Skip to main content

The Role Of Neuroinflammation In Chronic Pain Development And Maintenance

Download The Role Of Neuroinflammation In Chronic Pain Development And Maintenance Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, and kindle. The Role Of Neuroinflammation In Chronic Pain Development And Maintenance is one my favorite book and give us some inspiration, very enjoy to read. you could read this book anywhere anytime directly from your device.

The Role of Neuroinflammation in Chronic Pain Development and Maintenance

The Role of Neuroinflammation in Chronic Pain Development and Maintenance Book
Author : Francesco De Logu,Serena Boccella,Francesca Guida,Gabriela Trevisan
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2022-02-22
ISBN : 2889743217
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Download The Role of Neuroinflammation in Chronic Pain Development and Maintenance book written by Francesco De Logu,Serena Boccella,Francesca Guida,Gabriela Trevisan, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Cytokines and Pain

Cytokines and Pain Book
Author : L.R. Watkins,S.F. Maier
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-03-08
ISBN : 3034887493
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Within the past few years, it has become recognized that the immune system communicates to the brain. Substances released from activated immune cells (cytokines) stimulate peripheral nerves, thereby signaling the brain and spinal cord that infection/inflammation has occurred. Additionally, peripheral infection/inflammation leads to de novo synthesis and release of cytokines within the brain and spinal cord. Thus, cytokines effect neural activation both peripherally and centrally. Through this communication pathway, cytokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor markedly alter brain function, physiology and behavior. One important but underrecognized aspect of this communication is the dramatic impact that immune activation has on pain modulation. The purpose of this book is to examine, for the first time, immune-to-brain communication from the viewpoint of its effect on pain processing. It is aimed both at the basic scientist and health care providers, in order to clarify the major role that substances released by immune cells play in pain modulation. This book contains chapters contributed by all of the major laboratories focused on understanding how cytokines modulate pain. These chapters provide a unique vantage point from which to examine this question, as the summarized work ranges from evolutionary approaches across diverse species, to the basics of the immune response, to the effect of cytokines on peripheral and central nervous system sites, to therapeutic potential in humans.

Identifying Novel Therapeutic Targets for the Treatment of Pathological Pain

Identifying Novel Therapeutic Targets for the Treatment of Pathological Pain Book
Author : Dylan Warren Maixner
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Chronic pain affects over 100 million adults in the United States and is considered exceptionally difficult to treat. One of the primary reasons that individuals visit the clinic is due to pain as a primary factor or arising secondarily to another disease or disorder. The etiology of pathological pain conditions have not been fully elucidated due to its complexity. This project investigates the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3Îø), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and lanthionine synthetase C-like 2 protein (LANCL2) in regulating inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) and pathological pain. Tissue and nerve injury produce inflammation, which is a critical component contributing to the development and maintenance of pathological pain conditions. The accumulation of inflammatory cells at the peripheral injury site, proliferation and activation of microglia and astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn of the spinal cord, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators at the injury site and the spinal dorsal horn have all been shown to contribute to the genesis of pathological pain. Targeting signaling pathways regulating these processes may prove effective in developing analgesics to treat pain. This work provides compelling evidence through reviewing the literature and published results that GSK-3Îø is a novel target in the spinal cord to treat pain behaviors. We further show through published or submitted results that the activity of AMPK modulates neuroinflammation and pathological pain, in part through GSK-3Îø activity and aberrant reactive oxygen species in the spinal cord. Next, we provide results that a newly identified protein in the spinal cord, LANCL2, can mediate neuroinflammation and nociceptive behaviors. Lastly, we describe how these findings influence the field for researchers, clinicians, and ultimately patients.

Microglia and Macrophages in Different Types of Chronic Pain

Microglia and Macrophages in Different Types of Chronic Pain Book
Author : SeungHwan Lee
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

"Chronic pain is a complex and multifaceted disorder associated with considerable disabilities, burden to patients, their families, the health care system and society. Current treatment options are few and inadequate for complete relief. Emerging evidence suggests that the interaction between the immune system and the nervous system plays critical roles in the development and maintenance of pathological pain. Macrophages in peripheral nerves and in the central nervous system also termed as microglia are the key players in the neuroimmune crosstalk. In this thesis, we aim to characterize functional phenotype of macrophages in the nerves and microglia in the brain/spinal cords of rodents associated with different chronic pain conditions. We demonstrated that in aged mice where pain sensation was altered, their spinal microglia were activated by displaying a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Such phenotype was further exacerbated with obesity, where a concomitant enhanced mechanical hyposensitivity and thermal hypersensitivity were observed. While trigeminal nerve injury triggered long lasting neuropathic oro-facial pain, microglia in the brainstem where injured nerve fibers terminate became highly activated, with increased cell density, expression of inflammatory mediators, and morphological alterations. Local LPS induced infection and CFA induced inflammation were also associated with hypersensitivity; however, microglia response was moderate which was not restricted to neuronal pathway, instead mainly in the circumventicular organs where blood brain barrier were absent. We further revealed heterogenous characteristics of macrophages in injured nerves and their potential contribution to neuropathic pain. We found that cytokine-expressing small and round-shaped macrophages were usually distributed close to the injury sites, whereas phagocytic macrophages were spread widely along damaged nerve fibers. CD86+, M1-like macrophages were predominant over CD206+, M2-like macrophages at either acute or chronic phase of neuropathic pain following nerve injury. The majority of these CD86+ macrophages were derived from blood circulation. We also showed that blocking CSF1R signaling can reduce the number of macrophages, mainly CD86+ cells, in injured nerves, with the decreased levels of local inflammatory cytokines. As consequences, CSF1R inhibitor was able to alleviate neuropathic pain in both prevention and reversal paradigms. To conclude, detailed analysis of macrophage/microglia phenotype in association with various abnormal pain conditions provides a novel perspective in understanding potential contribution of macrophages/microglia in the establishment and maintenance of chronic pain. " --

Gap Junctions Hemichannels and Pannexons New Implications in Neuroplasticity and Neuroinflammation

Gap Junctions  Hemichannels and Pannexons  New Implications in Neuroplasticity and Neuroinflammation Book
Author : Juan Andrés Orellana,Eliseo A. Eugenin,Pablo José Sáez
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2022-02-01
ISBN : 2889742180
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Download Gap Junctions Hemichannels and Pannexons New Implications in Neuroplasticity and Neuroinflammation book written by Juan Andrés Orellana,Eliseo A. Eugenin,Pablo José Sáez, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Pain

Pain Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Download Pain book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System Book
Author : Robert Vink,Mihai Nechifor
Publisher : University of Adelaide Press
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987073052
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

The brain is the most complex organ in our body. Indeed, it is perhaps the most complex structure we have ever encountered in nature. Both structurally and functionally, there are many peculiarities that differentiate the brain from all other organs. The brain is our connection to the world around us and by governing nervous system and higher function, any disturbance induces severe neurological and psychiatric disorders that can have a devastating effect on quality of life. Our understanding of the physiology and biochemistry of the brain has improved dramatically in the last two decades. In particular, the critical role of cations, including magnesium, has become evident, even if incompletely understood at a mechanistic level. The exact role and regulation of magnesium, in particular, remains elusive, largely because intracellular levels are so difficult to routinely quantify. Nonetheless, the importance of magnesium to normal central nervous system activity is self-evident given the complicated homeostatic mechanisms that maintain the concentration of this cation within strict limits essential for normal physiology and metabolism. There is also considerable accumulating evidence to suggest alterations to some brain functions in both normal and pathological conditions may be linked to alterations in local magnesium concentration. This book, containing chapters written by some of the foremost experts in the field of magnesium research, brings together the latest in experimental and clinical magnesium research as it relates to the central nervous system. It offers a complete and updated view of magnesiums involvement in central nervous system function and in so doing, brings together two main pillars of contemporary neuroscience research, namely providing an explanation for the molecular mechanisms involved in brain function, and emphasizing the connections between the molecular changes and behavior. It is the untiring efforts of those magnesium researchers who have dedicated their lives to unraveling the mysteries of magnesiums role in biological systems that has inspired the collation of this volume of work.

Practical Management of Pain E Book

Practical Management of Pain E Book Book
Author : Honorio MD Benzon,James P. Rathmell,Christopher L. Wu,Dennis C. Turk,Charles E. Argoff,Robert W Hurley
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2022-02-10
ISBN : 0323711022
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

For more than 30 years, Practical Management of Pain has offered expert guidance to both clinicians and trainees, covering every aspect of acute and chronic pain medicine for adult and pediatric patients. The fully revised 6th Edition brings you fully up to date with new developments in patient evaluation, diagnosis of pain syndromes, rationales for management, treatment modalities, and much more. Edited by a team of renowned pain clinicians led by Dr. Honorio Benzon, this authoritative reference is a comprehensive, practical resource for pain diagnosis and treatment using a variety of pharmacologic and physical modalities. Presents a wealth of information in a clearly written, easily accessible manner, enabling you to effectively assess and draw up an optimal treatment plan for patients with acute or chronic pain. Takes a practical, multidisciplinary approach, making key concepts and techniques easier to apply to everyday practice. Shares the knowledge and expertise of global contributors on all facets of pain management, from general principles to specific management techniques. Discusses the latest, best management techniques, including joint injections, ultrasound-guided therapies, and new pharmacologic agents such as topical analgesics. Covers recent global developments regarding opioid induced hyperalgesia, neuromodulation and pain management, and identification of specific targets for molecular based pain. Includes current information on the use of cannabinoids in pain management and related regulatory, professional, and legal considerations. Includes the latest guidelines on facet injections and safety of contrast agents. Provides new, evidence-based critical analysis on treatment modality outcomes and the latest information on chronic pain as a result of surgical interventions.

Epigenetics of Chronic Pain

Epigenetics of Chronic Pain Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-10-29
ISBN : 0128140712
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Epigenetics of Chronic Pain, Volume Nine, presents comprehensive information on the role of epigenetics in chronic pain sensitivity, providing a detailed, but accessible, view of the field from basic principles, to clinical application. Leading international researchers discuss essential mechanisms of chronic pain epigenetics, including the molecular processes of chromatin remodeling, histone modifications, and the microRNAs and noncoding RNAs involved in regulating genes tied to pain sensitivity. The influence of epigenetics in inflammatory, neuropathic, visceral and other pain models is examined, with data derived from epigenetic studies on peripheral and central mechanisms of pain sensitivity in animal models and clinical cases studies. The studies and case examples cited highlight therapeutic pathways of significance and next steps for researchers to develop epigenetic-based treatments for chronic pain. In recent years, epigenetic regulation of gene expression has been shown to play a central role in managing human pain sensitivity. Findings show that expression of many genes critical to increases or decreases in pain sensitivity are indeed regulated by DNA methylation and its enzymes, histone-involved chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs, mainly microRNAs. Compiles all known information on epigenetic regulation of chronic pain in one volume Covers the basic functionality of epigenetic mechanisms involved in pain management, applications of recent research in understanding different types of chronic pain, and pathways for developing therapeutics Leading international researchers from across academia, clinical settings, and the pharmaceutical industry discuss epigenetics in inflammatory, neuropathic, visceral, and other pain models in-depth Enables clinicians, researchers, and pharmacologists to better understand and treat chronic pain

The Role of Protein Kinase M Zeta in Chronic Pain

The Role of Protein Kinase M Zeta in Chronic Pain Book
Author : Hibatulnaseer Nasir
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

"Background. More than 20% of the world adult population suffers from chronic pain. Evidence shows that transition from acute to chronic pain depends on neuroplasticity in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH). Although molecules responsible for the initiation of long-term memory in the SCDH have been identified, little is known about the maintenance of its long-term synaptic plasticity. PKM[zeta] is a persistently active kinase that contributes uniquely to the maintenance of LTP and memory storage in the hippocampus. Interestingly, PKM[zeta] is upregulated in SCDH after persistent nociception, and its inhibition using the myristoylated [zeta]-pseudosubstrate inhibitory peptide (ZIP) in the brain or spinal cord alleviates nociception. However, the role of ZIP and PKM[zeta] action during persistent pain, and its exact regulation in the spinal cord are unknown. Here, we determine the role of PKM[zeta] in models of persistent, long-lasting pain. Results. Pharmacological inhibition of PKM[zeta] had no effect on the reduced ipsilateral PWTs observed in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI), but transiently elevated contralateral PWTs, which were reduced several weeks after the injury. No change in reduced PWTs following hind paw inflammation induced by CFA was observed after i.t. ZIP or scrZIP treatment. ZIP reduced the late phase of nociception induced by 2% formalin, but only partially affected nociceptive responses to 3.5% formalin, and did not affect nociceptive responses to 5% formalin. ZIP pretreatment, and post-treatment prevented and reversed, respectively, i.c. capsaicin-induced remote allodynia, and ZIP post-treatment persistently reduced i.m. acidic saline-induced remote allodynia, while no pain relieving effect was observed following i.t. scrZIP or full-length PKC inhibitor NPC15437, suggesting PKM[zeta] may be responsible for the maintenance of remote allodynia. Moreover, ZIP prevented, and reversed long-lasting persistent mechanical allodynia in a modified hyperalgesic priming model using either i.c. or i.pl. capsaicin. Importantly, we show for the first time that ZIP reversed long-lasting established allodynia following both priming and challenging i.c. capsaicin injections. Genetic deletion of prkcz supported the above pharmacological findings. Thus, prkcz-/-, but not prkcz+/- or WT mice displayed attenuated responses in remote allodynia models, but not SNI-induced neuropathic pain. Importantly, these pain attenuation effects of prkcz KO were significantly more pronounced in male than in female mice.I.t. injection of 10 nmol NMDA produced a significant decrease in PWTs for 24 - 48 h that was reversed by i.t. ZIP. Concordantly, a significant increase in PKM[zeta] protein levels was observed 60 min post i.t. NMDA. Further, we assessed the role of several PKM[zeta] regulatory elements identified in hippocampal studies. Spinal inhibition of PIN1 using juglone (5-hydroxynaphtho-quinone), which decreased PIN1 and increased PKM[zeta], but not full-length PKC[zeta], exacerbated i.t. NMDA-induced allodynia. Additionally, inhibition of PDK1 using GSK-2334470, which significantly reduced PKM[zeta] phosphorylation, but not total PKM[zeta] levels, prevented the development of NMDA-induced allodynia. Likewise, pretreatment with pep2m, an inhibitor of the interaction between N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and the glutamate receptor subtype 2 (GluR2), prevented NMDA-induced allodynia. These data suggest PIN1, PDK1 and an NSF-GluR2 interaction are required for the establishment of PKM[zeta]-dependent NMDA-induced hyperalgesia. Significance. PKM[zeta] promises to be a key target for the treatment of chronic pain that depends on neuroplasticity. These studies have provided a detailed cellular and systems level analysis of the role of PKM[zeta] in the maintenance of maladaptive neuroplasticity contributing to persistent pain. Understanding spinal neuroplasticity is essential for drug development benefiting patients that currently cannot be treated optimally with state-of-the-art analgesics." --

Pain in Psychiatric Disorders

Pain in Psychiatric Disorders Book
Author : D.P. Finn,B.E. Leonard
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release : 2015-09-28
ISBN : 3318055743
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

This book offers a series of authoritative reviews on pain in psychiatric disorders written by leading experts. They discuss the complex interplay between pain and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and borderline personality disorder, as well as neurosteroids, epigenetic mechanisms and TRPV1, with a strong focus on neurobiological mechanisms and current and future therapeutic targets. Special attention is given to the importance of inflammation and the immune system as a common substrate in both pain and psychiatric disorders. The state-of-the-art reviews present both preclinical and clinical research, providing the reader with sound knowledge that provides a basis for further research and clinical practice. Pain in Psychiatric Disorders is of special interest to psychiatrists, neurologists, neuroscientists, pharmacologists and other healthcare professionals treating pain in psychiatric patients, as well as research students with an interest in this field.

Resolution Pharmacology Innovative Therapeutic Approaches Based on the Biology of Resolution to Control Chronic Diseases of Western Societies

Resolution Pharmacology   Innovative Therapeutic Approaches Based on the Biology of Resolution to Control Chronic Diseases of Western Societies Book
Author : Mauro Perretti,Trinidad Montero-Melendez,Lucy V. Norling
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-11-04
ISBN : 2889630846
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

In this eBook, we have grouped together 16 original contributions which have addressed the translational potential for therapeutics developed on the conceptual framework of the resolution of inflammation. The take home message of our effort, and the efforts of our colleagues who wrote these pieces, is that completely different drugs can be designed and modelled on the mediators and targets of resolution. By implementing this 180° shift in the way we plan the drug development programme (that is by focusing on agonists and/or promoting the actions of pro-resolution agonists) we can offer a fresh approach to the clinical management of chronic diseases that affect the modern society. With this series of articles we foresee the birth of Resolution Pharmacology. The 16 contributions presented herein confirm the broad relevance of pro-resolving physio-pharmacology with the description of pro-resolving mechanisms in distinct diseases, from atherosclerosis and heart infarct, to cystic fibrosis and diabetes. This testifies on one hand the fundamental role that inflammatory mechanisms play in virtually all pathological settings and, on the other hand, the great potential that a novel approach to anti-inflammatory therapy by exploiting resolution mediators and targets may have. Thus, while there is broad recognition that evidence-based interventions have transformed cardiovascular, inflammation and endocrine care, new therapies are still needed for growing numbers of patients with unmet needs. As an example, an estimated 17 million people world-wide die annually of cardiovascular diseases, particularly heart attacks and strokes. Cardiovascular diseases occur almost equally in men and women and are the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. It is estimated that only 1/1,000 compounds entering preclinical testing are then trialled in man and the actual cost of developing a new therapeutic into clinical practice has grown exponentially over the past two decades (estimated $1.2B). Over the last 20 years or more, scientists have appreciated the biology of the resolution of inflammation, which provides a new paradigm in our understanding of the inflammatory process with the appreciation of genetic, molecular and cellular mechanisms that are engaged to actively resolve inflammation. The ‘resolution of acute inflammation’ is enabled by counter-regulatory checkpoints to terminate the host reaction while at the same time promoting healing and repair. The potential of lipid mediators to enact pro-resolving effects in the context of cystic fibrosis is presented by Recchiuti et al., while Fredman reasons on the potential for these molecules in atherosclerosis. This resonates well with the contributions from Bäck and colleagues who have focused on pro-resolving receptors to offer vasculo-protection in intimal hyperplasia and more generally in cardiovascular disease. On the same vein is the scholar contribution of Leoni and Soehnlein who focus on heart disease, with Qin et al. presenting the latest findings on the effect of an Annexin A1-derived peptide in myocardial infarction. Hansen et al. and de Gaetano et al. bring in the complexity of diabetes and associated morbidity with a focus on specialised pro-resolving lipid mediators but also introducing the potential of dietary approaches. As the western diet favours disease, an omega-3 rich diet can lead to higher availability of lipid mediators to afford tissue protection if not reverting its pathological status. Docosahexaenoic acid and its bioactive derivatives are endowed with potent anti-nociceptive properties following bone fracture, as shown by Zhang et al. The broad relevance of the pharmacological approach reaches the skin with Resolvin D1 protecting against UV irradiation (Saito et al.). Reduced skin inflammation is also achieved with an Annexin A1 peptide that impacts on the outcome of heterologous transplantation (Lacerda et al.). Indeed, modulating the phenotype of immune cells can provide long lasting beneficial outcomes, as attained with CDK inhibitors (Cartwright et al.) and PI3K inhibitors in experimental gout (Galvao et al.). Such an effect is also achieved with a third group of pro-resolving therapeutics, the melanocortin receptor agonists, with important modulation of macrophage reactivity (Patruno et al.) with Spana et al., providing new pharmacology following selective activation of the MC1 receptor. Finally, Hopkin et al. discuss the potential for targeting immune cell trafficking as a way to control immune mediated diseases, bringing in not only pro-resolving mediator agonists, but also approaches to reduce chemo/cytokine gradients or modulating S1P and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Finally, we wish to highlight that this wealth of science has also bought to the forefront specific pro-resolving receptors (including FPR2/ALX, GPR32, ChemR23 and MC1), all G protein coupled receptors that are therefore amenable to pharmacological exploitation for drug discovery programmes. We see that not only agonists to the receptors can be developed, some of them modelled on the natural ligands (e.g. resolvins, lipoxins, Annexin A1-derived peptides or melanocortin peptides), but also that the creativity of this pharmacology can be attained through biased ligands and positive allosteric modulators. Deep knowledge of pro-resolving receptor biology and their cell-specific signalling can accelerate the generation of novel anti-inflammatory depicted on the resolution of inflammation. In conclusion, with this eBook, we propose time is ready to exploit the concepts of resolution and use its targets and mediators for the identification of better drugs to establish ‘Resolution Pharmacology’. We predict Resolution Pharmacology will represent an important innovation in the way common diseases will be treated in the next decades of this millennium.

Advances in Pain Research Mechanisms and Modulation of Chronic Pain

Advances in Pain Research  Mechanisms and Modulation of Chronic Pain Book
Author : Bai-Chuang Shyu,Makoto Tominaga
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-10-10
ISBN : 9811317569
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

This book summarizes the latest advances in pain research. All the chapters were contributed by speakers from Asian Pain Symposium (APS) on Acute and Chronic Pain, which was held in Taipei in 2017. Founded in Kyoto, Japan in 2000, the APS serves as a platform for scientists to present recent findings in pain research and discuss research orientation in this field. APS 2017 focused on novel strategies for pain treatment. Written by experts from various disciplines, from molecular to functional, and from basic to clinic studies, this book is composed of 18 review articles on the physiology and pathology of pain in these research fields. Specific topics include circuitry, neurotransmitter, physiology, behavior, neuropathology, pharmacology, and the treatments for neuropathic pain disorders. The book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in pain medicine and neuroscience.

Cytokines and Pain

Cytokines and Pain Book
Author : Waldiceu A. Verri,Felipe Almeida Pinho-Ribeiro,Larissa G. Pinto
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-12-28
ISBN : 2889718603
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Download Cytokines and Pain book written by Waldiceu A. Verri,Felipe Almeida Pinho-Ribeiro,Larissa G. Pinto, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Neuroinflammation

Neuroinflammation Book
Author : Samuel David
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-03-10
ISBN : 1118732774
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Neuroinflammation has long been studied for its connection to the development and progression of Multiple Sclerosis. In recent years, the field has expanded to look at the role of inflammatory processes in a wide range of neurological conditions and cognitive disorders including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and autism. Researchers have also started to note the beneficial impacts of neuroinflammation in certain diseases. Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions provides a comprehensive view of both the detriments and benefits of neuroinflammation in human health. Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions opens with two chapters that look at some fundamental aspects of neuroinflammation in humans and rodents. The remainder of the book is divided into two sections which examine both the detrimental and beneficial aspects of inflammation on the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves, on various disease states, and in normal aging. These sections provide a broad picture of the role neuroinflammation plays in the physiology and pathology of various neurological disorders. Providing cross-disciplinary coverage, Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions will be an essential volume for neuroimmunologists, neurobiologists, neurologists, and others interested in the field. neurobiologists, neurologists, and others interested in the field.Neuroinflammation has long been studied for its connection to the development andprogression of Multiple Sclerosis. In recent years, the field has expanded to look at therole of inflammatory processes in a wide range of neurological conditions and cognitivedisorders including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and autism. Researchers havealso started to note the beneficial impacts of neuroinflammation in certain diseases.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions provides acomprehensive view of both the detriments and benefits of neuroinflammation inhuman health.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functionsopens with two chapters that look at some fundamental aspects of neuroinflammationin humans and rodents. The remainder of the book is divided into two sections whichexamine both the detrimental and beneficial aspects of inflammation on the brain, spinalcord and peripheral nerves, on various disease states, and in normal aging. Thesesections provide a broad picture of the role neuroinflammation plays in the physiologyand pathology of various neurological disorders.Providing cross-disciplinary coverage, Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficialand Detrimental Functions will be an essential volume for neuroimmunologists,neurobiologists, neurologists, and others interested in the field.Neuroinflammation has long been studied for its connection to the development andprogression of Multiple Sclerosis. In recent years, the field has expanded to look at therole of inflammatory processes in a wide range of neurological conditions and cognitivedisorders including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and autism. Researchers havealso started to note the beneficial impacts of neuroinflammation in certain diseases.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions provides acomprehensive view of both the detriments and benefits of neuroinflammation inhuman health.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functionsopens with two chapters that look at some fundamental aspects of neuroinflammationin humans and rodents. The remainder of the book is divided into two sections whichexamine both the detrimental and beneficial aspects of inflammation on the brain, spinalcord and peripheral nerves, on various disease states, and in normal aging. Thesesections provide a broad picture of the role neuroinflammation plays in the physiologyand pathology of various neurological disorders.Providing cross-disciplinary coverage, Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficialand Detrimental Functions will be an essential volume for neuroimmunologists,neurobiologists, neurologists, and others interested in the field.Neuroinflammation has long been studied for its connection to the development andprogression of Multiple Sclerosis. In recent years, the field has expanded to look at therole of inflammatory processes in a wide range of neurological conditions and cognitivedisorders including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and autism. Researchers havealso started to note the beneficial impacts of neuroinflammation in certain diseases.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions provides acomprehensive view of both the detriments and benefits of neuroinflammation inhuman health.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functionsopens with two chapters that look at some fundamental aspects of neuroinflammationin humans and rodents. The remainder of the book is divided into two sections whichexamine both the detrimental and beneficial aspects of inflammation on the brain, spinalcord and peripheral nerves, on various disease states, and in normal aging. Thesesections provide a broad picture of the role neuroinflammation plays in the physiologyand pathology of various neurological disorders.Providing cross-disciplinary coverage, Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficialand Detrimental Functions will be an essential volume for neuroimmunologists,neurobiologists, neurologists, and others interested in the field.Neuroinflammation has long been studied for its connection to the development andprogression of Multiple Sclerosis. In recent years, the field has expanded to look at therole of inflammatory processes in a wide range of neurological conditions and cognitivedisorders including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and autism. Researchers havealso started to note the beneficial impacts of neuroinflammation in certain diseases.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions provides acomprehensive view of both the detriments and benefits of neuroinflammation inhuman health.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functionsopens with two chapters that look at some fundamental aspects of neuroinflammationin humans and rodents. The remainder of the book is divided into two sections whichexamine both the detrimental and beneficial aspects of inflammation on the brain, spinalcord and peripheral nerves, on various disease states, and in normal aging. Thesesections provide a broad picture of the role neuroinflammation plays in the physiologyand pathology of various neurological disorders.Providing cross-disciplinary coverage, Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficialand Detrimental Functions will be an essential volume for neuroimmunologists,neurobiologists, neurologists, and others interested in the field.Neuroinflammation has long been studied for its connection to the development andprogression of Multiple Sclerosis. In recent years, the field has expanded to look at therole of inflammatory processes in a wide range of neurological conditions and cognitivedisorders including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and autism. Researchers havealso started to note the beneficial impacts of neuroinflammation in certain diseases.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions provides acomprehensive view of both the detriments and benefits of neuroinflammation inhuman health.Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functionsopens with two

Neurobiology of TRP Channels

Neurobiology of TRP Channels Book
Author : Tamara Luti Rosenbaum Emir
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-08-09
ISBN : 1498755267
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

During the last two decades, there has been an explosion of research pertaining to the molecular mechanisms that allow for organisms to detect different stimuli that is an essential feature for their survival. Among these mechanisms, living beings need to be able to respond to different temperatures as well as chemical and physical stimuli. Thermally activated ion channels were proposed to be present in sensory neurons in the 1980s, but it was not until 1997 that a heat- and capsaicin- activated ion channel, TRPV1, was cloned and its function described in detail. This groundbreaking discovery led to the identification and characterization of several more proteins of the family of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels. Intensive research has provided us with the atomic structures of some of these proteins, as well as understanding of their physiological roles, both in normal and pathological conditions. With chapters contributed by renowned experts in the field, Neurobiology of TRP Channels contains a state- of- the- art overview of our knowledge of TRP channels, ranging from structure to their functions in organismal physiology. Features: • Contains chapters on the roles of several TRP ion channels with a diversity of physiological functions, providing a complete picture of the widespread importance of these proteins. • Presents an overview of the structure of TRP channels, including the roles of these proteins in different physiological processes. • Discusses the roles of TRP channels in pathophysiological processes, further highlighting their importance. • Features several full color illustrations to allow the reader better comprehension of TRP channels. A volume in the Frontiers in Neuroscience series

Extrasynaptic neurotransmission as a way of modulating multiple neuronal functions

Extrasynaptic neurotransmission as a way of modulating multiple neuronal functions Book
Author : Francisco F. De-Miguel,Kjell Fuxe
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2022-08-18
ISBN : 9782889191093
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Extrasynaptic transmission is a unifying term for a wide variety of cellular processes, in which outside of synaptic terminals transmitter substances activate extrasynaptic receptors. Whereas “synaptic transmission” immediately refers to a process occurring at nerve terminals in which the arrival of a presynaptic impulse evokes exocytosis followed by a postsynaptic response within a millisecond time scale, extrasynaptic transmission has a wide diversity of ultrastructural and therefore mechanistic associated phenomena. In comparison to synaptic, extrasynaptic exocytosis may last for seconds or even minutes, thus expanding the timing of neuronal signaling. Extrasynaptic transmission has now been demonstrated in central and peripheral neurons of vertebrates and invertebrates, and involves many different types of transmitter substances than include low molecular weight transmitters (acetilcholine, GABA, glutamate, ATP, and biogenic amines) and peptides (substance P, vasopressin and others). It may occur when transmitters leak out from the synaptic cleft and activate extrasynaptic receptors in neighboring neurons or glial cells, or when axonal varicosities, dendrites or the somata release transmitters in the absence of postsynaptic counterparts. The release mechanisms also vary from one neuron type to another and from one neuronal compartment to another. In some cases, clear vesicles are apposed to the resting plasma membrane, as in presynaptic terminals. In other cases, transmitters are packed onto dense core vesicles that rest at a distance from the release sites. In between, there are multiple morphological combinations that point to complementary mechanisms in different compartments of the same neuron and some times, even in the same compartment. For example, serotonergic varicosities may combine clear and dense core vesicles in stereotyped arrays. This diversity adds complexity to the nervous system and raises many questions that are waiting for answers. Extrasynaptic transmission may be the main source of transmitter molecules causing volume transmission, however this still lacks direct demonstration. From the physiological point of view, one may ask how does the neuronal firing pattern evokes synaptic or extrasynaptic transmitter release or what are the physiological effects of these modes of transmission. From the behavioral point of view it becomes interesting to explore how circuits and therefore behaviors are modulated. Some neurological disfunctions may also be related to deficiencies in extrasynaptic transmission, however, again, direct studies are still lacking. Developmental and evolutionary biologists may also find the topic inspiring. Extrasynaptic transmission not only expands our view about how the nervous system works, but also requires a change in the way we plan our research. New technological and computational tools are now being applied to analyze intracellular and extracellular transmitter mobilizations or long term changes of neuronal circuits. New definitions and mechanisms may become visible. In the meanwhile, this seems to be a good moment for a first common effort to analyze and discuss extrasynaptic transmission in different systems and from different perspectives.

Relieving Pain in America

Relieving Pain in America Book
Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Advancing Pain Research, Care, and Education
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2011-10-26
ISBN : 030921484X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Chronic pain costs the nation up to $635 billion each year in medical treatment and lost productivity. The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act required the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to enlist the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in examining pain as a public health problem. In this report, the IOM offers a blueprint for action in transforming prevention, care, education, and research, with the goal of providing relief for people with pain in America. To reach the vast multitude of people with various types of pain, the nation must adopt a population-level prevention and management strategy. The IOM recommends that HHS develop a comprehensive plan with specific goals, actions, and timeframes. Better data are needed to help shape efforts, especially on the groups of people currently underdiagnosed and undertreated, and the IOM encourages federal and state agencies and private organizations to accelerate the collection of data on pain incidence, prevalence, and treatments. Because pain varies from patient to patient, healthcare providers should increasingly aim at tailoring pain care to each person's experience, and self-management of pain should be promoted. In addition, because there are major gaps in knowledge about pain across health care and society alike, the IOM recommends that federal agencies and other stakeholders redesign education programs to bridge these gaps. Pain is a major driver for visits to physicians, a major reason for taking medications, a major cause of disability, and a key factor in quality of life and productivity. Given the burden of pain in human lives, dollars, and social consequences, relieving pain should be a national priority.

100 Questions and Answers About Chronic Pain

100 Questions and Answers About Chronic Pain Book
Author : Jain
Publisher : Jones & Bartlett Learning
Release : 2010-12-15
ISBN : 1449632823
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Empower Yourself! Millions of Americans suffer from chronic pain ranging from mild to excruciating. If you or a loved one experience chronic pain, 100 Questions and Answers About Chronic Pain offers essential and practical guidance. This easy-to-read guide provides authoritative answers to common questions asked by patients and their families about chronic pain. Topics include introduction to pain disorders, neurobiology of pain, treatments, and coping strategies for thriving despite pain. 100 Questions and Answers About Chronic Pain is an essential resource for anyone coping with the physical and emotional turmoil of this disorder.

Comprehensive Treatment of Chronic Pain by Medical Interventional and Integrative Approaches

Comprehensive Treatment of Chronic Pain by Medical  Interventional  and Integrative Approaches Book
Author : Timothy R Deer,Michael S Leong,Asokumar Buvanendran,Vitaly Gordin,Philip S. Kim,Sunil J. Panchal,Albert L. Ray
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-02-11
ISBN : 1461415608
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

DOWNLOAD

Book Description :

Edited by master clinician-experts appointed by the American Academy of Pain Medicine, this is a state-of-the-art multidisciplinary textbook covering medical, interventional, and integrative approaches to the treatment and management of pain. It is designed as a practical and comprehensive primary reference for busy physicians and is also an up-to-date resource for preparing for certification examinations in pain medicine. · Written and edited by world-class authorities · “Key Points” preview contents of each chapter · Leading edge medical topics, such as monitoring opioid use and abuse, and the emerging role of cannabinoids in pain treatment · Expert guidance on full range of interventional techniques · Clinical anatomy and physiology for the interventionist · Behavioral dimensions of the experience and management of pain · Integrative approaches for treating the “whole person” · Legal issues, such as failure to treat pain · First-hand patient accounts