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The Role Of Animals In Emerging Viral Diseases

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The Role of Animals in Emerging Viral Diseases

The Role of Animals in Emerging Viral Diseases Book
Author : Nicholas Johnson
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 012405515X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Role of Animals in Emerging Viral Diseases presents what is currently known about the role of animals in the emergence or re-emergence of viruses including HIV-AIDS, SARS, Ebola, avian flu, swine flu, and rabies. It presents the structure, genome, and methods of transmission that influence emergence and considers non-viral factors that favor emergence, such as animal domestication, human demography, population growth, human behavior, and land-use changes. When viruses jump species, the result can be catastrophic, causing disease and death in humans and animals. These zoonotic outbreaks reflect several factors, including increased mobility of human populations, changes in demography and environmental changes due to globalization. The threat of new, emerging viruses and the fact that there are no vaccines for the most common zoonotic viruses drive research in the biology and ecology of zoonotic transmission. In this book, specialists in 11 emerging zoonotic viruses present detailed information on each virus's structure, molecular biology, current geographic distribution, and method of transmission. The book discusses the impact of virus emergence by considering the ratio of mortality, morbidity, and asymptomatic infection and assesses methods for predicting, monitoring, mitigating, and controlling viral disease emergence. Analyzes the structure, molecular biology, current geographic distribution and methods of transmission of 10 viruses Provides a clear perspective on how events in wildlife, livestock, and even companion animals have contributed to virus outbreaks and epidemics Exemplifies the "one world, one health, one medicine" approach to emerging disease by examining events in animal populations as precursors to what could affect humans

Emerging and Re emerging Infectious Diseases of Livestock

Emerging and Re emerging Infectious Diseases of Livestock Book
Author : Jagadeesh Bayry
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-02-07
ISBN : 331947426X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides comprehensive knowledge on diseases in livestock that are caused by viruses, parasites and bacteria. Emerging and re-emerging pathogens are presented in detail for various animal groups and in-depth insights into pathogenesis and epidemiology will be provided for each of them. In addition, state-of-the-art treatment possibilities, control measures as well as vaccination strategies are discussed. The recent years have witnessed a sharp increase in the number of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases of livestock and many of these, including Influenza, Corona and Hanta are of public health importance. The reasons for this development are manifold:changes in the climate, life cycle of vectors and increased global travel. Also, due to extensive deforestation, livestock are increasingly coming in direct contact with wild animals that are reservoirs of many emerging pathogens. Recent progress in diagnosis and management of emerging infectious diseases are also topic of this book.

Emerging and Transboundary Animal Viruses

Emerging and Transboundary Animal Viruses Book
Author : Yashpal Singh Malik,Raj Kumar Singh,Mahendra Pal Yadav
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-02-22
ISBN : 9811504024
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book, which is the first volume of the book series-Livestock Diseases and Management, summarizes the prominence and implications of the emerging and transboundary animal viruses. Although the livestock plays an important role in the economy of many countries, the emerging and transboundary animal viral diseases possess a serious risk to the animal-agriculture sector and food security globally. The book describes the precise and up-to-date information on animal viral diseases which have emerged in the recent past or are re-emerging due to various environmental factors and those which are not bounded in restricted national boundaries and attained the transboundary status. The chapters summarize the recent advancements in the molecular state-of-art tools towards the development of diagnostics, prophylactics, and therapeutics of these viruses. It also explicitly describes the challenges imposed by the emerging and transboundary viral infections and our preparedness to counter them.

Emerging Viral Diseases

Emerging Viral Diseases Book
Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2015-03-19
ISBN : 0309314003
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the past half century, deadly disease outbreaks caused by novel viruses of animal origin - Nipah virus in Malaysia, Hendra virus in Australia, Hantavirus in the United States, Ebola virus in Africa, along with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), several influenza subtypes, and the SARS (sudden acute respiratory syndrome) and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) coronaviruses - have underscored the urgency of understanding factors influencing viral disease emergence and spread. Emerging Viral Diseases is the summary of a public workshop hosted in March 2014 to examine factors driving the appearance, establishment, and spread of emerging, re-emerging and novel viral diseases; the global health and economic impacts of recently emerging and novel viral diseases in humans; and the scientific and policy approaches to improving domestic and international capacity to detect and respond to global outbreaks of infectious disease. This report is a record of the presentations and discussion of the event.

Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases

Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Committee on Achieving Sustainable Global Capacity for Surveillance and Response to Emerging Diseases of Zoonotic Origin
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2010-01-24
ISBN : 0309137349
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

H1N1 ("swine flu"), SARS, mad cow disease, and HIV/AIDS are a few examples of zoonotic diseases-diseases transmitted between humans and animals. Zoonotic diseases are a growing concern given multiple factors: their often novel and unpredictable nature, their ability to emerge anywhere and spread rapidly around the globe, and their major economic toll on several disparate industries. Infectious disease surveillance systems are used to detect this threat to human and animal health. By systematically collecting data on the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals, investigators can track the spread of disease and provide an early warning to human and animal health officials, nationally and internationally, for follow-up and response. Unfortunately, and for many reasons, current disease surveillance has been ineffective or untimely in alerting officials to emerging zoonotic diseases. Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases assesses some of the disease surveillance systems around the world, and recommends ways to improve early detection and response. The book presents solutions for improved coordination between human and animal health sectors, and among governments and international organizations. Parties seeking to improve the detection and response to zoonotic diseases--including U.S. government and international health policy makers, researchers, epidemiologists, human health clinicians, and veterinarians--can use this book to help curtail the threat zoonotic diseases pose to economies, societies, and health.

One Health

One Health Book
Author : Ronald M. Atlas,Stanley Maloy
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-07-24
ISBN : 1555818439
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Emerging infectious diseases are often due to environmental disruption, which exposes microbes to a different niche that selects for new virulence traits and facilitates transmission between animals and humans. Thus, health of humans also depends upon health of animals and the environment – a concept called One Health. This book presents core concepts, compelling evidence, successful applications, and remaining challenges of One Health approaches to thwarting the threat of emerging infectious disease. Written by scientists working in the field, this book will provide a series of "stories" about how disruption of the environment and transmission from animal hosts is responsible for emerging human and animal diseases. Explains the concept of One Health and the history of the One Health paradigm shift. Traces the emergence of devastating new diseases in both animals and humans. Presents case histories of notable, new zoonoses, including West Nile virus, hantavirus, Lyme disease, SARS, and salmonella. Links several epidemic zoonoses with the environmental factors that promote them. Offers insight into the mechanisms of microbial evolution toward pathogenicity. Discusses the many causes behind the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Presents new technologies and approaches for public health disease surveillance. Offers political and bureaucratic strategies for promoting the global acceptance of One Health.

Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach

Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach Book
Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2012-10-10
ISBN : 0309259339
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Globalization of the food supply has created conditions favorable for the emergence, reemergence, and spread of food-borne pathogens-compounding the challenge of anticipating, detecting, and effectively responding to food-borne threats to health. In the United States, food-borne agents affect 1 out of 6 individuals and cause approximately 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths each year. This figure likely represents just the tip of the iceberg, because it fails to account for the broad array of food-borne illnesses or for their wide-ranging repercussions for consumers, government, and the food industry-both domestically and internationally. A One Health approach to food safety may hold the promise of harnessing and integrating the expertise and resources from across the spectrum of multiple health domains including the human and veterinary medical and plant pathology communities with those of the wildlife and aquatic health and ecology communities. The IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop on December 13 and 14, 2011 that examined issues critical to the protection of the nation's food supply. The workshop explored existing knowledge and unanswered questions on the nature and extent of food-borne threats to health. Participants discussed the globalization of the U.S. food supply and the burden of illness associated with foodborne threats to health; considered the spectrum of food-borne threats as well as illustrative case studies; reviewed existing research, policies, and practices to prevent and mitigate foodborne threats; and, identified opportunities to reduce future threats to the nation's food supply through the use of a "One Health" approach to food safety. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary covers the events of the workshop and explains the recommendations for future related workshops.

Zoonoses

Zoonoses Book
Author : Rolf Bauerfeind,Alexander Von Graevenitz,Peter Kimmig,Hans Gerd Schiefer,Tino Schwarz,Werner Slenczka,Horst Zahner
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-12-22
ISBN : 1555819257
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Zoonoses are a persistent threat to the global human health Today, more than 200 diseases occurring in humans and animals are known to be mutually transmitted. Classical infectious diseases, such as rabies, plague, and yellow fever, have not been eradicated despite major efforts. New zoonotic diseases are on the increase due global conditions such as overpopulation, wars, and food scarcity, which facilitate human contact with rodents, stray animals, and their parasites. In addition, humans are unwittingly becoming accidental hosts and new links in an infectious chain by engaging in activities such as survival training, which involves camping in open areas and consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked food. Zoonotic infections cause a variety of symptoms that often do not provide clear evidence of a known disease. Zoonoses, Fourth Edition, describes most occurring worldwide zoonosis and facilitates the identification, diagnosis and treatment of zoonotic infections. Written by a team of doctors, medical microbiologists and veterinarians, this completely, revised edition covers all aspects of the epidemiology and prevention of zoonotic diseases through clear descriptions of various illnesses. Specifically, this fourth edition covers zoonosis caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites infections caused by animal bites infections and intoxications by animal foods Iatrogenic transmission of zoonotic pathogens Zoonoses is an indispensable reference for clinicians and laboratorians.

Wildlife and Emerging Zoonotic Diseases The Biology Circumstances and Consequences of Cross Species Transmission

Wildlife and Emerging Zoonotic Diseases  The Biology  Circumstances and Consequences of Cross Species Transmission Book
Author : James E. Childs,John S. Mackenzie,Jürgen A. Richt
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-07-23
ISBN : 3540709622
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume offers an overview of the processes of zoonotic viral emergence, the intricacies of host/virus interactions, and the role of biological transitions and modifying factors. The themes introduced here are amplified and explored in detail by the contributing authors, who explore the mechanisms and unique circumstances by which evolution, biology, history, and current context have contrived to drive the emergence of different zoonotic agents by a series of related events.

Disease Ecology

Disease Ecology Book
Author : Sharon K. Collinge,Chris Ray
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2006-01-26
ISBN : 9780198567080
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Disease Ecology highlights exciting advances in theoretical and empirical research towards understanding the importance of community structure in the emergence of infectious diseases. The chapters in this book illustrate aspects of community ecology that influence pathogen transmission rates and disease dynamics in a wide variety of study systems. The innovative studies presented here communicate a clear message: studies of epidemiology can be approached from the perspective of community ecology, and students of community ecology can contribute significantly to epidemiology.

Learning from SARS

Learning from SARS Book
Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2004-04-26
ISBN : 9780309182157
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in late 2002 and 2003 challenged the global public health community to confront a novel epidemic that spread rapidly from its origins in southern China until it had reached more than 25 other countries within a matter of months. In addition to the number of patients infected with the SARS virus, the disease had profound economic and political repercussions in many of the affected regions. Recent reports of isolated new SARS cases and a fear that the disease could reemerge and spread have put public health officials on high alert for any indications of possible new outbreaks. This report examines the response to SARS by public health systems in individual countries, the biology of the SARS coronavirus and related coronaviruses in animals, the economic and political fallout of the SARS epidemic, quarantine law and other public health measures that apply to combating infectious diseases, and the role of international organizations and scientific cooperation in halting the spread of SARS. The report provides an illuminating survey of findings from the epidemic, along with an assessment of what might be needed in order to contain any future outbreaks of SARS or other emerging infections.

The Geographical Distribution of Animal Viral Diseases

The Geographical Distribution of Animal Viral Diseases Book
Author : Stewart Hal
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 0323147461
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Geographical Distribution of Animal Viral Diseases attempts to shed some light on the global distribution of 110 different viral diseases, mainly of livestock and companion animals. The world literature was screened for 110 different viruses, and maps were prepared. These maps delineate the global distribution of pathogenic viruses based on authenticated reports from a variety of reliable sources. Four viruses were categorized as affecting more than one species to a significant degree (astrovirus, rabies, rotaviruses, and Rift Valley fever). The largest number of maps involved viruses that affect humans. Of the 28 viruses a large number were from the California encephalitis group. Ten of the 28 viruses were reported only in the Eastern Hemisphere, 14 only in the Western Hemisphere, and four were worldwide. Birds were the next most frequently affected group with the 15 viruses, followed by pigs with 14 viruses. Overall the vector-borne viruses appear to have much sharper and clear-cut geographical boundaries than the others.

Food Safety Risks from Wildlife

Food Safety Risks from Wildlife Book
Author : Michele Jay-Russell,Michael P. Doyle
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-12-15
ISBN : 3319244426
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Foodborne illnesses caused by zoonotic pathogens associated with wildlife hosts are an emerging microbial food safety concern. Transmission of foodborne pathogens can occur through ingestion, or improper handling, of contaminated game meat. Wild and feral animals have also been investigated as potential sources of Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other enteric pathogens following foodborne disease outbreaks linked to fresh fruits and vegetables (e.g., baby spinach in California, shelled-peas in Alaska, strawberries in Oregon). This book explores the range of bacterial, parasitic, and viral pathogens that have been described in wildlife populations in the United States, Europe and other parts of the world. It also addresses important challenges and solutions to balance agriculture, conservation, and public health goals. The book provides unique information on approaches in risk communication, co-management, and One Health in a wildlife-food safety context. The first five chapters review research on the detection, epidemiology and ecology of foodborne pathogens in wildlife populations including the influence of wildlife-livestock-human interactions. The second half of the book addresses current guidelines to mitigate microbial food safety risks from wildlife hosts and new regulations proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in the Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule. Chapters are written by an array of internationally reco gnized authors, and will be of interest to agriculture safety experts, ecologists, environmental health specialists, food safety professionals, microbiologists, public health practitioners, veterinarians, wildlife biologists, and others in academia, government, industry, and students in these disciplines.

Spillover Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic

Spillover  Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic Book
Author : David Quammen
Publisher : W. W. Norton & Company
Release : 2012-10-01
ISBN : 0393239225
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"[Mr. Quammen] is not just among our best science writers but among our best writers, period." —Dwight Garner, New York Times The next big human pandemic—the next disease cataclysm, perhaps on the scale of AIDS or the 1918 influenza—is likely to be caused by a new virus coming to humans from wildlife. Experts call such an event “spillover” and they warn us to brace ourselves. David Quammen has tracked this subject from the jungles of Central Africa, the rooftops of Bangladesh, and the caves of southern China to the laboratories where researchers work in space suits to study lethal viruses. He illuminates the dynamics of Ebola, SARS, bird flu, Lyme disease, and other emerging threats and tells the story of AIDS and its origins as it has never before been told. Spillover reads like a mystery tale, full of mayhem and clues and questions. When the Next Big One arrives, what will it look like? From which innocent host animal will it emerge? Will we be ready?

Fenner s Veterinary Virology

Fenner s Veterinary Virology Book
Author : N. James Maclachlan,Edward J Dubovi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2010-11-26
ISBN : 9780123751591
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fenner's Veterinary, Virology, Fourth Edition, is the long awaited new edition of Veterinary Virology, 3e, which was published in 1999. Fully revised and updated by the new author team, part I presents the fundamental principles of virology related to animal infection and disease, and part II addresses the clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology and prevention of individual diseases. New to this Edition New author team - one main author to ensure that the book reads like an authored book but with the benefit of using experts to contribute to specific topics Text has been refocused - part I has been condensed and where appropriate incorporated into part II to make it more user friendly The number of figures have been increased and are now in full color Fully revised and updated to include the latest information in the field of veterinary virology Beautifully illustrated color figures throughout Organized and current information provided by an expert team of authors

Handbook of Animal Models of Infection

Handbook of Animal Models of Infection Book
Author : Merle A. Sande
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 1999-05-28
ISBN : 9780080533551
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Animal Models of Infection is a complete revision of a three-volume text that was published in 1986. It incorporates the major advances in the field during the past decade, in particular those concerning molecular biological procedures and new models that have been developed. It focuses on both methods and techniques, which makes it an essential and comprehensive reference as well as a benchtop manual. The Handbook will help investigators save time and effort in formulating an approach to test a new potential therapeutic agent or combination of agents for in vivo efficacy and to position the therapy for specific infections where it may have therapeutic promise. The book is divided into five sections; the first covering the general methodologies, followed by sections describing experimental bacterial, mycotic, parasitic, and viral infections. Discusses ethical and safety aspects in an introductory background section Covers principles of animal care and current techniques appropriate for the use of animal models of infection Details a wide range of animals including rodents, rabbits, cats, and primates Provides hands-on descriptions of how to set up the model Discusses the major advantages and limitations of each model Ensures full coverage of bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections

One Health The Human Animal Environment Interfaces in Emerging Infectious Diseases

One Health  The Human Animal Environment Interfaces in Emerging Infectious Diseases Book
Author : John S. Mackenzie,Martyn Jeggo,Peter Daszak,Juergen A. Richt
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-22
ISBN : 3642358462
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

One Health is an emerging concept that aims to bring together human, animal, and environmental health. Achieving harmonized approaches for disease detection and prevention is difficult because traditional boundaries of medical and veterinary practice must be crossed. In the 19th and early 20th centuries this was not the case—then researchers like Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch and physicians like William Osler and Rudolph Virchow crossed the boundaries between animal and human health. More recently Calvin Schwabe revised the concept of One Medicine. This was critical for the advancement of the field of epidemiology, especially as applied to zoonotic diseases. The future of One Health is at a crossroads with a need to more clearly define its boundaries and demonstrate its benefits. Interestingly the greatest acceptance of One Health is seen in the developing world where it is having significant impacts on control of infectious diseases.

Animal Origin Viral Zoonoses

Animal Origin Viral Zoonoses Book
Author : Yashpal Singh Malik,Raj Kumar Singh,Kuldeep Dhama
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-09-23
ISBN : 9811526516
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is the second volume in the series Livestock Diseases and Management, and reviews the importance and implications of animal origin viral zoonoses. It also highlights the specific etiology and epidemiology of these viral infections and discusses their various biological and mechanical transmission mechanisms. Further, the book reviews various measures for controlling viral zoonoses and examines novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies. Discussing recent studies on the pathogenesis and host immune response to these infections, it underscores the importance of using vaccines against these viral diseases to reduce the risk of them being transmitted to humans.Lastly, it describes in detail the challenges posed by these viral infections and our readiness to face them.

Current Microbiological Research in Africa

Current Microbiological Research in Africa Book
Author : Akebe Luther King Abia,Guy R. Lanza
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-02-04
ISBN : 303035296X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Scientific output in low- and middle-income countries is greatly challenged by numerous factors. This is particularly pronounced in sub-Saharan African countries, despite the continent being the world’s second largest and second most-populous continent, currently undergoing rapid economic growth. Financial constraints and unclear areas of focus when funding is available, are among the limiting factors, with the consequence being the development of inadequate policies, especially those relating to environmental protection and conservation. This 13-chapter book is a unique piece in the field of microbiology, designed to stimulate some research areas in Africa by illustrating interesting and informative examples of the current applied research agenda in environmental microbiology in selected countries within the continent. With authors from the North, South, East and West of Africa, the book touches diverse applied methods and approaches to meet the pragmatic needs faced by environmental microbiologists in Africa. Also included are topics on viruses, bacteria (including cyanobacteria), and protozoa, and their importance in disease. Sustainable agriculture and aquaculture, and eco-friendly oil and hydrocarbon bioremediation and degradation approaches are highlighted. Microbial involvement in different common indoor (e.g., household kitchens, latrines, and hospitals) and outdoor settings including air, soil, and water habitats, and their resistance to commonly used antibiotics, are described. Hopefully, the work presented here will stimulate the need for increasing modern training and funding initiatives to prepare African microbiologists to meet the challenges they face in African universities and research laboratories.

Microbial Threats to Health

Microbial Threats to Health Book
Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2003-08-25
ISBN : 9780309185547
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Infectious diseases are a global hazard that puts every nation and every person at risk. The recent SARS outbreak is a prime example. Knowing neither geographic nor political borders, often arriving silently and lethally, microbial pathogens constitute a grave threat to the health of humans. Indeed, a majority of countries recently identified the spread of infectious disease as the greatest global problem they confront. Throughout history, humans have struggled to control both the causes and consequences of infectious diseases and we will continue to do so into the foreseeable future. Following up on a high-profile 1992 report from the Institute of Medicine, Microbial Threats to Health examines the current state of knowledge and policy pertaining to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases from around the globe. It examines the spectrum of microbial threats, factors in disease emergence, and the ultimate capacity of the United States to meet the challenges posed by microbial threats to human health. From the impact of war or technology on disease emergence to the development of enhanced disease surveillance and vaccine strategies, Microbial Threats to Health contains valuable information for researchers, students, health care providers, policymakers, public health officials. and the interested public.