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The Performance of Concentrated Solar Power CSP Systems

The Performance of Concentrated Solar Power  CSP  Systems Book
Author : Peter Heller
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2017-05-15
ISBN : 0081004486
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Performance of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Systems: Analysis, Measurement, and Assessment offers a unique overview of the information on the state-of-the-art of analysis, measurement, and assessment of the performance of concentrated solar power (CSP) components and systems in a comprehensive, compact, and complete manner. Following an introductory chapter to CSP systems and the fundamental principles of performance assessment, individual chapters explore the component performance of mirrors and receivers. Further expert-written chapters look at system performance assessment, durability testing, and solar resource forecasting for CSP systems. A final chapter gives an outlook on the actual methods and instruments for performance and durability assessment that are under development. The Performance of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Systems: Analysis, Measurement, and Assessment is an essential reference text for research and development professionals and engineers working on concentrated solar power systems, as well as for postgraduate students studying CSP. Presents a unique, single literature source for a complete overview of the performance assessment tools and methods currently used for concentrated solar power (CSP) technology Written by a team of experts in the field of CSP Provides information on the state-of-the-art of modeling, measurement, and assessment of the performance of CSP components and systems in a comprehensive, compact, and complete manner

The Performance of Concentrated Solar Power CSP Systems

The Performance of Concentrated Solar Power  CSP  Systems Book
Author : Peter Heller
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2017-02-15
ISBN : 9780081004470
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The Performance of Concentrated Solar Power Systems: Modelling, Measurement and Assessment" provides all necessary information on the state-of-the-art of modeling, measurement, and assessment of the performance of CSP components and systems in a comprehensive, compact, and complete manner. As there is no single literature source available for readers looking for a complete overview of the performance assessment tools and methods currently used for concentrated solar power (CSP) technology, this book fills that void. Presents a unique, single literature source for a complete overview of the performance assessment tools and methods currently used for concentrated solar power (CSP) technologyWritten by a team of experts in the field of CSPProvides information on the state-of-the-art of modeling, measurement, and assessment of the performance of CSP components and systems in a comprehensive, compact, and complete manner

Concentrating Solar Power Technology

Concentrating Solar Power Technology Book
Author : Keith Lovegrove,Wes Stein
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2020-12-15
ISBN : 0128199709
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This second edition of Concentrating Solar Power Technology edited by Keith Lovegrove and Wes Stein presents a fully updated comprehensive review of the latest technologies and knowledge, from the fundamental science to systems design, development, and applications. Part one introduces the fundamental principles of CSP systems, including site selection and feasibility analysis, alongside socio-economic and environmental assessments. Part two focuses on technologies including linear Fresnel reflector technology, parabolic-trough, central tower, and parabolic dish CSP systems, and concentrating photovoltaic systems. Thermal energy storage, hybridization with fossil fuel power plants, and the long-term market potential of CSP technology are also explored. Part three goes on to discuss optimization, improvements, and applications, such as absorber materials for solar thermal receivers, design optimization through integrated techno-economic modelling, and heliostat size optimization. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Concentrating Solar Power Technology, 2nd Edition is an essential guide for all those involved or interested in the design, production, development, optimization, and application of CSP technology, including renewable energy engineers and consultants, environmental governmental departments, solar thermal equipment manufacturers, researchers, and academics. Provides a comprehensive review of concentrating solar power (CSP) technology, from the fundamental science to systems design, development and applications Reviews fundamental principles of CSP systems, including site selection and feasibility analysis and socio-economic and environmental assessments Includes an overview of the key technologies of parabolic-trough, central tower linear Fresnel reflector, and parabolic dish CSP systems, and concentrating photovoltaic systems

Predictive Performance Simulation of Concentrated Solar Power Technologies in Three Selected Cities in Northern Nigeria

Predictive Performance Simulation of Concentrated Solar Power Technologies in Three Selected Cities in Northern Nigeria Book
Author : Haruna Mohammed Muye
Publisher : Anchor Academic Publishing
Release : 2015-11-24
ISBN : 3954894998
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this work a predictive performance simulation of Solar Tower and Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power plants was undertaken for three sites in Northern Nigeria. The simulation was done using Solar Advisor Model (SAM). The three sites - Minna, Kano, and Sokoto - were selected based on their Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI) values and hours of sunshine per day which are comparable to that of the sites where Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants are operating in Southern Spain. The simulation process adopted for this study includes: configuration of receiver and collector components, selection of Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and specification of the operating temperatures, sizing and configuration of solar field, specification of power cycle design point, specification of the thermal storage parameters, and optimization of hour of thermal energy storage, solar multiple and cooling system. The results show that the Solar Tower plant is more favoured to be adopted for use in the study sites because it has higher annual electrical energy generation, a higher capacity factor and lower Levelised costs of electricity. The Net Present Value of the CSP plants at all the sites is positive implying that the project is economically viable. The study also showed that at solar multiple of 2, the levelised cost of electricity for both Solar Towers and Parabolic Troughs is the lowest, irrespective of the cooling system (wet or dry cooling). Solar multiple has no effect on the water usage irrespective of the CSP plant. Dry cooling system reduces the water usage by 86% and 95% for Solar Tower and Parabolic Trough plants, respectively. The annual electrical energy generations of the CSP plants increase with increasing solar multiple. Dry cooling systems reduce the annual electrical energy generation in the range of 7.3 to 7.5 percent for the Solar Tower plant and 8 to 9 percent for the Parabolic Trough plant.

Design of Solar Thermal Power Plants

Design of Solar Thermal Power Plants Book
Author : Zhifeng Wang
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-02-22
ISBN : 0128162198
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Design of Solar Thermal Power Plants introduces the basic design methods of solar thermal power plants for technicians engaged in solar thermal power generation engineering. This book includes the author’s theoretical investigation and study findings in solar heat concentrators, a performance evaluation of solar thermal collectors, a numerical simulation of the heat transfer process between complex geometrics, heat transfer through radiation, and more. Containing theoretical descriptions of solar concentrators and receivers, practical engineering examples, and detailed descriptions of site selections for solar thermal power plants, this book has a strong theoretical and practical value for readers. Contains practical guidance and applications, making it more useful and user-friendly for CSP engineers Includes theoretical investigation in solar heat concentrators, performance evaluation of solar thermal collectors, and the numerical simulation of heat transfer between complex geometrics with practical applications

Concentrating Solar Power Technology

Concentrating Solar Power Technology Book
Author : K Lovegrove,W Stein
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-10-19
ISBN : 0857096176
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Concentrating solar power (CSP) technology is poised to take its place as one of the major contributors to the future clean energy mix. Using straightforward manufacturing processes, CSP technology capitalises on conventional power generation cycles, whilst cost effectively matching supply and demand though the integration of thermal energy storage. Concentrating solar power technology provides a comprehensive review of this exciting technology, from the fundamental science to systems design, development and applications. Part one introduces fundamental principles of concentrating solar power systems. Site selection and feasibility analysis are discussed, alongside socio-economic and environmental assessments. Part two focuses on technologies including linear Fresnel reflector technology, parabolic-trough, central tower and parabolic dish concentrating solar power systems, and concentrating photovoltaic systems. Thermal energy storage, hybridization with fossil fuel power plants and the long-term market potential of CSP technology are explored. Part three goes on to discuss optimisation, improvements and applications. Topics discussed include absorber materials for solar thermal receivers, design optimisation through integrated techno-economic modelling, heliostat size optimisation, heat flux and temperature measurement technologies, concentrating solar heating and cooling for industrial processes, and solar fuels and industrial solar chemistry. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Concentrating solar power technology is an essential guide for all those involved or interested in the design, production, development, optimisation and application of CSP technology, including renewable energy engineers and consultants, environmental governmental departments, solar thermal equipment manufacturers, researchers and academics. Provides a comprehensive review of concentrating solar power (CSP) technology, from the fundamental science to systems design, development and applications Reviews fundamental principles of concentrating solar power systems, including site selection and feasibility analysis and socio-economic and environmental assessments Provides an overview of technologies such as linear Fresnel reflector technology, parabolic-trough, central tower and parabolic dish concentrating solar power systems, and concentrating photovoltaic systems

Advances in Concentrating Solar Thermal Research and Technology

Advances in Concentrating Solar Thermal Research and Technology Book
Author : Manuel Blanco,Lourdes Ramirez Santigosa
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2016-11-10
ISBN : 0081005172
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

After decades of research and development, concentrating solar thermal (CST) power plants (also known as concentrating solar power (CSP) and as Solar Thermal Electricity or STE systems) are now starting to be widely commercialized. Indeed, the IEA predicts that by 2050, with sufficient support over ten percent of global electricity could be produced by concentrating solar thermal power plants. However, CSP plants are just but one of the many possible applications of CST systems. Advances in Concentrating Solar Thermal Research and Technology provides detailed information on the latest advances in CST systems research and technology. It promotes a deep understanding of the challenges the different CST technologies are confronted with, of the research that is taking place worldwide to address those challenges, and of the impact that the innovation that this research is fostering could have on the emergence of new CST components and concepts. It is anticipated that these developments will substantially increase the cost-competiveness of commercial CST solutions and reshape the technological landscape of both CST technologies and the CST industry. After an introductory chapter, the next three parts of the book focus on key CST plant components, from mirrors and receivers to thermal storage. The final two parts of the book address operation and control and innovative CST system concepts. Contains authoritative reviews of CST research taking place around the world Discusses the impact this research is fostering on the emergence of new CST components and concepts that will substantially increase the cost-competitiveness of CST power Covers both major CST plant components and system-wide issues

Solar Energy

Solar Energy Book
Author : Ibrahim Moukhtar
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-07-30
ISBN : 3030613070
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Solar Energy book written by Ibrahim Moukhtar, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Development of a Concentrating Solar Power System Using Fluidized bed Technology for Thermal Energy Conversion and Solid Particles for Thermal Energy Storage

Development of a Concentrating Solar Power System Using Fluidized bed Technology for Thermal Energy Conversion and Solid Particles for Thermal Energy Storage Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Concentrating solar power (CSP) is an effective way to convert solar energy into electricity with an economic energy-storage capability for grid-scale, dispatchable renewable power generation. However, CSP plants need to reduce costs to be competitive with other power generation methods. Two ways to reduce CSP cost are to increase solar-to-electric efficiency by supporting a high-efficiency power conversion system, and to use low-cost materials in the system. The current nitrate-based molten-salt systems have limited potential for cost reduction and improved power-conversion efficiency with high operating temperatures. Even with significant improvements in operating performance, these systems face challenges in satisfying the cost and performance targets. This paper introduces a novel CSP system with high-temperature capability that can be integrated into a high-efficiency CSP plant and that meets the low-cost, high-performance CSP targets. Unlike a conventional salt-based CSP plant, this design uses gas/solid, two-phase flow as the heat-transfer fluid (HTF); separated solid particles as storage media; and stable, inexpensive materials for the high-temperature receiver and energy storage containment. We highlight the economic and performance benefits of this innovative CSP system design, which has thermal energy storage capability for base-load power generation.

Principles of Solar Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation

Principles of Solar Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation Book
Author : Amos Madhlopa
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-06-07
ISBN : 3319683888
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is the first book dedicated to solar gas turbines, providing fundamental knowledge and state-of-the-art developments in the field. A gas turbine is a heat engine in which a mixture of fuel and air is burned in a chamber that is an integral part of the flow circuit of the working fluid. The burnt gas mixture expands and turns the turbine, which can be connected to a generator for electricity production. Solar gas turbines offer an important alternative to conventional gas turbines driven by non-renewable, polluting fossil fuels such as diesel or natural gas. The book provides a comprehensive overview of the topic as well as numerous illustrations.

Renewable Energy

Renewable Energy Book
Author : Ali Sayigh
Publisher : River Publishers
Release : 2016-05-15
ISBN : 8793379501
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It is evident to all that climate change is happening -- the results can be seen in many countries. Floods, freak storms, wind speeds of more than 80 mph, heat waves, droughts, rising sea levels and disappearing glaciers, largely due to excessive use of fossil fuels. Climate change acceleration began slowly in the 1970's but has now increased beyond our ability to stop it or reduce its impact. Using renewable energy effectively on a large scale will put an end or considerably slow down this process in many parts of the world. This book shows that some countries are making greater efforts than others. Installations of the '70's and '80's were limited to kilowatts while in the 2010's we speak in terms of megawatts. The cost of most renewable energy systems has been reduced by so much that they have reached parity with fossil fuels, or are even cheaper. The most effective progress has been made in photovoltaic systems, whilst concentrated solar power, biomass, wind energy and hydro-power have greatly improved payback periods too. While much is hoped from the outcome of the December 2015 Paris climate summit, realistically in the past very few nations honored their pledges. A great deal of aid has been given to poor countries which are suffering from climate change, however, the donor nations have failed to restrict their own carbon emissions. Many poor countries feel they are being expected to forgo the industrial benefits which came from the industrial revolution powered by fossil fuels. The book will outline the achievements of renewable energy by the end of 2015 / beginning of 2016.

Advances in Carbon Management Technologies

Advances in Carbon Management Technologies Book
Author : Subhas Sikdar,Frank Princiotta
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-03-19
ISBN : 0429516754
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Carbon Management Technologies comprises 43 chapters contributed by experts from all over the world. Volume 1 of the book, containing 23 chapters, discusses the status of technologies capable of yielding substantial reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from major combustion sources. Such technologies include renewable energy sources that can replace fossil fuels and technologies to capture CO2 after fossil fuel combustion or directly from the atmosphere, with subsequent permanent long-term storage. The introductory chapter emphasizes the gravity of the issues related to greenhouse gas emissionglobal temperature correlation, the state of the art of key technologies and the necessary emission reductions needed to meet international warming targets. Section 1 deals with global challenges associated with key fossil fuel mitigation technologies, including removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and emission measurements. Section 2 presents technological choices for coal, petroleum, and natural gas for the purpose of reducing carbon footprints associated with the utilization of such fuels. Section 3 deals with promising contributions of alternatives to fossil fuels, such as hydropower, nuclear, solar photovoltaics, and wind. Chapters 19 of this book is freely available as a downloadable Open Access PDF under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license. The links can be found on the book's Routledge web page at https://www.routledge.com//9780367198428

Solar Power System Planning Design

Solar Power System Planning   Design Book
Author : Yosoon Choi
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-12-04
ISBN : 3039436376
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) systems for the conversion of solar energy into electricity are technologically robust, scalable, and geographically dispersed, and they possess enormous potential as sustainable energy sources. Systematic planning and design considering various factors and constraints are necessary for the successful deployment of PV and CSP systems. This book on solar power system planning and design includes 14 publications from esteemed research groups worldwide. The research and review papers in this Special Issue fall within the following broad categories: resource assessments, site evaluations, system design, performance assessments, and feasibility studies.

Concentrating Solar Power Technology

Concentrating Solar Power Technology Book
Author : Keith Lovegrove,Wes Stein
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2020-12-01
ISBN : 012822472X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This second edition of Concentrating Solar Power Technology edited by Keith Lovegrove and Wes Stein presents a fully updated comprehensive review of the latest technologies and knowledge, from the fundamental science to systems design, development, and applications. Part one introduces the fundamental principles of CSP systems, including site selection and feasibility analysis, alongside socio-economic and environmental assessments. Part two focuses on technologies including linear Fresnel reflector technology, parabolic-trough, central tower, and parabolic dish CSP systems, and concentrating photovoltaic systems. Thermal energy storage, hybridization with fossil fuel power plants, and the long-term market potential of CSP technology are also explored. Part three goes on to discuss optimization, improvements, and applications, such as absorber materials for solar thermal receivers, design optimization through integrated techno-economic modelling, and heliostat size optimization. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Concentrating Solar Power Technology, 2nd Edition is an essential guide for all those involved or interested in the design, production, development, optimization, and application of CSP technology, including renewable energy engineers and consultants, environmental governmental departments, solar thermal equipment manufacturers, researchers, and academics. Provides a comprehensive review of concentrating solar power (CSP) technology, from the fundamental science to systems design, development and applications Reviews fundamental principles of CSP systems, including site selection and feasibility analysis and socio-economic and environmental assessments Includes an overview of the key technologies of parabolic-trough, central tower linear Fresnel reflector, and parabolic dish CSP systems, and concentrating photovoltaic systems

Surfaces and Interfaces for Renewable Energy

Surfaces and Interfaces for Renewable Energy Book
Author : Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro,Aránzazu Fernández-García
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-02-05
ISBN : 3039281283
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental problems derived from the massive use of conventional energy resources are one of the main issues that our society has been facing in recent decades. Renewable energies (and particularly solar energy) have become a highly competitive means to meet the world’s increasing energy demands in a sustainable and clean manner. One of the key research challenges for the commercial deployment of several solar energy technologies is focused on the development of feasible and durable coatings that withstand appropriate optical and thermal performance over the lifetime of the solar facilities. This book addresses a number of relevant aspects related to coatings for renewable energies, including a deep survey of coatings used in photovoltaic solar energy, the development of a superhydrophobic and thermal stable silica coating that is potentially suitable for various industrial applications related to renewable technologies, the development of coatings to improve the resistance of structural materials used in concentrating solar thermal technologies with molten salts, and several research works related to solar reflectors for concentrating solar thermal technologies (such us the advanced analysis of the corrosion, the suitability of anti-soiling coatings, and the development of top protective coatings for high-temperature secondary concentrators).

On the Path to SunShot Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Technology Performance and Dispatchability

On the Path to SunShot   Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Technology  Performance  and Dispatchability Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Energy storage will help enable CSP compete by adding flexibility value to a high-variable-generation (solar plus wind) power system (see Mehos et al. 2016). Compared with PV, CSP systems are more complex to develop, design, construct, and operate, and they require a much larger minimum effective scale--typically at least 50 MW, compared with PV systems that can be as small as a few kilowatts. In recent years, PV's greater modularity and lower LCOE have made it more attractive to many solar project developers, and some large projects that were originally planned for CSP have switched to PV. However, the ability of CSP to use thermal energy storage--and thus provide continuous power for long periods when the sun is not shining--could give CSP a vital role in evolving electricity systems. Because CSP with storage can store energy when net demand is low and release that energy when demand is high, it increases the electricity system's ability to balance supply and demand over multiple time scales. Such flexibility becomes increasingly important as more variable-generation renewable energy is added to the system. For example, one analysis suggests that, under a 40% renewable portfolio standard in California, CSP with storage could provide more than twice as much value to the electricity system as variable-generation PV. For this reason, enhanced thermal energy storage is a critical component of the SunShot Initiative's 2020 CSP technology-improvement roadmap.

27th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

27th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-09-21
ISBN : 0444639705
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

27th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering, Volume 40 contains the papers presented at the 27th European Society of Computer-Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE) event held in Barcelona, October 1-5, 2017. It is a valuable resource for chemical engineers, chemical process engineers, researchers in industry and academia, students, and consultants for chemical industries. Presents findings and discussions from the 27th European Society of Computer-Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE) event

Advanced Energy Systems Second Edition

Advanced Energy Systems  Second Edition Book
Author : Nikolai V. Khartchenko,Vadym M. Kharchenko
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2013-12-20
ISBN : 1482216884
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This second edition to a popular first provides a comprehensive, fully updated treatment of advanced conventional power generation and cogeneration plants, as well as alternative energy technologies. Organized into two parts: Conventional Power Generation Technology and Renewable and Emerging Clean Energy Systems, the book covers the fundamentals, analysis, design, and practical aspects of advanced energy systems, thus supplying a strong theoretical background for highly efficient energy conversion. New and enhanced topics include: Large-scale solar thermal electric and photovoltaic (PV) plants Advanced supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam power generation technologies Advanced coal- and gas-fired power plants (PP) with high conversion efficiency and low environmental impact Hybrid/integrated (i.e., fossil fuel + REN) power generation technologies, such as integrated solar combined-cycle (ISCC) Clean energy technologies, including "clean coal," H2 and fuel cell, plus integrated power and cogeneration plants (i.e., conventional PP + fuel cell stacks) Emerging trends, including magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-generator and controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor technologies with low/zero CO2 emissions Large capacity offshore and on-land wind farms, as well as other renewable (REN) power generation technologies using hydro, geothermal, ocean, and bio energy systems Containing over 50 solved examples, plus problem sets, full figures, appendices, references, and property data, this practical guide to modern energy technologies serves energy engineering students and professionals alike in design calculations of energy systems.

Renewable Energy Engineering Solar Wind Biomass Hydrogen and Geothermal Energy Systems

Renewable Energy Engineering  Solar  Wind  Biomass  Hydrogen and Geothermal Energy Systems  Book
Author : Emmanuel D. Rogdakis , Irene P. Koronaki
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release : 2018-11-05
ISBN : 1681087197
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Researchers, politicians and lay persons around the world agree that renewable energy technologies will play an increasingly important role in strengthening national economies in the future. The renewable energy industry has the potential to significantly increase power capacity of several countries and subsequently create many jobs. This book examines recent advances in specific renewable energy systems. Readers will learn about theoretical and applied perspectives which are key to addressing the major issues associated with such systems. Chapters cover solar energy systems, thermal energy storage, bioenergy, hydrogen production, geothermal energy and measurement techniques for these energy systems. Students in engineering programs, and engineers working in academia and the renewable energy sector will be able to broaden their understanding of complex renewable energy projects through the comprehensive overview of both the fundamental concepts and the technical issues covered in the text.

Concentrating Solar Power

Concentrating Solar Power Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Photovoltaics and concentrating solar power (CSP) are two primary forms of electricity generation using sunlight. These use different technologies, collect different fractions of the solar resource, and have different siting and production capabilities. Although PV systems are most often deployed as distributed generation sources, CSP systems favor large, centrally located systems. Accordingly, large CSP systems require a substantial investment, sometimes exceeding $1 billion in construction costs. Before such a project is undertaken, the best possible information about the quality and reliability of the fuel source must be made available. That is, project developers need to have reliable data about the solar resource available at specific locations to predict the daily and annual performance of a proposed CSP plant. Without these data, no financial analysis is possible. This handbook presents detailed information about solar resource data and the resulting data products needed for each stage of the project.