation zone.

Percutaneous Tumor Ablation in Medical Radiology

Percutaneous Tumor Ablation in Medical Radiology Book
Author : Thomas J. Vogl,Thomas Helmberger,Martin G. Mack,Maximilian F Reiser
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-12-23
ISBN : 3540682503
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book encompasses the different technologies employed in thermal ablation, its indications and the results achieved in various clinical conditions. It clearly explains the basics of thermal ablative techniques. In the main part of the book, techniques of guiding the applicators to the target structures by use of different imaging tools are discussed. The book, written by acknowledged experts, has a lucid structure and excellent images.

Hyperthermia

Hyperthermia Book
Author : Nagraj Huilgol
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2013-05-15
ISBN : 9535111299
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book "Hyperthermia", published by InTech, and edited by Dr. Nagraj Huilgol, of the Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. Balabhai Nanavati Hospital, India, is comprised of 8 Open Access chapters, covering a wide range of Hyperthermia-related scientific research.

Tissue Response to Interventional MRI guided Thermal Ablation Therapy

Tissue Response to Interventional MRI guided Thermal Ablation Therapy Book
Author : Michael Scott Breen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Tissue Response to Interventional MRI guided Thermal Ablation Therapy book written by Michael Scott Breen, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation for Sleep related Disordered Breathing

Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation for Sleep related Disordered Breathing Book
Author : Jagdeep Virk,Bhik Kotecha
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2015-10-08
ISBN : 9783659790539
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sleep-disordered breathing is rising in prevalence and has a large associated health and socio-economic burden. There has been growing interest, but a poor understanding, regarding the role and mode of action of radiofrequency ablation therapy. This thesis describes the role of radiofrequency thermal ablation in sleep-related breathing disorders and provides current updates in its scientific, cellular basis along with surgical tips and pitfalls. Long term outcomes, management strategies and further avenues for research are considered.

Radiofrequency Ablation for Cancer

Radiofrequency Ablation for Cancer Book
Author : Lee M. Ellis,Steven A. Curley,Kenneth K. Tanabe
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2006-06-03
ISBN : 0387215980
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Radiofrequency Ablation of Cancer: Current Indications, Techniques and Outcomes discusses the principles and techniques of safe usage of radiofrequency current for the treatment of malignancies. Throughout the text, indications and outcomes data are stressed. Edited and authored by pioneers in the field, the book features extensive discussion of RFA for hepatic tumors, including treatment of liver metastases from colorectal cancer, combined modality therapy for liver metastases, treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with RFA, laparoscopic RFA, percutaneous RFA, and hepatic metastases from neuroendocrine tumors. In addition, chapters consider the emerging role of RFA in the management of primary breast cancer, primary bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors, renal tumors, and lung tumors. The principles and instrumentation as well as the imaging aspects of RFA are presented with comprehensive chapters on ultrasound, MRI, PET and CT by leaders in the field. Complemented by 90 illustrations, this text is the gold standard reference on the use of RFA in treating a wide variety of malignant processes. It will serve as a valuable reference for all physicians engaged in the care of cancer patients.

Radiofrequency Ablation RFA as an Alternative to Conventional Treatment

Radiofrequency Ablation  RFA  as an Alternative to Conventional Treatment Book
Author : Loredana Pagano,Cosimo Durante,Ralph P. Tufano
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2022-05-10
ISBN : 2889761851
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Radiofrequency Ablation RFA as an Alternative to Conventional Treatment book written by Loredana Pagano,Cosimo Durante,Ralph P. Tufano, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Validation Platform for Ultrasound based Monitoring of Thermal Ablation

Validation Platform for Ultrasound based Monitoring of Thermal Ablation Book
Author : Hamed Peikari
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

PURPOSE: Thermal ablation therapy is an emerging local cancer treatment to destroy cancer tissue using heat. However variations in blood flow and energy absorption rates make it extremely challenging to monitor thermal changes. Insufficient ablation may lead to recurrence of the cancer while excessive ablation may damage adjacent healthy tissues. Ultrasound could be a convenient and inexpensive imaging modality for real-time monitoring of the ablation. For the development and optimization of these methods, it is essential to have ground truth data and a reliable and quantitative validation technique before beginning clinical trials on humans. In this dissertation, my primary focus was to solve the image-to-physical space registration problem using stereotactic fiducials that provide accurate correlation of ultrasound and pathology (ground truth) images. METHOD: A previously developed validation test-bed prototype was evaluated using phantom experiments to identify the shortcomings and limitations. In order to develop an improved validation platform, a simulator was implemented for evaluating registration methods as well as different line fiducial structures. New fiducial line structures were proposed, and new methods were implemented to overcome the limitations of the old system. The new methods were then tested using simulation results and phantom studies. Phantom experiments were conducted to improve the visibility of fiducials, as well as the quality of acquired ultrasound and pathology image datasets. RESULTS: The new system outperforms the previous one in terms of accuracy, robustness, and simplicity. The new registration method is robust to missing fiducials. I also achieved complete fiducial visibility in all images. Enhancing the tissue fixation medium improved the ultrasound data quality. The quality of pathology images were improved by a new imaging method. Simulation results show improvement in pose recovery accuracy using my proposed fiducial structure. This was validated by phantom studies reducing spatial misalignment between the US and pathology image sets. CONCLUSION: A new generation of test-bed was developed that provides a reliable and quantitative validation technique for evaluating and optimizing ablation monitoring methods.

Applicators and Methods to Achieve Precise Spatial Control of the Treatment Zone During Microwave Ablation

Applicators and Methods to Achieve Precise Spatial Control of the Treatment Zone During Microwave Ablation Book
Author : Austin Pfannenstiel
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cancer is a large and growing societal concern. According to the World Health Organization, one in five men and one in six women worldwide will develop cancer during their lifetime. However, some patients cannot be treated with established therapeutic modalities such as surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy because of challenges with performing these complex procedures for some tumors, the potential for complication due to other medical conditions, and/or dose limiting toxicities. Thermal ablation offers a low-cost, minimally invasive therapy that can be used to treat tumors, usually as an outpatient procedure. Of the possible thermal ablation energy modalities, microwave ablation (MWA) is gaining increasing clinical adoption due to its ability to rapidly heat large volumes of tissue, radiate through charred or other high impedance tissues, and avoid expensive and cumbersome ancillary equipment. However, a significant problem limiting MWA technologies is that the growth of the thermal treatment zone cannot be precisely targeted or visualized in real time and it is therefore extremely difficult to reliably ensure the entire tumor is fully treated without also causing unintended thermal injury to adjacent critical anatomy. This limitation leaves doctors with a difficult choice of risking undertreatment and disease recurrence or risking overtreatment and damage to critical healthy anatomy that may cause pain or life-threatening complications. The fundamental technical barrier to precise targeting, and therefore to broader MWA clinical acceptance is that all currently available MWA systems can only produce a roughly spherical, ellipsoidal, or teardrop-shaped treatment zone centered on the axis near the tip of the applicator, which is not suitable for treating tumors with irregular shapes or those located near critical anatomy. This dissertation focuses on the development of a MWA applicator and methods to achieve precise spatial control of the treatment zone during microwave ablation in diverse tissue targets. A 14-gauge directional MWA (DMWA) applicator design is presented which would allow the physician to instead place the applicator alongside the tumor and direct heat towards the target and away from nearby sensitive tissues. DMWA may also be used with multiple applicators to "bracket" the tumor and clinical margin to enable a procedure with less chance of complications and disease recurrence, or applied on the surface of a target aiming inward in an even less-invasive non-penetrating approach. Coupled electromagnetic-bioheat transfer computational models were used for design and simulation of this DMWA applicator. Proof-of-concept applicators were evaluated in ex vivo liver at 60, 80, and 100 W generator settings for 3, 5 and 10 minutes (n=4 per combination) and in vivo tissue at 80 and 100 W generator settings for 5 or 10 minutes (n=2 or 3 per combination). Mean ex vivo ablation forward depth was 8-15.5 mm. No backward heating was observed at 60 W, 3-5 minutes; directivity (the ratio of forward ablation depth to backward ablation depth) was 4.7-11.0 for the other power and time combinations. In vivo ablation forward depth was 10.3-11.5 mm and directivity was 11.5-16.1. No visible or microscopic thermal damage to non-target tissues in direct contact with the back side of the applicator was observed. As the resulting thermal treatment zone from MWA is comprised of regions exposed to direct electromagnetic heating as well as regions indirectly heated by thermal conduction from the temperature gradients created during thermal ablation, using excessive treatment power or duration during a DMWA procedure may still result in undesired heating of non-target sectors through the thermally conductive surrounding tissues. A method is presented to cycle microwave power on and off to allow blood perfusion in the surrounding tissue to cool the margins of the treatment zone and improve the directivity of the DMWA procedure. Coupled electromagnetic-bioheat transfer computational models were used to evaluate equivalent energy delivery power pulsing protocols with periods of 5, 10, or 20 seconds, duty cycles of 50, 75, or 100%, and a 100 W generator power setting. A 10 second period, 70% duty cycle, 80 W generator setting power pulsing protocol in ex vivo liver showed a 51.7% reduction in the backward ablation depth, a 2.3% increase in the forward ablation depth, and a 115.2% increase in the directivity ratio. A 10 second period, 70% duty cycle, 100 W generator setting power pulsing protocol in in vivo liver showed a 40.1% reduction in the backward ablation depth, a 1.0% reduction in the forward ablation depth, and a 59.6% increase in the directivity ratio. Once many common types of cancer metastasize, a common site to which they spread is bone. Should cancer form in the vertebral bodies, the resulting tumor growth can cause significant pain and neurological problems including paralysis. Due to the proximity of a significant amount of critical anatomy, including the spinal cord and other nerves, treating these tumors can be exceedingly challenging. DMWA may offer the ability to provide enough spatial control of the ablation zone to attempt more palliative treatments of vertebral tumors in proximity to critical nerves and the spinal cord. However, there is limited published literature describing the interactions of microwave energy in bone tissues in detail; of specific importance is the degree of microwave absorption/transmission in bone tissue relative to tissues types that would comprise metastatic disease and how that may affect the resultant size and shape of the resultant treatment zone. Presented are three-dimensional simulations of spinal DMWA treatment zones based on coupled electromagnetic-bioheat transfer computational models with tissue domains that mimic the anatomical dimensions and the biophysical properties of each different type of tissue, including cortical bone, cancellous bone, spinal cord, cartilage, and metastatic and primary tumor. DMWA experimental ablations at 80 or 120 W generator settings for 3.5 or 5 minutes with two fiber optic temperature sensors in ex vivo vertebrae showed a temperature rise of 33.5 - 63.2 °C in the vertebral body 9.5 mm from the DMWA applicator (T1) and a temperature rise of 10.8 - 32.3 °C in the spinal canal 2.5 mm from the backside of the applicator (T2). A computational model with static bone tissue biophysical properties was able to predict the temperature change in the forward direction within 3 - 7% and in the backward direction within 11 - 37% of the experimental observation. This computational model was further modified to include tissue-specific perfusion values and demonstrated two DMWA applicators operated at 80 W generator setting for 5 minutes

A New Cancer Therapy

A New Cancer Therapy Book
Author : Xuanfeng Ding
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2010-05
ISBN : 9783838352978
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this work multi-application, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as super MR contrast agents and Near-Infared Radiation (NIR) laser absorbers are combined with Proton Resonance Frequency (PRF) based Magnetic Resonance Temperature Imaging (MRTI) to improve the safety and efficacy of Laser Induced Thermal Therapy (LITT). Instilled MWCNTs enable precise tumor localization and killing of the tumor through preferential high temperature while protecting surrounding healthy tissue by monitoring the 3D temperature distribution. As advanced MR contrast agents (CA), Fe-containing MWCNTs produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with 600mg Ferrocene, show up to 5 times greater efficiency in changing T2 relaxation properties compared to the clinical MR CA, Feridex. Thus, MWCNTs could be used potentially as a super heating generator and contrast agents in thermal ablation therapy.

An Atlas of Operative Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy Second Edition

An Atlas of Operative Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy  Second Edition Book
Author : Jacques Donnez,M. Nisolle
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2001-05-15
ISBN : 1842140892
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since its introduction in the 1980s, the use of endoscopic surgery in gynecology has grown tremendously, its equipment improved, and methods refined. Today it is clear that the future of gynecologic surgery lies in the realm of minimally invasive techniques. An Atlas of Operative Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy, Second Edition is not just a how-to-do-the-surgery book, but also a guide to the pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and epidemiology of the urogynecological area. Thoroughly updated to reflect advances in methods and technology, the book covers established techniques such as laparoscopic tubal anastomosis, endometrial ablation, and ovarian surgery, to cite just a few. It pays special attention to emerging procedures and technologies, including the use of robotics and the treatment of carcinoma. Of particular importance is the section on complications, which shows you how to recognize and avoid potential pitfalls. With more than 850 illustrations, most in full color, An Atlas of Operative Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy, Second Edition is informative and thorough. As a reference, as a text, and as a surgical manual, it provides the grounding in current and emerging surgical techniques you need to stay at the top of your field.

Methods of Cancer Diagnosis Therapy and Prognosis

Methods of Cancer Diagnosis  Therapy  and Prognosis Book
Author : M. A. Hayat
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-03-26
ISBN : 9048129184
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume presents a detailed survey of cancers. This volume was written by of various methodologies related to diag- 94 oncologists representing 13 countries. nosis, therapy, and prognosis of ovar- Their practical experience highlights their ian cancer, renal cancer, urinary bladder writings, which should build and further cancer, and cervical uterine cancer, while the endeavors of the readers in this imp- the already published Volumes 1–5 detail tant area of disease. The text of each c- similar aspects of breast, lung, prostate, cer type is divided into subheadings for liver, gastrointestinal, colorectal, and bil- the convenience of the readers. It is my iary tract carcinomas. hope that the current volume will join the It is well established that cancer is the preceding volumes of this series for assi- deadliest of human diseases. The follow- ing in the more complete understanding ing estimated global incidence of seven of globally relevant cancer syndromes. types of cancers discussed in this volume There exists a tremendous, urgent demand indicated the seriousness of this malig- by the public on the scientific community nancy. to address cancer prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and hopefully cures. Cervical uterine cancer 493,342 I am grateful to the contributors for their Urinary bladder cancer 357,000 promptness accepting my suggestions. I respect their dedication and diligent work Leukemia 300,522 in sharing their invaluable knowledge with Renal cancer 208,480 the public through this series.

Quantitative Ultrasound Imaging of Thermal Ablation Therapy in the Liver

Quantitative Ultrasound Imaging of Thermal Ablation Therapy in the Liver Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate methods for delineating the extent of the thermally coagulated region following thermal ablation therapy of malignant tumors in the liver. In this dissertation, we examine quasistatic elasticity imaging for delineating the extent of the treated region. Next, we characterize scattering in normal, untreated liver and thermally coagulated liver. Finally, we examine attenuation estimation with reference phantom methods in the liver. It has been well established that the Young's modulus of thermally coagulated tissue is much larger than in untreated liver tissue, making elastographic imaging an attractive candidate for delineating the extent of thermal coagulation. In quasistatic elastographic imaging of superficial organs such as the breast, external compression may be performed with a compressor plate or the transducer itself. However, in abdominal imaging, external compression is not effective. In response, our laboratory has developed electrode displacement for strain and modulus imaging. In electrode displacement strain imaging, deformation is applied by displacing the end of the RF electrode or microwave antenna by a small amount following treatment. We present electrode displacement strain images of thermally coagulated regions in in vivo porcine animal models during open surgery. We show that cross-sectional areas of treated regions delineated on electrode displacement strain images correlate well with coagulated areas determined on optical photographs of ablated regions of the excised livers. Additionally, we present electrode displacement strain images of VX2 tumors in rabbit animal models prior to and following thermal ablation. Next, we develop mean scatterer spacing (MSS) estimation in the liver. In the liver, it has been hypothesized that periodic scattering results from a unique arrangement of microvasculature. Indeed, the liver is a unique organ because of its dual vascular supply from the hepatic artery and portal vein. We first show that utilizing a multi-taper spectral calculation results in a lower mean square error in MSS estimates using simulations of periodic tissue. Next, we show that average spectral coherence decreases in thermally coagulated liver compared with untreated liver in a small number of ex vivo RF ablations. Finally, we demonstrate that thermally coagulated regions are best modeled by aperiodic collections of scatterers, while normal liver exhibits periodicity. In the final section of the dissertation we consider attenuation estimation. This is an attractive area of research because the attenuation coefficient is approximately doubles in the liver following thermal ablation. In past works, authors have developed attenuation algorithms with the assumption that the tissue being imaged may be modeled by a collection of a large number of randomly distributed scatterers. We show that in ex vivo bovine liver the scatterer number density is small. We demonstrate that the effect this has on attenuation estimation is to significantly increase the variance in attenuation estimation relative to tissue that may be modeled with a large scatterer number density. Using computer simulation and phantom experiments we show that when the scatterer number density is sufficiently large it is possible to achieve low variance, high resolution attenuation estimates. However, as the scatterer number density decreases either spatial resolution in the attenuation estimate must be sacrificed or attenuation estimate variance will increase. We find a linear attenuation coefficient in thermally coagulated liver that is approximately double the attenuation coefficient of normal, untreated liver. However, we also find a low scatterer number density in these tissues and a correspondingly high attenuation estimation variance.