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The Urban Heat Island

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The Urban Heat Island

The Urban Heat Island Book
Author : Gerald Mills,Iain Stewart
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-05-01
ISBN : 0128156902
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Urban Heat Island provides simple instructions for measurement and an analysis of the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, along with greater context as to what a UHI means and what impacts it can have. With this further understanding, research on urban heat islands can impact a wide range of climate mitigation and adaptation programs, including city greening, changing surface albedo and permeable paving. The book empowers readers to work within a set of guidelines that will enable direct comparisons of urban development across multiple environments. This type of systematic classification opens the door to true global comparisons of climate change. In addition, the impact of urban planning and design strategies in different environments can then be evaluated for their effectiveness at mitigating these changes. Covers both on-surface and near-surface, or canopy, measurements and impacts of Urban Heat Islands (UHI) Provides a set of best practices and guidelines for UHI observation and analysis Includes both conceptual overviews and practical instructions for a wide range of uses

Adaptation Measures for Urban Heat Islands

Adaptation Measures for Urban Heat Islands Book
Author : Hideki Takebayashi,Masakazu Moriyama
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-03-20
ISBN : 0128176253
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Adaptation Measures for Urban Heat Islands helps the reader understand the relative performance of these adaptation measures, methods and analysis relating to their creation and maintenance, evaluation methods, and the role of policy and governance in implementing them. A suite of case studies is included on these urban or metropolitan areas that are significantly warmer than their surrounding rural areas due to human activities. In recent years, a suite of adaptation measures have been developed to mitigate the urban heat island phenomena. Provides a range of concrete implementation methods Assesses relative performance of adaptation measures and countermeasure technologies Establishes methods for human thermal environmental interventions Reviews adaptation cities selected for excellent energy performance and thermal comfort indicators

Counteracting Urban Heat Island Effects in a Global Climate Change Scenario

Counteracting Urban Heat Island Effects in a Global Climate Change Scenario Book
Author : Francesco Musco
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-08-30
ISBN : 331910425X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Urban heat islands are a new type of microclimatic phenomenon that causes a significant increase in the temperature of cities compared to surrounding areas. The phenomenon has been enforced by the current trend towards climate change. Although experts consider urban heat islands an urgent European Union public health concern, there are too few policies that address it. The EU carried out a project to learn more about this phenomenon through pilot initiatives. The pilots included feasibility studies and strategies for appropriately altering planning rules and governance to tackle the problem of urban heat islands. The pilots were carried out in eight metropolitan areas: Bologna/Modena, Budapest, Ljubljana, Lodz, Prague, Stuttgart, Venice/Padova, and Vienna. The feasibility studies carried out in these pilot areas focused on the specific morphology of EU urban areas, which are often characterised by the presence of historical old towns.

Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates

Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates Book
Author : Ansar Khan,Soumendu Chatterjee,Yupeng Wang
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-11-17
ISBN : 0128225580
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates takes into account the different urban physics in tropical environments, presenting a way of UHI scaling for tropical cities. Topics include measuring, modeling and proper mitigation strategies, which account for the surface energy balance of tropics. Tropical cities are more susceptible to the effects of projected global warming because of conditions in tropical climates and the rapid growth of so many cities in this zone. The need for research on measuring, modeling and mitigation of UHI effects in tropical cities is of growing importance. This book walks through the basics of Urban Heat Islands, including causes, measurement and analysis then expands upon issues as well as the novel techniques that can be used to address issues specific to the region. Reviews topics related to understanding the fundamentals of modeling and impacts of urban heat islands Covers many techniques, from remote sensing, to numerical modeling and then applying them to urban climate studies in general, and in tropical cities Describes the scaling of urban heat islands based on long-term seasonal thermal parameters as feature-based classification systems using a probabilistic and fuzzy logic approach, unlike local climate zones (LCZs)

Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies in an Arid Climate In Outdoor Thermal Comfort Reacheable

Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies in an Arid Climate  In Outdoor Thermal Comfort Reacheable Book
Author : Suaad Ridha
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Numerous studies over the past several decades focused on the effect of the Urban Heat Island. Initial efforts on understanding the factors affecting UHI contributed to proceed the appropriate solutions and mitigation strategies. Mitigation strategies comprise increase both urban albedo (reflectivity to solar radiation), and evapotranspiration. Albedo increases are obtained through high albedo roofing and paving technologies. An increase in evapotranspiration is achieved through a combination of decreasing the fraction of impervious surfaces and planting vegetation in urban areas. The outdoor thermal comfort is influenced by the perception and satisfaction of the pedestrians, especially in hot and arid climates. Consequently, this work focuses on the appropriate methods for reducing the Urban Heat Island and thus to enhance the pedestrians outdoor thermal comfort. However, there is limited research conducted on the outdoor thermal comfort in hot and arid climate. The studies on the mitigation the Urban Heat Island and the outdoor thermal comfort are almost non-existent for Baghdad city. Baghdad has a complex urban fabric with modern design constructions buildings, traditional and heritage houses. The climate in summer is hot, and summer months are considered the longest season with nearly 7 months of the year. This study focuses on investigating possible mitigation strategies to ensure how pedestrian comfort is affected by the constructions design choices comparing a traditional district to a modern one, and on how vegetation and shading patterns contribute to reducing the effect of UHI and improving the outdoor thermal comfort. Four different scenarios are designed to assess the role of vegetation elements such as trees, grass, and different shading patterns. The evaluation was performed on the hottest day in summer, the mean radiant temperature, specific humidity, air temperature, and wind speed distributions have been analyzed using ENVI-met software. Thermal comfort is assessed using the thermal indices the Physiological Equivalent Temperature PET and the Predicted Mean Vote PMV. Also, a proposal model is designed to evaluate the thermal comfort on the hottest day and the typical day in summer. The results revealed an improvement on thermal comfort in the typical day in summer. The study shows how the urban factors such as the aspect ratio, vegetation cover, shadings, and geometry of the canyon are crucial elements that urban planners and municipalities have to take into account, especially for new urban developments in hot, arid climate.

The Urban Heat Island Effect in Austin

The Urban Heat Island Effect in Austin Book
Author : Ariel Quintana
Publisher :
Release : 2020
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report explores issues surrounding the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect and its mitigation, while focusing on UHI in Austin, Texas. It presents current trends in American cityscapes, namely the increases in impervious surface cover and decreases in urban green spaces. The report contextualizes these losses in green space through a review of the extensive health and societal benefits provided by urban trees and vegetation. Moreover, the report covers the human health implications and socioeconomic disparities associated with urban heat. It examines climate change projections as they relate to changes in extreme heat events. Furthermore, the report touches on the main types of UHI mitigation approaches and utilizes the City of Los Angeles as a case study. This report presents Austin’s UHI mitigation approaches as found in the city’s plans and policies. Next, it analyzes the spatial distribution of surface temperature, tree canopy coverage, and a variety of vulnerability factors for residents in Austin. Finally, this report provides recommendations for further UHI mitigation efforts in Austin and research areas for future study

Tropical Urban Heat Islands

Tropical Urban Heat Islands Book
Author : Nyuk Hien Wong,Yu Chen
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2008-08-29
ISBN : 1134221096
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Conventional air conditioning is not a sustainable solution to the challenge of a hot or humid climate. The climate problem is compounded in so-called Urban Heat Islands, urban areas where the air can be 3–5°C hotter than its surrounding areas and where pollution levels are consequently raised. Including a colour section with thermal images and maps, this book explores the complex relationships between climate, buildings and plants, especially in urban heat islands. These relationships bear very critically on a range of environmental issues and point to some corresponding solutions. One chapter highlights some of the extensive research work carried out in Singapore, especially investigating the thermal benefits of greenery in buildings in the urban setting. Though several books have been written on urban heat islands, this work uniquely examines the linkages between climate, buildings and plants. It forms a reference for researchers and professionals such as architects, architectural science, landscape architects, building services engineers, urban planners and urban climatologists. It may also be useful for final year undergraduates or graduate students in these disciplines.

The Urban Heat Island Effects in Kathmandu

The Urban Heat Island Effects in Kathmandu Book
Author : Poonam Amatya
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9783848411375
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plenty of things are being discussed about the compact cities as a sustainable urban form but has anyone discussed about any adverse effect of these cities to the environment? The local warming effect due to changes in urban fabric can be equally problematic as global warming because it is a major contributor for rising up the atmospheric temperature. This research focuses on urban heat island effect, a form of urban micro-climate, and suggests some mitigation measures for this phenomenon. As the topic is new for Nepal and most of the developing countries, mostly qualitative analysis is done based on literature reviews. The study carried out during the research in Kathmandu showed the presence of urban heat island affect and its growing trend. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to develop some guidelines to minimize as well as adapt the transitional city, Kathmandu, to this increasing urban heat island effect.

Urban Heat Island

Urban Heat Island Book
Author : Humayun Sarkar,Hartono Dess,Dewi Galuh CK
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2011-12
ISBN : 9783846538371
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Urban Heat Island (UHIs) phenomenon is a warmest condition of a certain city. Many new and simulating developments have been apparent in the field of remote sensing, urban planning and climatology. This book is not just new information but reflect the fresh concepts and frameworks about urban heat island in under developing countries. The main objectives of this book are 1, Inventory of landcover of urban area 2, Inventory of spatial distribution of urban surface radiant temperature 3, Mapping of urban population density based on built up area and 4, Investigating the influence of landcover and population density on urban heat island for Yogyakarta city. The statistical analysis reveals that Urban Heat Island exits over urban areas and thermal level vary gradually with in cities with a positive relationship to landcover and population density

05 Comparison of Two Urban Heat Islands in the Center of Natal

05   Comparison of Two Urban Heat Islands in the Center of Natal Book
Author : Joaquim Custu00f3dio Coutinho
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The phenomenon of the heat island is understood by a climatic event occurring in urban centers, expressing a higher temperature when compared to the areas of its surroundings. The objective of this research was to analyze and compare the air temperature for two areas in the urban center of Natal/ RN/ Brazil, where the urban heat island occurs. For this, we used the ENVI-met version 3.1 program to perform the microclimatic simulation, one in the East Zone and the other in the North Zone. The program requires two input files: (i) modeling of the area, containing buildings, vegetation and soil and (ii) microclimatic variables, with air temperature (27.24 u00b0 C), relative humidity (76%), wind direction (138 u00b0 SE), wind speed (4.4 m s-u00b9) and specific humidity (5.7 g water kg ar-1), with data from the Meteorological Stations of Natal Airport and the Parque das Dunes, representing a typical summer day (January / 2016 - 21h). The simulation of the East and North Zone clipping was done in the cloud and took 104 and 160 consecutive hours, respectively, with the highest air temperature values in both regions at 1:00 p.m. The difference in air temperature was the same for the two heat islands. However, the Northern Zone presents more points with maximum temperatures when compared with the other urban area studied. Thus, the Northern Zone demonstrates a priority in the increase of afforestation in public roads, parks and squares to soften the effect of the urban heat islands.

The Urban Heat Island in Manchester 1996 2011

The Urban Heat Island in Manchester 1996   2011 Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2015
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The urban heat island intensity (difference between a semi-rural and urban dry bulb air temperature, urban heat island intensity) has been analysed for Manchester using data from 1996 to 2011. The semi-rural sites were airfields and the urban site was 2 km from the centre of Manchester. Although the urban site was not as developed as the city centre it showed a significant urban heat island intensity. A stochastic model developed from the data showed that the maximum mean daily value would be about 6°C which compared well with more detailed measurements. However, there was a highly significant trend of increasing urban heat island intensity which by the end of the century could add 2.4 K to the predicted climate change increase. An analysis of the urban morphology showed that the urban site had indeed become more urban over 9 years of the study, losing green spaces which mitigate against the urban heat island intensity. Practical application : The results from this paper will allow building and HVAC designers to consider the increase in the urban heat island in their designs when using future weather data. Although the results are for Manchester, similar trends may well apply to other similar-sized cities. Designers should consider the future weather data available, as their buildings will last for a considerable time so they should be as future-proofed as possible.

Counteracting Urban Heat Island Effects in a Global Climate Change Scenario

Counteracting Urban Heat Island Effects in a Global Climate Change Scenario Book
Author : Francesco Musco
Publisher :
Release : 2020-10-08
ISBN : 9781013267598
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Urban heat islands are a new type of microclimatic phenomenon that causes a significant increase in the temperature of cities compared to surrounding areas. The phenomenon has been enforced by the current trend towards climate change. Although experts consider urban heat islands an urgent European Union public health concern, there are too few policies that address it. The EU carried out a project to learn more about this phenomenon through pilot initiatives. The pilots included feasibility studies and strategies for appropriately altering planning rules and governance to tackle the problem of urban heat islands. The pilots were carried out in eight metropolitan areas: Bologna/Modena, Budapest, Ljubljana, Lodz, Prague, Stuttgart, Venice/Padova, and Vienna. The feasibility studies carried out in these pilot areas focused on the specific morphology of EU urban areas, which are often characterised by the presence of historical old towns. This work was published by Saint Philip Street Press pursuant to a Creative Commons license permitting commercial use. All rights not granted by the work's license are retained by the author or authors.