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The Life Cycle Of Pharmaceuticals In The Environment

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The Life Cycle of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

The Life Cycle of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment Book
Author : B.M. Peake,R. Braund,Alfred Tong,Louis A Tremblay
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-11-13
ISBN : 190881845X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Life-Cycle of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment identifies pathways of entry of pharmaceuticals into the environment, beginning with the role of global prescribing and disposal practices. The book then discusses typical levels of common pharmaceuticals and how they can be determined in natural waters such as raw and treated sewage, and in potable water. In addition, sections examine methods currently available to degrade pharmaceuticals in natural waters and some of their ecotoxicological impacts, along with future considerations and the growing concept of product stewardship. Encompasses the full lifecycle of common pharmaceuticals, from prescription and dispensing practices to their occurrence in a range of different types of natural waters and their environmental impact Explores the role of the healthcare system and its affect on users Beneficial for environmental engineers involved in the design and operation of appropriate degradation technologies of the pharmaceutical prescription and disposal practices

Designing Sustainable Technologies Products and Policies

Designing Sustainable Technologies  Products and Policies Book
Author : Enrico Benetto,Kilian Gericke,Mélanie Guiton
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-07-03
ISBN : 3319669818
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This open access book provides insight into the implementation of Life Cycle approaches along the entire business value chain, supporting environmental, social and economic sustainability related to the development of industrial technologies, products, services and policies; and the development and management of smart agricultural systems, smart mobility systems, urban infrastructures and energy for the built environment. The book is based on papers presented at the 8th International Life Cycle Management Conference that took place from September 3-6, 2017 in Luxembourg, and which was organized by the Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST) and the University of Luxembourg in the framework of the LCM Conference Series.

Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

Pharmaceuticals in the Environment Book
Author : Klaus Kümmerer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-10-10
ISBN : 3540746641
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Following the success of the first edition, this pioneering study of pharmaceuticals in the environment has been updated and greatly extended. It includes the status of research on pharmaceuticals in soil, with attention to terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as new substance categories such as tetracylines and chinolones and the latest results concerning contamination of the environment and risk reduction.

Pharmaceutical Residues in Freshwater Hazards and Policy Responses

Pharmaceutical Residues in Freshwater  Hazards and Policy Responses Book
Author : Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Publisher : IWA Publishing
Release : 2020-07-15
ISBN : 1789061814
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report calls for a better understanding of the effects of pharmaceutical residues in the environment, greater international collaboration and accountability distribution, and policy actions to prevent and remedy emerging concerns. Laboratory and field tests show traces of oral contraceptives causing the feminisation of fish and amphibians, and residues of psychiatric drugs altering fish behaviour. Antimicrobial resistance, linked to the overuse of antibiotics, has rapidly escalated into a global health crisis. Unless adequate measures are taken to manage the risks, pharmaceutical residues will increasingly be released into the environment as ageing populations, advances in healthcare, and intensification of meat and fish production spur the demand for pharmaceuticals worldwide. The report outlines a collective, life‑cycle approach to managing pharmaceuticals in the environment. A policy mix of source‑directed, use‑orientated and end‑of‑pipe measures, involving several policy sectors, can help to improve health and protect the environment.

Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

Pharmaceuticals in the Environment Book
Author : Klaus Kümmerer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-09
ISBN : 366209259X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Following the success of the first edition, this pioneering study of pharmaceuticals in the environment has been updated and greatly extended. It includes the status of research on pharmaceuticals in soil, with attention to terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as new substance categories such as tetracylines and chinolones and the latest results concerning contamination of the environment and risk reduction.

Pharmaceutical Lifecycle Management

Pharmaceutical Lifecycle Management Book
Author : Tony Ellery,Neal Hansen
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-06-05
ISBN : 0470487534
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A comprehensive guide to optimizing the lifecycle management of pharmaceutical brands The mounting challenges posed by cost containment policies and the prevalence of generic alternatives make optimizing the lifecycle management (LCM) of brand drugs essential for pharmaceutical companies looking to maximize the value of their products. Demonstrating how different measures can be combined to create winning strategies, Pharmaceutical Lifecycle Management: Making the Most of Each and Every Brand explores this increasingly important field to help readers understand what they can—and must—do to get the most out of their brands. Offering a truly immersive introduction to LCM options for pharmaceuticals, the book incorporates numerous real-life case studies that demonstrate successful and failed lifecycle management initiatives, explaining the key takeaway of each example. Filled with practical information on the process of actually writing and presenting an LCM plan, as well as how to link corporate, portfolio, and individual brand strategies, the book also offers a look ahead to predict which LCM strategies will continue to be effective in the future. While the development of new drugs designed to address unmet patient needs remains the single most important goal of any pharmaceutical company, effective LCM is invaluable for getting the greatest possible value from existing brands. Pharmaceutical Lifecycle Management walks you through the process step by step, making it indispensable reading for pharmaceutical executives and managers, as well as anyone working in the fields of drug research, development, and regulation.

Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

Pharmaceuticals in the Environment Book
Author : R E Hester,R M Harrison
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2015-08-27
ISBN : 1782622349
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Medicines play an important role in the treatment and prevention of disease in humans and animals, but residues from these medicines can be released into the environment through a number of routes during their manufacture, use and disposal. It is only recently that the potential environmental impacts of this exposure to pharmaceuticals are being considered. The book explores where pharmaceutical residues can be found, e.g. in surface waters, drinking water, sediments and the marine environment; the sources of these residues, from manufacture through to disposal of unused medicines; how these residues break down; and how this all impacts on wildlife and human health. In reviewing the current position and examining further possible impacts, this book is an important reference for researchers working in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as for environmentalists, policy makers and students on pharmacy and environmental science courses wanting to better understand the impacts of pharmaceuticals on the environment.

Ecopharmacovigilance

Ecopharmacovigilance Book
Author : Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-06-28
ISBN : 3319734768
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The indiscriminate use of medications and their inadequate disposal have resulted in them being released into the environment via municipal, hospital and industrial discharges. This volume critically examines the presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems, the hazards they entail, and how to minimize their impact on the environment. The topics covered include: historical findings that have made the development of the discipline ecopharmacovigilance possible; the main exposure routes, fate and life cycle of pharmaceuticals in water; occurrence data and the impact on biodiversity; methods used for the detection, analysis and quantification of pharmaceuticals in water and for their removal; current legislation on the presence of emerging contaminants in water; biosensors for environmental analysis and monitoring; and the measures needed to reduce the existing problems. This book is aimed at students, academics and research workers in the fields of toxicology, ecology, microbiology and chemistry, as well as those in the pharmaceutical industry, health sector professionals, and members of government bodies involved in environmental protection and legislation.

OECD Studies on Water Pharmaceutical Residues in Freshwater Hazards and Policy Responses

OECD Studies on Water Pharmaceutical Residues in Freshwater Hazards and Policy Responses Book
Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2019-11-13
ISBN : 9264977414
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report calls for a better understanding of the effects of pharmaceutical residues in the environment, greater international collaboration and accountability distribution, and policy actions to prevent and remedy emerging concerns. Laboratory and field tests show traces of oral contraceptives causing the feminisation of fish and amphibians, and residues of psychiatric drugs altering fish behaviour. Antimicrobial resistance, linked to the overuse of antibiotics, has rapidly escalated into a global health crisis.

Life Cycle Assessment LCA of Environmental and Energy Systems

Life Cycle Assessment  LCA  of Environmental and Energy Systems Book
Author : Fabrizio Passarini,Luca Ciacci
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2021-04-01
ISBN : 3036500804
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The transition towards renewable energy sources and “green” technologies for energy generation and storage is expected to mitigate the climate emergency in the coming years. However, in many cases, this progress has been hampered by our dependency on critical materials or other resources that are often processed at high environmental burdens. Yet, many studies have shown that environmental and energy issues are strictly interconnected and require a comprehensive understanding of resource management strategies and their implications. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is among the most inclusive analytical techniques to analyze sustainability benefits and trade-offs within complex systems and, in this Special Issue, it is applied to assess the mutual influences of environmental and energy dimensions. The selection of original articles, reviews, and case studies addressed covers some of the main driving applications for energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions, including power generation, bioenergy, biorefinery, building, and transportation. An insightful perspective on the current topics and technologies, and emerging research needs, is provided. Alone or in combination with integrative methodologies, LCA can be of pivotal importance and constitute the scientific foundation on which a full system understanding can be reached.

Green and Sustainable Pharmacy

Green and Sustainable Pharmacy Book
Author : Klaus Kümmerer,Maximilian Hempel
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-06-16
ISBN : 3642051995
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Within recent years pharmaceuticals have come into focus as contaminants of the environment (see for example Kümmerer, K. editor: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment). At the same time the issue of sustainable chemistry gained momentum. Bringing both together would result in sustainable pharmacy. Sustainable pharmacy is a totally new issue and approach. It addresses environmental, economical and social aspects of pharmacy. In the present stage the focus will be on environmental issues along the whole lifecycle of a pharmaceutical entity. That is dealing with resources and energy input but also with waste issues for example during the synthesis and production of an active pharmaceutical ingredient. Furthermore, it would also look on the compounds themselves and will aim to improve the degradability of the compounds after their use in the environment to reduce the environmental risk caused by pharmaceuticals in the environment. Another issue is the people using pharmaceuticals such as pharmacists, medical doctors and patients. How can they contribute to more efficient use of pharmaceuticals with less environmental burden and less risk for drinking water. The book "Sustainable Pharmacy" will address all these issues and will be the first one dealing with this important topic.

Life Cycle Assessment of Wastewater Treatment

Life Cycle Assessment of Wastewater Treatment Book
Author : Mu. Naushad
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-03-15
ISBN : 1351678272
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Life Cycle Assessment of Wastewater Treatment addresses in detail the required in-depth life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment. This is to meet the special demands placed upon wastewater treatment processes, due to both the limited quantity and often low quality of water supplies. Wastewater management clearly plays a central role in achieving future water security in a world where water stress is expected to increase. Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used as a tool to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with wastewater treatment and potential improvement options. This unique volume will focus on the analysis of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Key Features: Focuses on the analysis of wastewater treatment plants using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach Discusses unconventional water sources such as recycled wastewater, brackish groundwater and desalinated seawater Explains life cycle assessment in detail, which has become one of the reference methods used to assess the environmental performance of processes over their complete life cycle, from raw material extraction, infrastructure construction and operation to final dismantling Explores a technique (LCA) that is becoming increasingly popular amongst researchers in the water treatment field nowadays because of its holistic approach Based on the real life experiences, the subject of wastewater is presented in simple terms and made accessible to anyone willing to learn and experiment

Management of Pharmaceutical Household Waste Limiting Environmental Impacts of Unused or Expired Medicine

Management of Pharmaceutical Household Waste Limiting Environmental Impacts of Unused or Expired Medicine Book
Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2022-05-10
ISBN : 9264651861
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pharmaceutical household waste from expired or unused medicine does not only offer zero therapeutic benefit, but also contributes to environmental pollution when disposed of via improper routes. Medicines discarded in sinks and flushed down toilets enter sewage waters and, if not filtered out, leak into aquatic systems.

Nanoscience and Biotechnology for Environmental Applications

Nanoscience and Biotechnology for Environmental Applications Book
Author : K M Gothandam,Shivendu Ranjan,Nandita Dasgupta,Eric Lichtfouse
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-02-05
ISBN : 3319979221
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the complete guide for readers to understand the applications, and pros and cons of nanotechnology applications in environmental remediation, although there are few critical reviews and textbooks available on environmental biotechnology. Water pollution has become one of the biggest concerns of the world. After the industrialisation and urbanisation, environmental pollution has become an enormous concern. Water pollution results in biomagnifications by entering the food chain. As a result water pollution and its risks need to be considered seriously and solutions need to be researched. This volume looks into such topics as bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, biosensors, and enzyme degradation to find solutions to these problems.

Pharmaceutical Lifecycle Management

Pharmaceutical Lifecycle Management Book
Author : Tony Ellery,Neal Hansen
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-04-16
ISBN : 1118265890
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A comprehensive guide to optimizing the lifecycle management of pharmaceutical brands The mounting challenges posed by cost containment policies and the prevalence of generic alternatives make optimizing the lifecycle management (LCM) of brand drugs essential for pharmaceutical companies looking to maximize the value of their products. Demonstrating how different measures can be combined to create winning strategies, Pharmaceutical Lifecycle Management: Making the Most of Each and Every Brand explores this increasingly important field to help readers understand what they can—and must—do to get the most out of their brands. Offering a truly immersive introduction to LCM options for pharmaceuticals, the book incorporates numerous real-life case studies that demonstrate successful and failed lifecycle management initiatives, explaining the key takeaway of each example. Filled with practical information on the process of actually writing and presenting an LCM plan, as well as how to link corporate, portfolio, and individual brand strategies, the book also offers a look ahead to predict which LCM strategies will continue to be effective in the future. While the development of new drugs designed to address unmet patient needs remains the single most important goal of any pharmaceutical company, effective LCM is invaluable for getting the greatest possible value from existing brands. Pharmaceutical Lifecycle Management walks you through the process step by step, making it indispensable reading for pharmaceutical executives and managers, as well as anyone working in the fields of drug research, development, and regulation.

Wood in Our Future The Role of Life Cycle Analysis

Wood in Our Future  The Role of Life Cycle Analysis Book
Author : Board on Agriculture,National Research Council
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1997-05-12
ISBN : 0309520932
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The United States produces 25% of the world's wood output, and wood supports a major segment of the U.S. industrial base. Trees provide fiber, resins, oils, pulp, food, paper, pharmaceuticals, fuel, many products used in home construction, and numerous other products. The use of wood as a raw material must consider production efficiencies and natural resource conservation as well as efficient, profitable use of solid wood, its residues, and by-products. To better assess the use of wood as a raw material, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service asked the National Research Council's Board on Agriculture to bring together experts to review the analytical techniques used to follow the life-cycle of wood production--from tree to product--and assess the environmental impacts. This resulting book provides a base of current knowledge, identifying what data are lacking, where future efforts should be focused, and what is known about the methodologies used to assess environmental impacts. The book also focuses on national and international efforts to develop integrated environmental, economic, and energy accounting methologies.

Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental Health Perspectives Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1993
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Environmental Health Perspectives book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Analysis Removal Effects and Risk of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle

Analysis  Removal  Effects and Risk of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-11-26
ISBN : 0444626948
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Analysis, Removal, Effects and Risk of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle provides an overview of the current analytical methods for trace determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples. The book also reviews the fate and occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle for their elimination in wastewater and drinking water treatment, focusing on the newest developments in treatment technologies, such as membrane bioreactors and advanced oxidation processes. Pharmaceutically active substances are a class of new, so-called emerging contaminants that have raised great concern in recent years. Human and veterinary drugs are continuously being released into the environment mainly as a result of the manufacturing processes, the disposal of unused or expired products, and via excreta. The analytical methodology for the determination of trace pharmaceuticals in complex environmental matrices is still evolving, and the number of methods described in the literature has grown considerably. This volume leads the way, keeping chemistry students, toxicologists, engineers, wastewater managers and related professionals current with developments in this quickly evolving area. Covers the latest developments in trace determinations Concise and critical compilation of the recent literature Focuses on new treatment technologies

Pharmaceutical Residues in the Environment

Pharmaceutical Residues in the Environment Book
Author : Jolanta Kumirska
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-11-18
ISBN : 3039434853
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pharmaceuticals, due to their pseudo-persistence and biological activity as well as their extensive use in human and veterinary medicine, are a class of environmental contaminants that is of emerging concern. In contrast to some conventional pollutants, they are continuously delivered at low levels, which might give rise to toxicity even without high persistence rates. These chemicals are designed to have a specific physiological mode of action and to resist frequently inactivation before exerting their intended therapeutic effect. These features, among others, result in the bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals which are responsible for toxic effects in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. It is extremely important to know how to remove them from the environment and/or how to implement procedures or treatments resulting in their biological inactivation. Although great advances have been made in their detection in aquatic matrices, there remains limited analytical methodologies available for the trace analysis of target and non-target pharmaceuticals in matrices such as soils, sediments, or biota. There are still many gaps in the data on their fate and behavior in the environment as well as on their threats to ecological and human health. This book has included nine current research and three review articles in this field.

Dangerous Pollutants Xenobiotics in Urban Water Cycle

Dangerous Pollutants  Xenobiotics  in Urban Water Cycle Book
Author : Petr Hlavinek,Ongjen Bonacci,Jiri Marsalek,Ivana Mahrikova
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-12-16
ISBN : 140206795X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is based on the discussions and papers prepared for the NATO Advanced Research Workshop that took place under the auspices of the NATO Security Through Science Programme and addressed urban water management problems. The workshop sought to critically assess the existing knowledge on Xenobiotics in urban water cycle, with respect to diverse conditions in participating countries, and promote close co-operation among scientists with different professional experience.