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The Neurology Of Consciousness

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The Neurology of Consciousness

The Neurology of Consciousness Book
Author : Steven Laureys,Olivia Gosseries,Giulio Tononi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-08-12
ISBN : 0128011750
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The second edition of The Neurology of Consciousness is a comprehensive update of this ground-breaking work on human consciousness, the first book in this area to summarize the neuroanatomical and functional underpinnings of consciousness by emphasizing a lesional approach offered by the study of neurological patients. Since the publication of the first edition in 2009, new methodologies have made consciousness much more accessible scientifically, and, in particular, the study of disorders, disruptions, and disturbances of consciousness has added tremendously to our understanding of the biological basis of human consciousness. The publication of a new edition is both critical and timely for continued understanding of the field of consciousness. In this critical and timely update, revised and new contributions by internationally renowned researchers—edited by the leaders in the field of consciousness research—provide a unique and comprehensive focus on human consciousness. The new edition of The Neurobiology of Consciousness will continue to be an indispensable resource for researchers and students working on the cognitive neuroscience of consciousness and related disorders, as well as for neuroscientists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and neurologists contemplating consciousness as one of the philosophical, ethical, sociological, political, and religious questions of our time. New chapters on the neuroanatomical basis of consciousness and short-term memory, and expanded coverage of comas and neuroethics, including the ethics of brain death The first comprehensive, authoritative collection to describe disorders of consciousness and how they are used to study and understand the neural correlates of conscious perception in humans. Includes both revised and new chapters from the top international researchers in the field, including Christof Koch, Marcus Raichle, Nicholas Schiff, Joseph Fins, and Michael Gazzaniga

The Neurology of Consciousness

The Neurology of Consciousness Book
Author : Steven Laureys,Giulio Tononi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2011-04-28
ISBN : 9780080921020
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Understanding consciousness is the major unsolved problem in biology. One increasingly important method of studying consciousness is to study disorders of consciousness, e.g. brain damage and disease states leading to vegetative states, coma, minimally conscious states, etc. Many of these studies are very much in the public eye because of their relationship to controversies about coma patients (e.g. Terry Schiavo case in the US recently), and the relationship to one of the major philosophical, sociological, political, and religious questions of humankind. This is the first book to summarize our current understanding of the neuroanatomical and functional underpinnings of human consciousness by emphasizing a lesional approach offered via the study of neurological patients. The selected contributors are all outstanding authors and undisputed leaders in their field. New chapters on the neuroanatomical basis of consciousness, functional intrinsic brain activity, anesthesia, as well as expanded coverage of the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/ vegetative state and the minimally conscious state The first comprehensive, authoritative collection to describe disorders of consciousness and how they are used to study and understand the neural correlates of conscious perception in humans Includes revised and new chapters from the top international researchers in the field

New Horizons in the Neuroscience of Consciousness

New Horizons in the Neuroscience of Consciousness Book
Author : Elaine K. Perry
Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing
Release : 2010
ISBN : 9027252157
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A fascinating cornucopia of new ideas, based on fundamentals of neurobiology, psychology, psychiatry and therapy, this book extends boundaries of current concepts of consciousness. Its eclectic mix will simulate and challenge not only neuroscientists and psychologists but entice others interested in exploring consciousness. Contributions from top researchers in consciousness and related fields project diverse ideas, focused mainly on conscious nonconscious interactions: 1. Paving the way for new research on basic scientific - physiological, pharmacological or neurochemical - mechanisms underpinning conscious experience ( bottom up approach); 2. Providing directions on how psychological processes are involved in consciousness ( top down approach); 3. Indicating how including consciousness could lead to new understanding of mental disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, dementia, and addiction; 4. More provocatively, but still based on scientific evidence, exploring consciousness beyond conventional boundaries, indicating the potential for radical new thinking or quantum leaps in neuroscientific theories of consciousness. (Series B)"

States of Consciousness

States of Consciousness Book
Author : Dean Cvetkovic,Irena Cosic
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-06-22
ISBN : 3642180477
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this accessible overview of current knowledge, an expert team of editors and authors describe experimental approaches to consciousness. These approaches are shedding light on some of the hitherto unknown aspects of the distinct states of human consciousness, including the waking state, different states of sleep and dreaming, meditation and more. The book presents the latest research studies by the contributing authors, whose specialities span neuroscience, neurology, biomedical engineering, clinical psychology and psychophysiology, psychosocial medicine and anthropology. Overall this anthology provides the reader with a clear picture of how different states of consciousness can be defined, experimentally measured and analysed. A future byproduct of this knowledge may be anticipated in the development of systematic corrective treatments for many disorders and pathological problems of consciousness.

Finding Consciousness

Finding Consciousness Book
Author : Walter Sinnott-Armstrong
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2016-01-13
ISBN : 019028031X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Modern medicine enables us to keep many people alive after they have suffered severe brain damage and show no reliable outward signs of consciousness. Many such patients are misdiagnosed as being in a permanent vegetative state when they are actually in a minimally conscious state. This mistake has far-reaching implications for treatment and prognosis. To alleviate this problem, neuroscientists have recently developed new brain-scanning methods to detect consciousness in some of these patients and even to ask them questions, including "Do you want to stay alive?" Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage addresses many questions regarding these recent neuroscientific methods: Is what these methods detect really consciousness? Do patients feel pain? Should we decide whether or not to let them die or are they competent to decide for themselves? And which kinds of treatment should governments and hospitals make available? This edited volume provides contextual information, surveys the issues and positions, and takes controversial stands from a wide variety of prominent contributors in fields ranging from neuroscience and neurology to law and policy to philosophy and ethics. Finding Consciousness should interest not only neuroscientists, clinicians, and ethicists but anyone who might suffer brain damage, which includes us all.

Encyclopedia of Consciousness

Encyclopedia of Consciousness Book
Author : William P. Banks
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-03-26
ISBN : 008092042X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Consciousness has long been a subject of interest in philosophy and religion but only relatively recently has it become subject to scientific investigation. Now, more than ever before, we are beginning to understand this mental state. Developmental psychologists understand when we first develop a sense of self; neuropsychologists see which parts of the brain activate when we think about ourselves and which parts of the brain control that awareness. Cognitive scientists have mapped the circuitry that allows machines to have some form of self awareness, and neuroscientists investigate similar circuitry in the human brain. Research that once was separate inquiries in discreet disciplines is converging. List serves and small conferences focused on consciousness are proliferating. New journals have emerged in this field. A huge number of monographs and edited treatises have recently been published on consciousness, but there is no recognized entry point to the field, no comprehensive summary. This encyclopedia is that reference. Organized alphabetically by topic, coverage encompasses a summary of major research and scientific thought regarding the nature of consciousness, the neural circuitry involved, how the brain, body, and world interact, and our understanding of subjective states. The work includes contributions covering neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, and artificial intelligence to provide a comprehensive backdrop to recent and ongoing investigations into the nature of conscious experience from a philosophical, psychological, and biological perspective.

Beyond Neural Correlates of Consciousness

Beyond Neural Correlates of Consciousness Book
Author : Morten Overgaard,Jesper Mogensen,Asger Kirkeby-Hinrup
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2020-08-05
ISBN : 1351793497
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Drawing on neuroscientific research and metacognitive theory, this groundbreaking volume examines the theoretical implications that are elicited when neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) are identified. The relationship between consciousness and the brain has concerned philosophers for centuries, yet a tacit assumption in much empirically minded consciousness research seems to be that if we can only develop a map of correlations, no further questions remain to be asked. Beyond Neural Correlates of Consciousness starts where others stop, by asking what these correlations may tell us about the nature of consciousness. The book contains chapters considering the upshots of finding the neural correlates of consciousness in light of the most prominent contemporary theories in the field. This illuminates the theoretical consequences of succeeding in the quest for the neural correlates of consciousness from the perspective of global workspace theory, higher-order thought theory, local recurrency theory, and REFCON models, in addition to considering how this quest is shaped by different conscious phenomena, such as dreaming, altered states of consciousness, and different levels of consciousness. This insightful text features sophisticated theories that goes beyond correlational inferences and neural mapping, and will be of interest to students and researchers of consciousness, particularly those interested in interpreting neural correlates.

Consciousness

Consciousness Book
Author : Christof Koch
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2017-03-03
ISBN : 0262533502
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In which a scientist searches for an empirical explanation for phenomenal experience, spurred by his instinctual belief that life is meaningful. What links conscious experience of pain, joy, color, and smell to bioelectrical activity in the brain? How can anything physical give rise to nonphysical, subjective, conscious states? Christof Koch has devoted much of his career to bridging the seemingly unbridgeable gap between the physics of the brain and phenomenal experience. This engaging book—part scientific overview, part memoir, part futurist speculation—describes Koch's search for an empirical explanation for consciousness. Koch recounts not only the birth of the modern science of consciousness but also the subterranean motivation for his quest—his instinctual (if "romantic") belief that life is meaningful. Koch describes his own groundbreaking work with Francis Crick in the 1990s and 2000s and the gradual emergence of consciousness (once considered a "fringy" subject) as a legitimate topic for scientific investigation. Present at this paradigm shift were Koch and a handful of colleagues, including Ned Block, David Chalmers, Stanislas Dehaene, Giulio Tononi, Wolf Singer, and others. Aiding and abetting it were new techniques to listen in on the activity of individual nerve cells, clinical studies, and brain-imaging technologies that allowed safe and noninvasive study of the human brain in action. Koch gives us stories from the front lines of modern research into the neurobiology of consciousness as well as his own reflections on a variety of topics, including the distinction between attention and awareness, the unconscious, how neurons respond to Homer Simpson, the physics and biology of free will, dogs, Der Ring des Nibelungen, sentient machines, the loss of his belief in a personal God, and sadness. All of them are signposts in the pursuit of his life's work—to uncover the roots of consciousness.

Lucid Dreaming New Perspectives on Consciousness in Sleep 2 volumes

Lucid Dreaming  New Perspectives on Consciousness in Sleep  2 volumes  Book
Author : Ryan Hurd,Kelly Bulkeley
Publisher : ABC-CLIO
Release : 2014-07-29
ISBN : 1440829489
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this fascinating new collection, an all-star team of researchers explores lucid dreaming not only as consciousness during sleep but also as a powerful ability cultivated by artists, scientists, and shamans alike to achieve a variety of purposes and outcomes in the dream. • Presents a variety of expert perspectives on lucid dreaming from many different cultures that represent a breadth of disciplinary perspectives • Provides theoretical models that integrate scientific reason, mysticism, and individuals' experiences, making way for a new level of sophistication in the study of lucid dreaming • Offers practical insights for therapists, teachers, and researchers as well as students and scholars of psychology, anthropology, and religious studies while containing accessible information and compelling personal narratives that will appeal to general readers

Visual Attention and Consciousness

Visual Attention and Consciousness Book
Author : Jay Friedenberg
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2012-12-12
ISBN : 1135105502
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Consciousness is perhaps one of the greatest mysteries in the universe. This ambitious book begins with a philosophical approach to consciousness, examining some key questions such as what is meant by the term "conscious," and how this applies to vision. The book then explores major visual phenomena related to attention and conscious experience—including filling-in processes, aftereffects, multi-stability, forms of divided attention, models of visual attention, priming effects, types of attentional blindness and various visual disorders. For each phenomenon, the biological and cognitive level research is reviewed. Themes touched upon throughout are the relation between consciousness and attention, automatic vs. willful processes, singularity vs. multiplicity, and looking without seeing. The book concludes with an evolutionary approach, describing possible functions that visual consciousness may serve and how those may affect the way we see. The systematic review of key topics and the multitude of perspectives make this book an ideal primary or ancillary text for graduate courses in perception, vision, consciousness, or philosophy of mind.

Consciousness

Consciousness Book
Author : Andrea Eugenio Cavanna,Andrea Nani
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-09-30
ISBN : 3662440881
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book reviews some of the most important scientific and philosophical theories concerning the nature of mind and consciousness. Current theories on the mind-body problem and the neural correlates of consciousness are presented through a series of biographical sketches of the most influential thinkers across the fields of philosophy of mind, psychology and neuroscience. The book is divided into two parts: the first is dedicated to philosophers of mind and the second, to neuroscientists/experimental psychologists. Each part comprises twenty short chapters, with each chapter being dedicated to one author. A brief introduction is given on his or her life and most important works and influences. The most influential theory/ies developed by each author are then carefully explained and examined with the aim of scrutinizing the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches to the nature of consciousness.

Consciousness Unbound

Consciousness Unbound Book
Author : Edward F Kelly,Paul Marshall
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021-04-15
ISBN : 153813943X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Building on the groundbreaking research of Irreducible Mind and Beyond Physicalism, Edward Kelly and Paul Marshall gather a cohort of leading scholars to address the most recent advances in the psychology of consciousness. Currently emerging as a middle ground between warring fundamentalisms of religion and science, an expanded science-based understanding of nature finally accommodates empirical realities of spiritual sorts while also rejecting rationally untenable overbeliefs. The vision sketched here provides an antidote to the prevailing postmodern disenchantment of the world and demeaning of human possibilities. It not only more accurately and fully reflects our human condition but engenders hope and encourages ego-surpassing forms of human flourishing. It offers reasons for us to believe that freedom is real, that our human choices matter, and that we have barely scratched the surface of our human potentials. It also addresses the urgent need for a greater sense of worldwide community and interdependence - a sustainable ethos - by demonstrating that under the surface we and the world are much more extensively interconnected than previously recognized.

Coma and Disorders of Consciousness

Coma and Disorders of Consciousness Book
Author : Caroline Schnakers,Steven Laureys
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-09-01
ISBN : 3319559648
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This revised and expanded second edition discusses the assessment and treatment of patients recovering from coma and disorders of consciousness. Besides diagnostic, prognostic and ethical issues, this book describes well-established techniques and procedures, and also techniques under development. New chapters include consciousness theories, issues relating to long-term care, and neuromodulation treatments. Coma and Disorders of Consciousness, Second Edition is a comprehensive review of the field for clinicians and researchers, regardless of whether they are already familiar with the difficult but exciting field of disorders of consciousness.

Consciousness and Neural Plasticity

Consciousness and Neural Plasticity Book
Author : Morten Overgaard,Mads Jensen
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2012-01-01
ISBN : 2889190072
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies. If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather a dynamic entity, which physical structure changes according to its use and environment. This change may take the form of growth of new neurons, the creation of new networks and structures, and change within network structures, that is, changes in synaptic strengths. Plasticity raises questions about the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can have direct consequences for a theory about consciousness. For instance, theories of strict identity between consciousness and structure may face the serious dilemma to either accept that, say, the experience of the colour red is fundamentally different in one individual over time due to cortical changes or to abandon the strong identity thesis altogether. Were one to pursue a theory according to which consciousness is not an epiphenomenon to brain processes, consciousness may in fact affect its own neural basis. The neural correlate of consciousness is often seen as a stable structure, that is, something that is stable over time. Considering neural plasticity, this is not necessarily so. The NCC might change and hence literally change the way a person is conscious. What it is about the NCC that can and might change is, even though it can be relevant for the relation between the brain and consciousness is, still an unanswered question. There are, hence, a lot of questions that might shed light upon the relevant but unknown relations between consciousness and the brain. Therefore, We hereby propose to do a Research Topic on consciousness and neural plasticity to shed light on these underestimated issues.In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies. If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather a dynamic entity, which physical structure changes according to its use and environment. This change may take the form of growth of new neurons, the creation of new networks and structures, and change within network structures, that is, changes in synaptic strengths. Plasticity raises questions about the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can have direct consequences for a theory about consciousness. For instance, theories of strict identity between consciousness and structure may face the serious dilemma to either accept that, say, the experience of the colour red is fundamentally different in one individual over time due to cortical changes or to abandon the strong identity thesis altogether. Were one to pursue a theory according to which consciousness is not an epiphenomenon to brain processes, consciousness may in fact affect its own neural basis. The neural correlate of consciousness is often seen as a stable structure, that is, something that is stable over time. Considering neural plasticity, this is not necessarily so. The NCC might change and hence literally change the way a person is conscious. What it is about the NCC that can and might change is, even though it can be relevant for the relation between the brain and consciousness is, still an unanswered question. There are, hence, a lot of questions that might shed light upon the relevant but unknown relations between consciousness and the brain. Therefore, We hereby propose to do a Research Topic on consciousness and neural plasticity to shed light on these underestimated issues.

PET and SPECT in Neurology

PET and SPECT in Neurology Book
Author : Rudi A. J. O. Dierckx,Andreas Otte,Erik F. J. de Vries,Aren van Waarde,Klaus L. Leenders
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-10-20
ISBN : 3030531686
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the use of PET and SPECT in not only classic neurodegenerative disorders but also cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The new edition has been revised and updated to reflect recent advances and includes additional chapters, for example on the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning in imaging data analysis, the study of brain connectivity using PET and SPECT images, and the role of PET imaging in modulation of brain functioning by deep brain stimulation. The authors are renowned experts whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be invaluable for neurologists and radiologists/nuclear medicine specialists and will also be informative for interested general practitioners and geriatricians. Companion volumes on PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems complete a trilogy.

The Visual un conscious and Its dis contents

The Visual  un conscious and Its  dis contents Book
Author : Bruno G. Breitmeyer
Publisher : Oxford University Press (UK)
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0198712235
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Visual (un) conscious and its (dis)contents explores micro-temporal approaches to the study of conscious and non-conscious vision. Micro-temporal periods of analysis can last anything from a few tenths to a few hundredths of a millisecond. Though it is well established that many of the visual stimuli we encounter in everyday life never reach consciousness, the author explores how and why this may happen, and in what circumstances, and what this mightreveal about consciousness itself. Within the book, Professor Breitmeyer also touches on some of the philosophical issues relating to the study of conscious and non-conscious vision.

Cognitive Neuroscience of Consciousness

Cognitive Neuroscience of Consciousness Book
Author : Anil Seth,Geraint Rees
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2013-05-13
ISBN : 1135900671
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

How do conscious experience, subjectivity, and free will arise from the brain and the body? Even in the late 20th century, consciousness was considered to be beyond the reach of science. Now, understanding the neural mechanisms underlying consciousness is recognized as a key objective for 21st century science. The cognitive neuroscience of consciousness is a fundamentally multidisciplinary enterprise, involving powerful new combinations of functional brain imaging, computational modelling, theoretical innovation, and basic neurobiology. Its progress will be marked by new insights not only into the complex brain mechanisms underlying consciousness, but also by novel clinical approaches to a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. These innovations are well represented by the contents of the present volume. A target article by Victor Lamme puts forward the contentious position that neural evidence should trump evidence from behaviour and introspection, in any theory of consciousness. This article and its several commentaries advance one of the fundamental debates in consciousness science, namely whether there exists non-reportable phenomenal consciousness, perhaps dependent on local rather than global neural processes. Other articles explore the wider terrain of the new science of consciousness. For example, Maniscalco and colleagues use theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation to selectively impair metacognitive awareness; Massimini and coworkers examine changes in functional connectivity during anesthesi, and Vanhaudenhuyse et al describe innovations in detecting residual awareness following traumatic brain injury. Together, then contents of this volume exemplify the `grand challenge of consciousness' in combining transformative questions about the human condition with a tractable programme of experimental and theoretical research.

Death before Dying

Death before Dying Book
Author : Gary Belkin
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2014-01-29
ISBN : 0199969620
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain death-the condition of a non-functioning brain, has been widely adopted around the world as a definition of death since it was detailed in a Report by an Ad Hoc Committee of Harvard Medical School faculty in 1968. It also remains a focus of controversy and debate, an early source of criticism and scrutiny of the bioethics movement. Death before Dying: History, Medicine, and Brain Death looks at the work of the Committee in a way that has not been attempted before in terms of tracing back the context of its own sources-the reasoning of it Chair, Henry K Beecher, and the care of patients in coma and knowledge about coma and consciousness at the time. That history requires re-thinking the debate over brain death that followed which has tended to cast the Committee's work in ways this book questions. This book, then, also questions common assumptions about the place of bioethics in medicine. This book discusses if the advent of bioethics has distorted and limited the possibilities for harnessing medicine for social progress. It challenges historical scholarship of medicine to be more curious about how medical knowledge can work as a potentially innovative source of values.

Cosmic Heritage

Cosmic Heritage Book
Author : Peter Shaver
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-08-26
ISBN : 3642202616
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book follows the evolutionary trail all the way from the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago to conscious life today. It is an accessible introductory book written for the interested layperson – anyone interested in the ‘big picture’ coming from modern science. It covers a wide range of topics including the origin and evolution of our universe, the nature and origin of life, the evolution of life including questions of birth and death, the evolution of cognition, the nature of consciousness, the possibility of extraterrestrial life and the future of the universe. The book is written in a narrative style, as these topics are all parts of a single story. It concludes with a discussion on the nature and future of science.

The Feeling of Life Itself

The Feeling of Life Itself Book
Author : Christof Koch
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2020-09-08
ISBN : 0262539551
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An argument that consciousness, more widespread than previously assumed, is the feeling of being alive, not a type of computation or a clever hack. In The Feeling of Life Itself, Christof Koch offers a straightforward definition of consciousness as any subjective experience, from the most mundane to the most exalted—the feeling of being alive. Psychologists study which cognitive operations underpin a given conscious perception. Neuroscientists track the neural correlates of consciousness in the brain, the organ of the mind. But why the brain and not, say, the liver? How can the brain, three pounds of highly excitable matter, a piece of furniture in the universe, subject to the same laws of physics as any other piece, give rise to subjective experience? Koch argues that what is needed to answer these questions is a quantitative theory that starts with experience and proceeds to the brain. In The Feeling of Life Itself, Koch outlines such a theory, based on integrated information. Koch describes how the theory explains many facts about the neurology of consciousness and how it has been used to build a clinically useful consciousness meter. The theory predicts that many, and perhaps all, animals experience the sights and sounds of life; consciousness is much more widespread than conventionally assumed. Contrary to received wisdom, however, Koch argues that programmable computers will not have consciousness. Even a perfect software model of the brain is not conscious. Its simulation is fake consciousness. Consciousness is not a special type of computation—it is not a clever hack. Consciousness is about being.