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Theoretical And Applied Aspects Of Biomass Torrefaction

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Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction

Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction Book
Author : Stephen Gent,Michael Twedt,Christina Gerometta,Evan Almberg
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release : 2017-06-16
ISBN : 0128095172
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction: For Biofuels and Value-Added Products presents a firm foundation of torrefaction technologies and their economic and sustainability aspects. It offers a theoretical background in the underlying principles of torrefaction reactions, including thermodynamics, chemical reactions, process modeling, end-products, and value-added products such as biochar and torr-gas. It also provides an overview of best practices in torrefaction systems, reactor design and scale-up, and compares torrefaction with other thermochemical processing technologies. The authors discuss feedstock availability for a variety of biomass types, such as agricultural residues, woody residues, energy crops and municipal solid waste. They also examine logistics and markets for torrefied products, which includes their use in co-firing and combined heat and power generation, as well as emissions and other environmental aspects. This balanced and thorough approach to the subject matter makes this an excellent resource for engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field of biomass conversion, especially with background in energy engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, environmental engineering, biological engineering, and agriculture. Offers a comprehensive overview of torrefaction, balancing theoretical and applied perspectives of torrefaction technologies from a holistic perspective Examines economic and sustainability aspects, including logistics, markets, feedstock, and emissions Presents a variety of relevant, real-world examples that underscore the production and utilization of torrefied material Offers a balanced and thorough approach to the subject, making it an excellent resource for engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field of biomass conversion

Byproducts Waste Biomass and Products to form Green Diesel and Biocrude Oils

Byproducts  Waste Biomass and Products to form Green Diesel and Biocrude Oils Book
Author : Brajendra K. Sharma,Kirtika Kohli
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-12-11
ISBN : 3039435175
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a collection of research and review articles useful for researchers, engineers, students and industry experts in the bioenergy field. The practical and valuable information can be utilized for developing and implementing renewable energy projects, selecting different waste feedstocks, technologies, and products. A detailed insight into advanced technologies such as hydrothermal liquefaction, torrefaction, and supercritical CO2 extraction for making sustainable biofuels and chemicals is provided. A case study on food waste-to-energy valorization processes in Latin America provides experts’ insights to promote a circular economy.

Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologies

Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologies Book
Author : Avinash P. Ingle,Anuj Kumar Chandel,Silvio Silverio da Silva
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-03-02
ISBN : 111956882X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A text to the advances and development of novel technologies in the production of high-value products from economically viable raw materials Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologiesis an essential guide to the most recent advances and developments of novel technologies in the production of various high-value products from economically viable raw materials. Written by a team of experts on the topic, the book covers important topics specifically on production of economical and sustainable products such as various biofuels, organic acids, enzymes, biopigments, biosurfactants, etc. The book highlights the important aspects of lignocellulosic biorefining including structure, function, and chemical composition of the plant cell wall and reviews the details about the various components present in the lignocellulosic biomass and their characterizations. The authors explore the various approaches available for processing lignocellulosic biomass into second generation sugars and focus on the possibilities of utilization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of biofuels and biochemicals. Each chapter includes a range of clear, informative tables and figures, and contains relevant references of published articles. This important text: Provides cutting-edge information on the recent developments in lignocellulose biorefinery Reviews production of various economically important and sustainable products, such as biofuels, organic acids, biopigments, and biosurfactants Highlights several broad-ranging areas of recent advances in the utilization of a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks Provides a valuable, authoritative reference for anyone interested in the topic Written for post-graduate students and researchers in disciplines such as biotechnology, bioengineering, forestry, agriculture, and chemical industry, Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologies is an authoritative and updated guide to the knowledge about various biorefining technologies.

Coal in the 21st Century

Coal in the 21st Century Book
Author : R E Hester,R M Harrison
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2017-10-02
ISBN : 1788012518
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The long-term future for coal looks bleak. The recent UN climate change conference in Paris called for an end to the use of fossil fuels. However, coal remains one of the world’s most important sources of energy, fuelling more than 40% of electricity generation worldwide, with many developing nations relying almost wholly on coal-fuelled electricity. Coal has been the fastest growing energy source in recent years and is essential for many industrial activities, but the coal industry is hugely damaging for the environment. A major driver in climate change and causing around 40% of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions, coal fuel comes at a high environmental price. Furthermore, mining and air pollution kill thousands each year. A timely addition to the series, this book critically reviews the role of coal in the 21st century, examining energy needs, usage and health implications. With case studies and an examination of future developments and economics, this text provides an essential update on an environmental topic the world cannot ignore.

Applications of Advanced Green Materials

Applications of Advanced Green Materials Book
Author : Shakeel Ahmed
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2020-10-22
ISBN : 0128209380
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Applications of Advanced Green Materials provides a comprehensive and authoritative review on recent advancement in green materials in various applications. Each chapter is focused on a specific application of advanced green materials from packaging to sensor technology, biomedical to environmental applications, textile to catalysis to electronic shielding applications, supercapacitors, drug delivery, tissue engineering, bioelectronic, gas storage and separation, etc. This book also discusses life cycle assessment and circular economy of green materials and their future prospective. The book is unique with contributions from renowned scientists working on biopolymers and biocomposites, bioactive and biodegradable materials, composites, and metallic natural materials. This book is an essential resource for academicians, researchers, students and professionals interested in exploring potential of advanced green materials. Includes up to date information on applications of advanced green materials Each chapter is specifically discussing a particular application with examples Present a unified approach to discuss in detail about origin, synthesis and application of green materials

Torrefaction of Biomass for Energy Applications

Torrefaction of Biomass for Energy Applications Book
Author : Leonel JR Nunes,Joao Carlos De Oliveira Matias,Joao Paulo Da Silva Catalao
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-11-21
ISBN : 0128096977
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Torrefaction of Biomass for Energy Applications: From Fundamentals to Industrial Scale explores the processes, technology, end-use, and economics involved in torrefaction at the industrial scale for heat and power generation. Its authors combine their industry experience with their academic expertise to provide a thorough overview of the topic. Starting at feedstock pretreatment, followed by torrefaction processes, the book includes plant design and operation, safety aspects, and case studies focusing on the needs and challenges of the industrial scale. Commercially available technologies are examined and compared, and their economical evaluation and life cycle assessment are covered as well. Attention is also given to non-woody feedstock, alternative applications, derived fuels, recent advances, and expected future developments. For its practical approach, this book is ideal for professionals in the biomass industry, including those in heat and power generation. It is also a useful reference for researchers and graduate students in the area of biomass and biofuels, and for decision makers, policy makers, and analysts in the energy field. Compares efficiency and performance of different commercially available technologies from the practical aspects of daily operation in an industrial scale plant Presents a cost analysis of the production, logistics, and storage of torrefied biomass Includes case studies addressing challenges that may occur in the daily operation in an industrial scale plant Covers other associated technologies, the densification of torrefied biomass, and non-woody feedstock

Progressive Thermochemical Biorefining Technologies

Progressive Thermochemical Biorefining Technologies Book
Author : Sonil Nanda,Dai-Viet N. Vo
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-08-18
ISBN : 1000427358
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Considering the deleterious impacts of fossil fuels on the environmental and natural ecosystems, it has become imperative to make a paradigm shift toward renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials. The exhaustive everyday usage of fossil fuels and processed petrochemical products are the leading causes for the increase in greenhouse gas emissions, global warming, climate changes, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, pollution of air, water, and soil as well as for the accumulation of nonbiodegradable materials in the soil and oceans. On the contrary, biofuels, biochemicals, and biomaterials derived from renewable wastes such as nonedible plant biomass (e.g., agricultural and forestry biomass), energy crops, microalgae, municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and other biogenic residues seem to be carbon neutral. Therefore, the global interest in biorefining technologies, especially thermochemical and biological conversion processes, is gaining momentum in academic and industrial perspectives. Progressive Thermochemical Biorefining Technologies offers all-inclusive coverage of the most crucial topics as follows: State-of-the-art information on the production and utilization of biofuels through thermochemical biorefining technologies Conversion of waste biomass through pyrolysis, liquefaction, torrefaction, carbonization, gasification, reforming, and other clean technologies Waste-to-energy/chemical generation Fuel upgrading technologies Techno-economic analysis and life-cycle assessment of biorefining processes Specifically designed to be instantly applicable, this volume serves as a reference book for undergraduate and graduate students, scientific investigators, and research scholars working in the areas relating to energy and fuels.

Advances and Impacts of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving

Advances and Impacts of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Book
Author : Sebastian Koziołek,Leonid Chechurin,Mikael Collan
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-11-29
ISBN : 3319965328
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers a collection of cutting-edge research on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). Introduced by Genrich Altshuller in 1956, TRIZ has since been used by engineers, inventors and creators as an essential structured innovation method at businesses and organizations around the globe. The chapters of this book showcase work by selected authors from the 'TRIZ Future' conferences, which are organized by the European TRIZ Association (ETRIA). The chapters reflect an international mix of new ideas on TRIZ and knowledge-based innovation, highlight recent advances in the TRIZ community, and provide examples of successful collaboration between industry and academia. The book first introduces the reader to recent methodological innovations, then provides an overview of established and new TRIZ tools, followed by a collection of case studies and examples of TRIZ implementation in various scientific and social contexts.

Biomass Gasification Pyrolysis and Torrefaction

Biomass Gasification  Pyrolysis and Torrefaction Book
Author : Prabir Basu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-07-18
ISBN : 0123965438
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomass is the most widely used non-fossil fuel in the world. Biomass resources show a considerable potential in the long-term given the increasing proliferation of dedicated energy crops for biofuels. The second edition of Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis is enhanced with new topics, such as torrefaction and cofiring, making it a versatile resource that not only explains the basic principles of energy conversion systems, but also provides valuable insight into the design of biomass conversion systems. This book will allow professionals, such as engineers, scientists, and operating personnel of biomass gasification, pyrolysis or torrefaction plants, to gain a better comprehension of the basics of biomass conversion. The author provides many worked out design problems, step-by-step design procedures and real data on commercially operating systems. With a dedicated focus on the design, analysis, and operational aspects of biomass gasification, pyrolysis, and torrefaction, Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction, Second Edition offers comprehensive coverage of biomass in its gas, liquid, and solid states in a single easy-to-access source. Contains new and updated step-by-step process flow diagrams, design data and conversion charts, and numerical examples with solutions Includes chapters dedicated to evolving torrefaction technologies, practicing option of biomass cofiring, and biomass conversion economics Expanded coverage of syngas and other Fischer-Tropsch alternatives Spotlights advanced processes such as supercritical water gasification and torrefaction of biomass. Provides available research results in an easy-to-use design methodology

Thermochemical Processing of Biomass

Thermochemical Processing of Biomass Book
Author : Robert C. Brown
Publisher : Wiley
Release : 2019-05-06
ISBN : 1119417570
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A comprehensive examination of the large number of possible pathways for converting biomass into fuels and power through thermochemical processes Bringing together a widely scattered body of information into a single volume, this book provides complete coverage of the many ways that thermochemical processes are used to transform biomass into fuels, chemicals and power. Fully revised and updated, this new edition highlights the substantial progress and recent developments that have been made in this rapidly growing field since publication of the first edition and incorporates up-to-date information in each chapter. Thermochemical Processing of Biomass: Conversion into Fuels, Chemicals and Power, 2nd Edition incorporates two new chapters covering: condensed phased reactions of thermal deconstruction of biomass and life cycle analysis of thermochemical processing systems. It offers a new introductory chapter that provides a more comprehensive overview of thermochemical technologies. The book also features fresh perspectives from new authors covering such evolving areas as solvent liquefaction and hybrid processing. Other chapters cover combustion, gasification, fast pyrolysis, upgrading of syngas and bio-oil to liquid transportation fuels, and the economics of thermochemically producing fuels and power, and more. Features contributions by a distinguished group of European and American researchers offering a broad and unified description of thermochemical processing options for biomass Combines an overview of the current status of thermochemical biomass conversion as well as engineering aspects to appeal to the broadest audience Edited by one of Biofuels Digest’s "Top 100 People" in bioenergy for six consecutive years Thermochemical Processing of Biomass: Conversion into Fuels, Chemicals and Power, 2nd Edition will appeal to all academic researchers, process chemists, and engineers working in the field of biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. It is also an excellent book for graduate and advanced undergraduate students studying biomass, biofuels, renewable resources, and energy and power generation.

Renewable Energy Systems from Biomass

Renewable Energy Systems from Biomass Book
Author : Vladimir Strezov,Hossain Md. Anawar
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-11-16
ISBN : 1498767915
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

New innovations are needed for the invention of more efficient, affordable, sustainable and renewable energy systems, as well as for the mitigation of climate change and global environmental issues. In response to a fast-growing interest in the realm of renewable energy, Renewable Energy Systems: Efficiency, Innovation and Sustainability identifies a need to synthesize relevant and up-to-date information in a single volume. This book describes a systems approach to renewable energy, including technological, political, economic, social and environmental viewpoints, as well as policies and benefits. This unique and concise text, encompassing all aspects of the field in a single source, focuses on truly promising innovative and affordable renewable energy systems. Key Features: Focuses on innovations in renewable energy systems that are affordable and sustainable Collates the most relevant and up-to-date information on renewable energy systems, in a single and unique volume Discusses lifecycle assessment, cost and availability of systems Emphasizes bio-related topics Provides a systems approach to the renewable energy technologies and discusses technological, political, economic, social, and environmental viewpoints as well as policies

Advances in Bioprocess Technology

Advances in Bioprocess Technology Book
Author : Pogaku Ravindra
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-08-13
ISBN : 3319179152
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides an extensive overview of the latest research in environmentally benign integrated bioprocess technology. The cutting edge bioprocess technologies highlighted in the book include bioenergy from lignocellulose materials, biomass gasification, ethanol, butanol, biodiesel from agro waste, enzymatic bioprocess technology, food fermentation with starter cultures, and intellectual property rights for bioprocesses. This book further addresses niche technologies in bioprocesses that broadens readers’ understanding of downstream processing for bio products and membrane technology for bioprocesses. The latest developments in biomass and bioenergy technology are reviewed exhaustively, including IPR rights, nanotechnology for bioenergy products, biomass gasification, and biomass combustion. This is an ideal book for scientists, engineers, students, as well as members of industry and policy-makers. This book also: Addresses cutting-edge technologies in bioprocesses Broadens readers’ understanding of metabolic engineering, downstream processing for bioproducts, and membrane technology for bioprocesses Reviews exhaustively the latest developments in biomass and bioenergy technology, including nanotechnology for bioenergy products, biomass gasification, biomass combustion, and more

Biomass for Biofuels

Biomass for Biofuels Book
Author : Katarzyna Bulkowska,Zygmunt Mariusz Gusiatin,Ewa Klimiuk,Artur Pawlowski,Tomasz Pokoj
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-12-08
ISBN : 1351850091
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomass is a widely available resource, that can be characterized by its high production potential. Enabling the production of different types of biofuels, biomass can be used in both spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. There is extensive knowledge of the biofuel production process, and technologies enabling the production of biofuels with high caloric value and better physicochemical properties are developed. The biggest barrier in the development of a biofuels market is not the lack of know-how, but economic and political aspects. Biomass for Biofuels presents technological aspects of biomass conversion into advanced biofuels. Also discussed are the influence of growing biofuels markets on the natural environment and social relations as well as economic aspects of acquisition of biomass and its processing into biofuels. In addition biomass characteristics are presented. A definition is provided, and its chemical composition and properties detailed. The focus is on lignocellulosic biomass, whose complex structure is a limiting factor for biofuels production via biological processes. For that reason, echanical, chemical and physicochemical methods that enable an increased availability for the microorganisms used for biomass conversion to biofuels are discussed.

Advances in Clean Energy

Advances in Clean Energy Book
Author : Anand Ramanathan,Babu Dharmalingam,Vinoth Thangarasu
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-10-23
ISBN : 1000205320
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Clean Energy: Production and Application supports sustainable clean energy technology and green fuel for clean combustion by reviewing the pros and cons of currently available technologies specifically for biodiesel production from biomass sources, recent fuel modification strategy, low-temperature combustion technology, including other biofuels as well. Written for researchers, graduate students, and professionals in mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, energy, and environmental engineering, this book: Covers global energy scenarios and future energy demands pertaining to clean energy technologies Provides systematic and detailed coverage of the processes and technologies used for biofuel production Includes new technologies and perspectives, giving up-to-date and state-of-the-art information on research and commercialization Discusses all conversion methods including biochemical and thermochemical Examines the environmental consequences of biomass-based biofuel use

Biofuels Production and Processing Technology

Biofuels Production and Processing Technology Book
Author : M.R. Riazi,David Chiaramonti
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-10-10
ISBN : 1498778941
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The importance of biofuels in greening the transport sector in the future is unquestionable, given the limited available fossil energy resources, the environmental issues associated to the utilization of fossil fuels, and the increasing attention to security of supply. This comprehensive reference presents the latest technology in all aspects of biofuels production, processing, properties, raw materials, and related economic and environmental aspects. Presenting the application of methods and technology with minimum math and theory, it compiles a wide range of topics not usually covered in one single book. It discusses development of new catalysts, reactors, controllers, simulators, online analyzers, and waste minimization as well as design and operational aspects of processing units and financial and economic aspects. The book rounds out by describing properties, specifications, and quality of various biofuel products and new advances and trends towards future technology.

Technologies for Converting Biomass to Useful Energy

Technologies for Converting Biomass to Useful Energy Book
Author : Erik Dahlquist
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2013-04-16
ISBN : 0415620880
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Officially, the use of biomass for energy meets only 10-13% of the total global energy demand of 140 000 TWh per year. Still, thirty years ago the official figure was zero, as only traded biomass was included. While the actual production of biomass is in the range of 270 000 TWh per year, most of this is not used for energy purposes, and mostly it is not used very efficiently. Therefore, there is a need for new methods for converting biomass into refined products like chemicals, fuels, wood and paper products, heat, cooling and electric power. Obviously, some biomass is also used as food – our primary life necessity. The different types of conversion methods covered in this volume are biogas production, bio-ethanol production, torrefaction, pyrolysis, high temperature gasifi cation and combustion. This book covers the suitability of different methods for conversion of different types of biomass. Different versions of the conversion methods are presented – both existing methods and those being developed for the future. System optimization using modeling methods and simulation are analyzed to determine advantages and disadvantages of different solutions. Many international experts have contributed to provide an up-to-date view of the situation all over the world. These global perspectives and the inclusion of so much expertise of distinguished international researchers and professionals make this book unique. This book will prove useful and inspiring to professionals, engineers, researchers and students as well as to those working for different authorities and organizations.

Char and Carbon Materials Derived from Biomass

Char and Carbon Materials Derived from Biomass Book
Author : Mejdi Jeguirim,Lionel Limousy
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-03-29
ISBN : 0128148942
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Char and Carbon Materials Derived from Biomass: Production, Characterization and Applications provides an overview of biomass char production methods (pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, etc.), along with the characterization techniques typically used (Scanning Electronic Microscopy, X-Ray Fluorescence, Nitrogen adsorption, etc.) In addition, the book includes a discussion of the various properties of biomass chars and their suitable recovery processes, concluding with a demonstration of applications. As biomass can be converted to energy, biofuels and bioproducts via thermochemical conversion processes, such as combustion, pyrolysis and gasification, this book is ideal for professionals in energy production and storage fields, as well as professionals in waste treatment, gas treatment, and more. Provides a discussion of sources of biomass feedstocks, such as agricultural, woody plants and food processing residue Discusses the various production processes of biomass chars, including pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization Explores various applications of biomass chars within different industries, including energy and agronomy

Comprehensive Energy Systems

Comprehensive Energy Systems Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-02-07
ISBN : 0128149256
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Comprehensive Energy Systems provides a unified source of information covering the entire spectrum of energy, one of the most significant issues humanity has to face. This comprehensive book describes traditional and novel energy systems, from single generation to multi-generation, also covering theory and applications. In addition, it also presents high-level coverage on energy policies, strategies, environmental impacts and sustainable development. No other published work covers such breadth of topics in similar depth. High-level sections include Energy Fundamentals, Energy Materials, Energy Production, Energy Conversion, and Energy Management. Offers the most comprehensive resource available on the topic of energy systems Presents an authoritative resource authored and edited by leading experts in the field Consolidates information currently scattered in publications from different research fields (engineering as well as physics, chemistry, environmental sciences and economics), thus ensuring a common standard and language

Renewable Resources and Biorefineries

Renewable Resources and Biorefineries Book
Author : Eduardo Jacob-Lopes,Leila Queiroz Zepka
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2019-01-23
ISBN : 1789850010
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Renewable Resources and Biorefineries presents an authoritative and comprehensive overview of biobased technologies for the production of fuels, food/feed, and materials. This book provides an insight into future developments in each field and an extensive bibliography. It will be an essential resource for researchers and academic and industry professionals in the renewable resources field.

Fuel Property Estimation and Combustion Process Characterization

Fuel Property Estimation and Combustion Process Characterization Book
Author : Yen-Hsiung Kiang
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-02-20
ISBN : 0128134747
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fuel Property Estimation and Combustion Process Characterization is a thorough tool book, which provides readers with the most up-to-date, valuable methodologies to efficiently and cost-effectively attain useful properties of all types of fuels and achieve combustion process characterizations for more efficient design and better operation. Through extensive experience in fuels and combustion, Kiang has developed equations and methodologies that can readily obtain reasonable properties for all types of fuels (including wastes and biomass), which enable him to provide guidance for designers and operators in the combustion field, in order to ensure the design, operation, and diagnostics of all types of combustion systems are of the highest quality and run at optimum efficiency. Written for professionals and researchers in the renewable energy, combustion, chemical, and mechanical engineering fields, the information in this book will equip readers with detailed guidance on how to reliably obtain properties of fuels quickly for the design, operation and diagnostics of combustion systems to achieve highly efficient combustion processes. Presents models for quick estimation of fuel properties without going through elaborate, costly and time consuming sampling and laboratory testing Offers methodologies to determine combustion process characteristics for designing and deploying combustion systems Examines the fundamentals of combustion applied to energy systems, including thermodynamics of traditional and alternative fuels combustion Presents a fuel property database for over 1400 fuels Includes descriptive application of big data technology, using dual properties analysis as an example Provides specific technical solutions for combustion, fuels and waste processing