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The Membranes Of Cells

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The Membranes of Cells

The Membranes of Cells Book
Author : Philip L. Yeagle
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-02-17
ISBN : 012800486X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Membranes of Cells, Third Edition, provides a basic guide to biomembranes, connecting researchers to the numerous fields of biology. The new edition offers a complete update of content based on new understandings in the field. Foundational content for graduate students, researchers, professors, and undergraduate students across the sciences is provided, succinctly covering all of the basic information needed for lipids and membranes. Connects membrane research to numerous fields of biology Provides a basic guide to the interdisciplinary studies of membranes Offers a companion website with recommended readings and dynamic visual representations of the content Includes four color illustrations to offer the best visual representation of concepts

Membranes and Cell Signaling

Membranes and Cell Signaling Book
Author : Edward Bittar
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1997-05-12
ISBN : 9780080536118
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It should not come as too much of a surprise that biological membranes are considerably more complex than lipid bilayers. This has been made quite clear by the fluid-mosaic model which considers the cell membrane as a two-dimensional solution of a mosaic of integral membrane proteins and glycoproteins firmly embedded in a fluid lipid bilayer matrix. Such a model has several virtues, chief among which is that it allows membrane components to diffuse in the plane of the membrane and orient asymmetrically across the membrane. The model is also remarkable since it provokes the right sort of questions. Two such examples are: Does membrane fluidity influence enzyme activity? Does cholesterol regulate fluidity? However, it does not go far enough. As it turns out, there is now another version of this model, the so-called post-fluid mosaic model which incorporates two concepts, namely the existence in the membrane of discrete domains in which specific lipid-lipid, lipid-protein and protein-protein interactions occur and ordered regions that are in motion but remain separate from less ordered regions. We must admit that both are intriguing problems and of importance in guiding our thinking as to what the next model might be. We have chosen not to include the subject of membrane transport in the present volume. This obviously represents a break with convention. However, the intention is to have the topic covered subsequent volumes relating to organ systems. It would be right to regard this as an attempt to strengthen the integrated approach to the teaching of medicine.

The Biophysics of Cell Membranes

The Biophysics of Cell Membranes Book
Author : Richard M. Epand,Jean-Marie Ruysschaert
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-09-25
ISBN : 9811062447
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume focuses on the modulation of biological membranes by specific biophysical properties. The readers are introduced to emerging biophysical approaches that mimick specific states (like membrane lipid asymmetry, membrane curvature, lipid flip-flop, lipid phase separation) that are relevant to the functioning of biological membranes. The first chapter describes innovative methods to mimic the prevailing asymmetry in biological membranes by forming asymmetrical membranes made of monolayers with different compositions. One of the chapters illustrates how physical parameters, like curvature and elasticity, can affect and modulate the interactions between lipids and proteins. This volume also describes the sensitivity of certain ion channels to mechanical forces and it presents an analysis of how cell shape is determined by both the cytoskeleton and the lipid domains in the membrane. The last chapter provides evidence that liposomes can be used as a minimal cellular model to reconstitute processes related to the origin of life. Each topic covered in this volume is presented by leading experts in the field who are able to present clear, authoritative and up-to-date reviews. The novelty of the methods proposed and their potential for a deeper molecular description of membrane functioning are particularly relevant experts in the areas of biochemistry, biophysics and cell biology, while also presenting clear and thorough introductions, making the material suitable for students in these fields as well.

Structure and Dynamics of Membranes

Structure and Dynamics of Membranes Book
Author : R. Lipowsky,E. Sackmann
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1995-06-15
ISBN : 9780080541914
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The first volume of the Handbook deals with the amazing world of biomembranes and lipid bilayers. Part A describes all aspects related to the morphology of these membranes, beginning with the complex architecture of biomembranes, continues with a description of the bizarre morphology of lipid bilayers and concludes with technological applications of these membranes. The first two chapters deal with biomembranes, providing an introduction to the membranes of eucaryotes and a description of the evolution of membranes. The following chapters are concerned with different aspects of lipids including the physical properties of model membranes composed of lipid-protein mixtures, lateral phase separation of lipids and proteins and measurement of lipid-protein bilayer diffusion. Other chapters deal with the flexibility of fluid bilayers, the closure of bilayers into vesicles which attain a large variety of different shapes, and applications of lipid vesicles and liposomes. Part B covers membrane adhesion, membrane fusion and the interaction of biomembranes with polymer networks such as the cytoskeleton. The first two chapters of this part discuss the generic interactions of membranes from the conceptual point of view. The following two chapters summarize the experimental work on two different bilayer systems. The next chapter deals with the process of contact formation, focal bounding and macroscopic contacts between cells. The cytoskeleton within eucaryotic cells consists of a network of relatively stiff filaments of which three different types of filaments have been identified. As explained in the next chapter much has been recently learned about the interaction of these filaments with the cell membrane. The final two chapters deal with membrane fusion.

Chloride Movements Across Cellular Membranes

Chloride Movements Across Cellular Membranes Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-09-22
ISBN : 9780080475349
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

All living cells are surrounded by a lipidic membrane that isolates them from the often harsh environment. However, to take up nutrients, to excrete waste, and to communicate among each other, Nature has invented an incredibly diverse set of transmembrane transport proteins. Specialized transporters exist to shuttle electrically charged ions, positive cations like sodium or negative anions like chloride, across the membrane. In the recent years, tremendous progress has been made in the field of chloride transport. The present book presents the state of the art of this rapidly expanding and interest-gaining field of membrane transport. It is addressed at a broad medically, physiologically, biologically, and biophysically interested readership. Describes the state-of-the-art in anion transport research Written by leaders in the field Presents a timely discussion of this rapidly emerging and expanding field

The Membranes of Cells

The Membranes of Cells Book
Author : Philip L. Yeagle
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 1993-09
ISBN : 9780127690018
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this new edition of The Membranes of Cells, all of the chapters have been updated, some have been completely rewritten, and a new chapter on receptors has been added. The book has been designed to provide both the student and researcher with a synthesis of information from a number of scientific disciplines to create a comprehensive view of the structure and function of the membranes of cells. The topics are treated in sufficient depth to provide an entry point to the more detailed literature needed by the researcher. Key Features * Introduces biologists to membrane structure and physical chemistry * Introduces biophysicists to biological membrane function * Provides a comprehensive view of cell membranes to students, either as a necessary background for other specialized disciplines or as an entry into the field of biological membrane research * Clarifies ambiguities in the field

The Plant Plasma Membrane

The Plant Plasma Membrane Book
Author : Angus S. Murphy,Wendy Peer,Burkhard Schulz
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-11-11
ISBN : 9783642134319
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In plant cells, the plasma membrane is a highly elaborated structure that functions as the point of exchange with adjoining cells, cell walls and the external environment. Transactions at the plasma membrane include uptake of water and essential mineral nutrients, gas exchange, movement of metabolites, transport and perception of signaling molecules, and initial responses to external biota. Selective transporters control the rates and direction of small molecule movement across the membrane barrier and manipulate the turgor that maintains plant form and drives plant cell expansion. The plasma membrane provides an environment in which molecular and macromolecular interactions are enhanced by the clustering of proteins in oligimeric complexes for more efficient retention of biosynthetic intermediates, and by the anchoring of protein complexes to promote regulatory interactions. The coupling of signal perception at the membrane surface with intracellular second messengers also involves transduction across the plasma membrane. Finally, the generation and ordering of the external cell walls involves processes mediated at the plant cell surface by the plasma membrane. This volume is divided into three sections. The first section describes the basic mechanisms that regulate all plasma membrane functions. The second describes plasma membrane transport activity. The final section of the book describes signaling interactions at the plasma membrane. These topics are given a unique treatment in this volume, as the discussions are restricted to the plasma membrane itself as much as possible. A more complete knowledge of the plasma membrane’s structure and function is essential to current efforts to increase the sustainability of agricultural production of food, fiber, and fuel crops.

The Membranes of Animal Cells

The Membranes of Animal Cells Book
Author : Antony Peter Murray Lockwood
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1979
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Membranes of Animal Cells book written by Antony Peter Murray Lockwood, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Membrane Trafficking

Membrane Trafficking Book
Author : Ales Vancura
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-08-28
ISBN : 9781588299253
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As membrane trafficking research has expanded over the past thirty years, a remarkable convergence of information has been gained by using genetic approaches in yeast cells with biochemical approaches in mammalian cells. This book reflects these advances by devoting one section of the book to yeast cells and the other to mammalian cells, with each section providing both classic and cutting-edge techniques to study macromolecular transport across the membranes.

Methods in Membrane Biology

Methods in Membrane Biology Book
Author : Edward D. Korn
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-11
ISBN : 1461574226
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Examination of the tables of contents of journals - biochemical, molecular biological, ultrastructural, and physiological-provides convincing evidence that membrane biology will be in the 1970s what biochemical genetics was in the 1960s. And for good reason. If genetics is the mechanism for main taining and transmitting the essentials of life, membranes are in many ways the essence of life. The minimal requirement for independent existence is the individualism provided by the separation of "life" from the environment. The cell exists by virtue of its surface membran~. One might define the first living organism as that stage of evolution where macromolecular catalysts or self-reproducing polymers were first segregated from the surrounding milieu by a membrane. Whether that early membrane resembled present cell membranes is irrelevant. What matters is that a membrane would have provided a mechanism for maintaining a local concentration of molecules, facilitating chemical evolution and allowing it to evolve into biochemical evolution. That or yet more primitive membranes, such as a hydrocarbon monolayer at an air-water interface, could also have provided a surface that would facilitate the aggregation and specific orientation of molecules and catalyze their interactions. If primitive membranes were much more than mere passive barriers to free diffusion, how much more is this true of the membranes of contemporary forms of life. A major revolution in biological thought has been the recogni tion that the cell, and especially the eukaryotic cell, is a bewildering maze of membranes and membranous organelles.

Membrane Physiology

Membrane Physiology Book
Author : Thomas E. Andreoli,Darrell D. Fanestil,Joseph F. Hoffman,Stanley G. Schultz
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461319439
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Membrane Physiology (Second Edition) is a soft-cover book containing portions of Physiology of Membrane Disorders (Second Edition). The parent volume contains six major sections. This text encompasses the first three sections: The Nature of Biological Membranes, Methods for Studying Membranes, and General Problems in Membrane Biology. We hope that this smaller volume will be helpful to individuals interested in general physiology and the methods for studying general physiology. THOMAS E. ANDREOLI JOSEPH F. HOFFMAN DARRELL D. FANESTIL STANLEY G. SCHULTZ vii Preface to the Second Edition The second edition of Physiology of Membrane Disorders represents an extensive revision and a considerable expansion of the first edition. Yet the purpose of the second edition is identical to that of its predecessor, namely, to provide a rational analysis of membrane transport processes in individual membranes, cells, tissues, and organs, which in tum serves as a frame of reference for rationalizing disorders in which derangements of membrane transport processes playa cardinal role in the clinical expression of disease. As in the first edition, this book is divided into a number of individual, but closely related, sections. Part V represents a new section where the problem of transport across epithelia is treated in some detail. Finally, Part VI, which analyzes clinical derangements, has been enlarged appreciably.

Plant Membranes

Plant Membranes Book
Author : Y.Y. Leshem
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-09
ISBN : 9401726833
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The plasma membrane is at once the window through which the cell senses the environment and the portal through which the environment influences the structure and activities of the cell. Its importance in cellular physiology can thus hardly be overestimated, since constant flow of materials between cell and environment is essential to the well-being of any biological system. The nature of the materials mov ing into the cell is also critical, since some substances are required for maintenance and growth, while others, because of their toxicity, must either be rigorously excluded or permitted to enter only after chemical alteration. Such alteration frequently permits the compounds to be sequestered in special cellular compartments having different types of membranes. This type of homogeneity, plus the fact that the wear and tear of transmembrane molecular traffic compels the system to be constantly monitored and repaired, means that the membrane system of any organism must be both structurally complex and dy namic. Membranes have been traditionally difficult to study because of their fragility and small diameter. In the last several decades, however, remarkable advances have been made because of techniques permit ting the bulk isolation of membranes from homogenized cells. From such isolated membranes have come detailed physical and chemical analyses that have given us a detailed working model of membrane. We now can make intelligent guesses about the structural and func tional interactions of membrane lipids, phospholipids, proteins, sterols and water.

Textbook of Membrane Biology

Textbook of Membrane Biology Book
Author : Rashmi Wardhan,Padmshree Mudgal
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-01-10
ISBN : 9811071012
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the basic principles, concepts, techniques and latest advances in the field of biomembranes and membrane-associated processes. With new emerging technologies and bioinformatics tools, this is a promising area for future study and research. The book discusses the composition, fluidity and dynamic nature of phospholipid bilayers, which vary with cell/organelle type and function. It describes the various types of transport proteins that facilitate the transport of polar and nonpolar molecules across the membrane actively or passively via ion-channels or through porins. It also explores the many cellular functions membranes participate in: (1) energy transduction, which includes the electron transport chain in inner membrane of mitochondria and bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and photosynthetic electron transport in thylakoid membranes in chloroplast and photosynthetic bacterial membranes; (2) cell–cell communication involving various signal transduction pathways triggered by activated membrane receptors; (3) cell–cell interactions involving various types of adhesion and receptor proteins; (4) nerve transmission involving opening and closing of voltage gated ionic channels; and (5) intracellular transport involving the processes of endocytosis, exocytosis, vesicular transport of solutes between intracellular compartments, membrane fusion and membrane biogenesis.

Cellular Membranes in Development

Cellular Membranes in Development Book
Author : Michael Locke
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 0323152228
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cellular Membranes in Development covers the proceedings of the 1963 22nd Symposium on ""The Society for the Study of Development and Growth"" held in Storrs, Connecticut. This book is organized into 10 chapters that discuss the properties, isolation, function, composition, and physiological aspects of membranes. After briefly dealing with the principles of the unit membrane concept, the book describes the properties of lipid membranes of bilayer thickness with biological relevance. The next chapter focuses on hepatic cell and the modifications of the endoplasmic reticulum in cell differentiation in normal and cancerous growth. Another chapter describes the developmental changes in a particular experimental systems and the modification of the membranes by specific treatments using the apical portion of the primary root of Zea mays. The book also discusses the role of the different organelles in development, supporting the idea of topological continuity between the membranes of all the organelles except the mitochondria. Other chapters describe the cytology of oogenesis and fertilization in Pteridium aquilinum; the early events of fertilization in Hydroides and Saccoglossus; and the composition of cell walls of bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Some aspects of the capsules, microcapsules, and sheaths exhibited by some microorganisms are also covered. The last chapters deal with the quantitative aspects of plant cell permeation and permeability function and changes in relation to maturation and growth hormones. The book is an ideal source for cell biologists and researchers, evolutionists, and biochemists.

On the Permeabilisation and Disruption of Cell Membranes by Ultrasound and Microbubbles

On the Permeabilisation and Disruption of Cell Membranes by Ultrasound and Microbubbles Book
Author : Raffi Karshafian
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 9780494677049
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Therapeutic efficacy of drugs depends on their ability to reach the treatment target. Drugs that exert their effect within cells are constrained by an inability to cross the cell membrane. Methods are being developed to overcome this barrier including biochemical and biophysical strategies. The application of ultrasound with microbubbles increases the permeability of cell membranes allowing molecules, which otherwise would be excluded, to enter the intracellular space of cells; a phenomenon known as sonoporation. This thesis describes studies aimed at improving our understanding of the mechanism underpinning sonoporation and of the exposure parameters affecting sonoporation efficiency.Cancer cells (KHT-C) in suspension were exposed to ultrasound and microbubbles--total of 97 exposure conditions. The effects on cells were assessed through uptake of cell-impermeable molecules (10 kDa to 2 MDa FITC-dextran), cell viability and microscopic observations of the plasma membrane using flow cytometry, colony assay and electron microscopy techniques.Sonoporation was a result of the interaction of ultrasound and microbubbles with the cell membrane. Disruptions (30-100 nm) were generated on the cell membrane allowing cell impermeable molecules to cross the membrane. Molecules up to 2 MDa in size were delivered at high efficiency (∼70% permeabilisation). Sonoporation was short lived; cells re-established their barrier function within one minute, which allowed compounds to remain inside the cell. Following uptake, cells remained viable; ∼50% of sonoporated cells proliferated. Sonoporation efficiency depended on ultrasound and microbubble exposure conditions. Microbubble disruption was a necessary but insufficient indicator of ultrasound-induced permeabilisation. The exposure conditions can be tailored to achieve a desired effect; cell permeability of ∼70% with ∼25% cell death versus permeability of ∼35% with ∼2% cell death. In addition, sonoporation depended on position in the cell cycle. Cells in later stages were more prone to being permeabilised and killed by ultrasound and microbubbles. This study indicated that sonoporation can be controlled through exposure parameters and that molecular size may not be a limiting factor. However, the transient nature may necessitate that the drug be in close vicinity to target cells in sonoporation-mediated therapies. Future work will extend the investigation into in vivo models.

Membrane Biomechanics

Membrane Biomechanics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-11-01
ISBN : 0128210222
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Membrane Biomechanics, Volume 86, the latest release in the Current Topics in Membranes series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters on Lipid bilayers: phase behavior and mechanics, Molecular mechanisms of cell membrane structure modification by omega-3 fatty acids, Mechanical properties of magnetoliposomes, Mechanosensitive ion channels and membrane tension, From cell membrane to the nuclear membrane through modulation of cytoskeleton, Endothelial stiffness in dyslipidemia and aging, Vascular smooth muscle stiffness in aging and vascular disease, Mechanobiology of macrovesicle release and activation, Interplay of membrane cholesterol and substrate on vascular smooth muscle mechanics, and more. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Current Topics in Membranes series Includes the latest information on Membrane Biomechanics

Mycoplasma Cell Membranes

Mycoplasma Cell Membranes Book
Author : Shlomo Rottem,Itzahak Kahane
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461529247
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The mycoplasmas, a trivial name used to denote organisms included in the class Mollicutes, are a group of prokaryotic organisms comprising more than 120 species distinguished from ordinary bacteria by their small size and the total lack of cell walls. The absence of a cell wall in mycoplasmas is a characteristic of outstanding importance to which the mycoplasmas owe many of their pecu liarities, for example, their morphological instability, osmotic sensitivity, unique ion pumping systems, resistance to antibiotics that interfere with cell wall bio synthesis, and susceptibility to lysis by detergents and alcohols. The fact that the mycoplasma cells contain only one membrane type, the plasma membrane, constitutes one of their most useful properties for membrane studies; once the membrane is isolated, it is uncontaminated with other mem brane types. Another advantage in using mycoplasmas as models for membrane studies stems from the fact that their membrane lipid composition can be altered in a controlled manner. This characteristic results from the partial or total inabili ty of the mycoplasmas to synthesize long-chain fatty acids and cholesterol, making mycoplasmas dependent on the supply of fatty acids from the growth medium. The ability to introduce controlled alterations in the fatty acid composi tion and cholesterol content of mycoplasma membranes has been utilized in studying the molecular organization and physical properties of biological mem branes.

The Structure and Function of the Membranes and Surfaces of Cells

The Structure and Function of the Membranes and Surfaces of Cells Book
Author : David James Bell,James Kerr Grant
Publisher : CUP Archive
Release : 1963
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Structure and Function of the Membranes and Surfaces of Cells book written by David James Bell,James Kerr Grant, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Basement Membranes

Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Basement Membranes Book
Author : David H Rohrbach
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 0323140548
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Basement Membranes reviews the knowledge about the molecular and cellular aspects of basement membranes. This book focuses on the composition of basement membranes and their organization in extracellular matrices and presents a structural analysis of the various components of the basement membrane. The importance of basement membranes with respect to cell-matrix interactions, differentiation, and pathology is also considered. This text is organized into three sections and is comprised of 20 chapters. It begins with historical perspectives and an overview of the extracellular matrix in general and the basement membrane in particular. The discussion then turns to the organization of basement membrane components into a three-dimensional and functional matrix, along with the unique characteristics of basement membranes in skin, nerve, and kidney. The reader is also introduced to the specificity of particular basement membranes in particular histological sites; the molecular characteristics of basement membrane collagens, laminins, and proteoglycans; and the interaction of specific peptide domains of basement membrane components with cell surface receptors. Finally, the book explains how subtle changes in basement membrane composition or protein structure can cause dramatic pathology. This book will be of value to cell biologists, molecular biologists, biochemists, and pathologists.