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The Orexin Hypocretin System

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The Orexin Hypocretin System

The Orexin Hypocretin System Book
Author : Seiji Nishino,Takeshi Sakurai
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-11-22
ISBN : 1592599508
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Impairment of orexin/hypocretin signaling causes narcolepsy-cataplexy in animals and humans. Most human narcolepsy-cataplexy cases are associated with orexin/hypocretin ligand deficiency, which can be detected clinically using cerebrospinal orexin/hypocretin measures and may lead to future treatments with orexin/hypocretin replacement therapy. In The Orexin/Hypocretin System: Physiology and Pathophysiology, leading researchers and clinicians review these exciting developments to set the stage for further research on the loss of orexin/hypocretin neurons in humans, regulation of sleep and wakefulness by the orexin/hypocretin system, and the role of the orexin/hypocretin system in many other physiological processes, including feeding, autonomic regulation, and neuroendocrine regulation. Topics of interest include an assessment of the functions and the physiology of orexin/hypocretin, its pathophysiology in human narcolepsy-cataplexy, and possible pharmacological treatments. The authors also introduce several experimental methods for orexin/hypocretin research, and, using multidisciplinary approaches, explain their uses and limitations. Authoritative and state-of-the-art, The Orexin/Hypocretin System: Physiology and Pathophysiology will aid scientists in the search for novel bioactive peptides and their receptors, as well as novel physiological insights and opportunities for the clinical treatment of not only narcolepsy, but also a broad range of diseases associated with endocrine, feeding, and body weight regulation.

The Orexin hypocretin System

The Orexin hypocretin System Book
Author : Anantha Shekhar
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0444594892
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"In The Orexin/Hypocretin System: Physiology and Pathophysiology, leading researchers and clinicians set the stage for further research on the loss of orexin/hypocretin neurons in humans, regulation of sleep and wakefulness by the orexin/hypocretin system, and the role of the orexin/hypocretin system in many other physiological processes, including feeding, autonomic regulation, and neuroendocrine regulation. Topics of interest include an assessment of the functions and the physiology of orexin/hypocretin, its pathophysiology in human narcolepsy-cataplexy, and possible pharmacological treatments. The authors also introduce several experimental methods for orexin/hypocretin research, and, using multidisciplinary approaches, explain their uses and limitations." "Authoritative and state-of-the-art, The Orexin/Hypocretin System: Physiology and Pathophysiology will aid scientists in the search for novel bioactive peptides and their receptors, as well as novel physiological insights and opportunities for the clinical treatment of not only narcolepsy, but also a broad range of diseases associated with endocrine, feeding and body weight regulation."--Résumé de l'éditeur.

The Orexin Hypocretin System

The Orexin Hypocretin System Book
Author : Jim R. Fadel,Joshua A. Burk
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-01-03
ISBN : 0128137525
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Orexins/Hypocretins System: Functional Roles and Therapeutic Potential summarizes research on both the physiological functioning of orexins, their impact on homeostatic processes, and related disorders. The book encompasses the effects on appetite, sleep, substance abuse, cognition, and anxiety. Additionally, it examines new therapeutic approaches utilizing orexins, including utilization of orexin receptors for drug development. It is essential reading for neuroscience researchers interested in brain-behavior relationships, as well as psychiatrists, endocrinologists and pharmacologists. Provides an overview of new research on orexins/hypocretins Includes an overview of intracellular signaling and orexin physiology Discusses the effects on arousal, appetite, cognition, addiction and anxiety Examines orexin based therapies and their potential use in disorders Explores orexin receptors for drug development

The Role of the Orexin hypocretin System in the Incubation of Alcohol Craving in Rats

The Role of the Orexin hypocretin System in the Incubation of Alcohol Craving in Rats Book
Author : Olivia Gilman Mallari
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Role of the Orexin hypocretin System in the Incubation of Alcohol Craving in Rats book written by Olivia Gilman Mallari, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Involvement of the Orexin hypocretin System in Ethanol conditioned Behavior

Involvement of the Orexin hypocretin System in Ethanol conditioned Behavior Book
Author : Charlene M. Voorhees
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Involvement of the Orexin hypocretin System in Ethanol conditioned Behavior book written by Charlene M. Voorhees, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Behavioral Neuroscience of Orexin Hypocretin

Behavioral Neuroscience of Orexin Hypocretin Book
Author : Andrew J Lawrence,Luis de Lecea
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-05-29
ISBN : 331957535X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This issue of Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience focuses on the neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin) and brings together scientists from around the world who will provide a timely discussion of how this peptide regulates behavior. This is a fast-moving field, and with the incorporation of novel technologies, new breakthroughs are likely to continue. For example, the use of optogenetic approaches has enabled the identification of the role of orexin-containing neurons in arousal states, critical for higher order functioning. From a clinical perspective, genetic polymorphisms in hypocretin/orexin and orexin receptors are implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders. In addition, advanced clinical trials are currently underway for orexin receptor antagonists in the treatment of insomnia and sleep disorders. We aim to capture a broad audience of basic scientists and clinicians.

The Orexin System

The Orexin System Book
Author : Michel Steiner,Masashi Yanagisawa,Martine Clozel
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release : 2021
ISBN : 3318068446
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Discovered in 1998, the orexin system lies at the core of the sleep and wake state regulation inside our brain. This book summarizes recent research, ideas and perspectives from some of the most influential researchers in the fields of hypocretin/orexin and sleep. For example, it explains the intricate role of the orexin system in the different sleep phases and in the pathways that are related to memory and cognition. It also provides an overview of diseases which are caused by, or associated with, a dysfunctional orexin system, such as narcolepsy, insomnia, substance abuse, or Alzheimer's disease"--

Insomnia and beyond Exploring the therapeutic potential of orexin receptor antagonists

Insomnia and beyond   Exploring the therapeutic potential of orexin receptor antagonists Book
Author : Michel Alexander Steiner,Christopher J Winrow
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2014-11-11
ISBN : 2889193306
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Orexin/hypocretin neuropeptides, produced by a few thousand neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, are of critical importance for the control of vigilance and arousal of vertebrates, from fish to amphibians, birds and mammals. Two orexin peptides, called orexin-A and orexin-B, exist in mammals. They bind with different affinities to two distinct, widely distributed, excitatory G-protein- coupled receptors, orexin receptor type 1 and type 2 (OXR-1/2). The discovery of an OXR mutation causing canine narcolepsy, the narcolepsy-like phenotype of orexin peptide knockout mice, and the orexin neuron loss associated with human narcoleptic patients laid the foundation for the discovery of small molecule OXR antagonists as novel treatments for sleep disorders. Proof of concept studies from Glaxo Smith Kline, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd. and Merck have now consistently demonstrated the efficacy of dual OXR antagonists (DORAs) in promoting sleep in rodents, dogs, non-human primates and humans. Some of these antagonists have completed late stage clinical testing in primary insomnia. Orexin drug discovery programs have also been initiated by other large pharmaceutical companies including Hoffmann La Roche, Novartis, Eli Lilly and Johnson & Johnson. Orexins are increasingly recognized for orchestrating the activity of the organism’s arousal system with appetite, reward and stress processing pathways. Therefore, in addition to models of insomnia, pharmacological effects of DORAs have begun to be investigated in rodent models of addiction, depression and anxiety. The first clinical trials in diabetic neuropathy, migraine and depression have been initiated with Merck’s MK-6096 (www.clinicaltrials.gov). Whereas the pharmacology of DORAs is established for their effects on wakefulness, pharmacological effects of selective OXR-1 or OXR-2 antagonists (SORAs) have remained less clear. From an evolutionary point of view, the OXR-2 was expressed first in most vertebrate lineages, whereas the OXR-1 is believed to result from a gene duplication event, when mammals emerged. Yet, both receptors do not have redundant function. Their brain expression pattern, their intracellular signaling, as well as their affinity for orexin-A and orexin-B differs. During the past decade most preclinical research on selective OXR-1 antagonism was performed with SB-334867. Only in recent years, other selective OXR-1 and OXR-2 antagonists with optimized selectivity profiles and pharmacokinetic properties have been discovered, and phenotypes of OXR-1 and OXR-2 knockout mice were described. The present Research Topic (referred to in the Editorial as “special topics issue”) comprises submissions of original research manuscripts as well as reviews, directed towards the neuropharmacology of OXR antagonists. The submissions are preclinical papers dealing with dual and/or selective OXR antagonists that shed light on the differential contribution of endogenous orexin signaling through both OXRs for cellular, physiological and behavioral processes. Some manuscripts also report on convergence or divergence of DORA vs. SORA effects with phenotypes expressed by OXR-1 or OXR-2 knockout animals. Ultimately these findings may help further define the potential of DORAs and SORAs in particular therapeutic areas in insomnia and beyond insomnia.

Hypocretins

Hypocretins Book
Author : Luis De Lecea,J. Gregor Sutcliffe
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-04-25
ISBN : 0387254463
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The first report that rapid eye movements occur in sleep in humans was published in 1953. The research journey from this point to the realization that sleep consists of two entirely independent states of being (eventually labeled REM sleep and non-REM sleep) was convoluted, but by 1960 the fundamental duality of sleep was well established including the description of REM sleep in cats associated with “wide awake” EEG patterns and EMG suppression. The first report linking REM sleep to a pathology occurred in 1961 and a clear association of sleep onset REM periods, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis was fully established by 1966. When a naïve individual happens to observe a full-blown cataplexy attack, it is both dramatic and unnerving. Usually the observer assumes that the loss of muscle tone represents syncope or seizure. In order to educate health professionals and the general public, Christian Guilleminault and I made movies of full-blown cataplectic episodes (not an easy task). We showed these movies of cataplexy attacks to a number of professional audiences, and were eventually rewarded with the report of a similar abrupt loss of muscle tone in a dog. We were able to bring the dog to Stanford University and with this as the trigger, we were able to develop the Stanford Canine Narcolepsy Colony. Breeding studies revealed the genetic determinants of canine narcolepsy, an autosomal recessive gene we termed canarc1. Emmanuel Mignot took over the colony in 1986 and began sequencing DNA, finally isolating canarc1 in 1999.

Orexin and Sleep

Orexin and Sleep Book
Author : Takeshi Sakurai,S.R. Pandi-Perumal,Jaime M. Monti
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-09-22
ISBN : 3319230786
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume is intended for neuropharmacologists, psychopharmacologists, pharmacologists, pharmacists, sleep researchers, translational neuroscience researchers, and other basic researchers and clinical scientists interested in an interdisciplinary approach to sleep medicine. The level of the book is aiming at CNS researchers, drug development scientists, basic and clinical sleep researchers, as well as senior medical students and fellows in psychiatry and neurology. Orexin and Sleep provides a unique resource, giving a comprehensive and highly readable summary of the basic concepts in orexin biology and pharmacology along with clinical applications in sleep medicine in general, and narcolepsy in particular.

A Mathematical Model of Sleep wake Cycles the Role of Hypocretin orexin in Homeostatic Regulation and Thalamic Synchronization

A Mathematical Model of Sleep wake Cycles  the Role of Hypocretin orexin in Homeostatic Regulation and Thalamic Synchronization Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sleep is vital to our health and well-being. Yet, we do not have answers to such fundamental questions as "why do we sleep?" and "what are the mechanisms of sleep regulation?". Better understanding of these issues can open new perspectives not only in basic neurophysiology but also in different pathological conditions that are going along with sleep disorders and/or disturbances of sleep, e.g. in mental or neurological diseases. A generally accepted concept that explains regulation of sleep was proposed in 1982 by Alexander Borbþely. It postulates that sleep-wake transitions result from the interaction between a circadian and a homeostatic sleep processes. The circadian process is ascribed to a "genetic clock" in the neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. The mechanisms of the homeostatic process are still unclear. In this study a novel concept of hypocretin (orexin) - based control of sleep homeostasis is presented. The neuropeptide hypocretin is a synaptic co-transmitter of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. It was discovered in 1998 independently by two different groups, therefore, obtaining two names, hypocretin and orexin. This neuropeptide is required to maintain wakefulness. Dysfunction in the hypocretin system leads to the sleep disorder narcolepsy, which, among other symptoms, is characterized by severe disturbances of sleep-wake cycles with sudden sleep-attacks in the wake period and interruptions of the sleep phase. On the other hand injection of hypocretin promotes wakefulness and improves the performance of sleep deprived subjects. The major proposals of the present study are the following: 1) the homeostatic regulation of sleep depends on the dynamics of a neuropeptide hypocretin; 2) ongoing impulse generation of the hypocretin neurons during wakefulness is sustained by reciprocal excitatory connections with other neurons, including local glutamate interneurons; 3) the transition to a silent state (sleep) is going along with an a.

Involvement of the Hypocretin orexin System in the Addictive Properties of Nicotine

Involvement of the Hypocretin orexin System in the Addictive Properties of Nicotine Book
Author : Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hypocretin-1 and hypocretin-2, also known as orexin-A and orexin-B, are 2 neuropeptides that are exclusively expressed by a small subset of neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area. Despite their restricted expression pattern, hypocretin-containing axons project widely throughout the brain and exert their physiological functions acting on 2 G protein coupled receptors, hypocretin/orexin receptor-1 and hypocretin/orexin receptor-2. Initially, the hypocretin system was related to the regulation of sleep/wake cycles and feeding behavior. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence has accumulated over the last decade indicating a role for these neuropeptides in drug addiction. In the present thesis, we have evaluated the involvement of hypocretin transmission in the addictive properties of nicotine, the main psychoactive component that sustains tobacco addiction, by using behavioral and biochemical approaches. Our results indicate that hypocretin peptides, mainly through their actions upon hypocretin receptor-1, influence the severity of nicotine withdrawal and modulate the relapse to nicotine-seeking after prolonged periods of abstinence. Given the importance of withdrawal and relapse on the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction, we propose hypocretin receptor-1 as a promising therapeutic target for the development of novel smoking cessation therapies.

Sleep Hormones

Sleep Hormones Book
Author : Gerald Litwack
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0123946239
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

First published in 1943, Vitamins and Hormones is the longest-running serial published by Academic Press. The Editorial Board now reflects expertise in the field of hormone action, vitamin action, X-ray crystal structure, physiology and enzyme mechanisms. Under the capable and qualified editorial leadership of Dr. Gerald Litwack, Vitamins and Hormones continues to publish cutting-edge reviews of interest to endocrinologists, biochemists, nutritionists, pharmacologists, cell biologists and molecular biologists. Others interested in the structure and function of biologically active molecules like hormones and vitamins will, as always, turn to this series for comprehensive reviews by leading contributors to this and related disciplines. This volume focuses on sleep hormones. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

Anatomy and Function of Orexin containing Neurons in Day and Night active Animals

Anatomy and Function of Orexin containing Neurons in Day  and Night active Animals Book
Author : Joshua Patrick Nixon
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Anatomy and Function of Orexin containing Neurons in Day and Night active Animals book written by Joshua Patrick Nixon, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Phylogenetic Aspects of Neuropeptides

Phylogenetic Aspects of Neuropeptides Book
Author : Hubert Vaudry,Seiji Shioda
Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
Release : 2010-07-26
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"This volume presents manuscripts stemming from an international symposium that was held on October 2-3, 2009 in Yakushima, Japan"--Contents p.

Sleep Disorders Medicine

Sleep Disorders Medicine Book
Author : Sudhansu Chokroverty
Publisher : Saunders
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Includes full-color illustrations in the clinical section that enhances diagnostic material. Presents the material in an even more readable and user-friendly two-color design and page layout.

Hypocretin dopamine Interactions

Hypocretin dopamine Interactions Book
Author : Nicole M. Vittoz
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Hypocretin dopamine Interactions book written by Nicole M. Vittoz, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Chemical Abstracts

Chemical Abstracts Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2002
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Chemical Abstracts book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.