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The International Cocoa Trade

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The International Cocoa Trade

The International Cocoa Trade Book
Author : Robin Dand
Publisher : Woodhead Pub Limited
Release : 2010-12-07
ISBN : 9780857091253
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

'An overview of the history of cocoa, the factors affecting its production and consumption as well as how the trade is conducted, various risks mitigated, and by whom. .The International Cocoa Trade is a work designed to inform all on the subject of cocoa and an essential guide for those involved in its trade.' Dr J. Vingerhoets, Executive Director, ICCO Cocoa is a valuable commodity, and the cocoa trade involves many different parties from growers and exporters through dealers and factories to those trading futures and options and the banks they deal with. The International Cocoa Trade provides an authoritative and comprehensive review of the cocoa trade at the beginning of the twenty-first century, and the main factors that drive and affect that business. The opening chapter of the third edition examines the history and origins of the international cocoa trade, and its recent developments. The agronomics of cocoa production are discussed in chapter two whilst chapter three deals with the environmental and practical factors affecting cocoa production. Chapters four, five and six cover issues around the export and trading of physical cocoa, including the actuals market, the physical contracts used and the futures and options markets. In chapter seven, the international consumption and stocks of cocoa are reviewed with chapter eight discussing the issue of quality assessment of cocoa beans for international trade. Finally, chapter nine focuses on the end product, examining the processing of cocoa beans and the manufacture of chocolate. Updated appendices provide copies of some of the most important documents used in the cocoa trade, including contracts, sale rules and world production statistics. This comprehensively updated third edition of The International Cocoa Trade ensures its continued status as the standard reference for all those involved in the production consumption and international trading of cocoa. Provides an authoritative and comprehensive review of the cocoa trade at the beginning of the twenty-first century, and the main factors that drive and affect that business Examines the history and origins of the international cocoa trade, and its recent developments featuring a discussion of environmental and practical factors affecting cocoa production Explores issues concerning the export and trading of physical cocoa, including the actuals market, the physical contracts used and the futures and options markets

The International Cocoa Trade

The International Cocoa Trade Book
Author : Robin Dand
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2010-12-07
ISBN : 0857091263
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

‘An overview of the history of cocoa, the factors affecting its production and consumption as well as how the trade is conducted, various risks mitigated, and by whom. ...The International Cocoa Trade is a work designed to inform all on the subject of cocoa and an essential guide for those involved in its trade.’ Dr J. Vingerhoets, Executive Director, ICCO Cocoa is a valuable commodity, and the cocoa trade involves many different parties from growers and exporters through dealers and factories to those trading futures and options and the banks they deal with. The International Cocoa Trade provides an authoritative and comprehensive review of the cocoa trade at the beginning of the twenty-first century, and the main factors that drive and affect that business. The opening chapter of the third edition examines the history and origins of the international cocoa trade, and its recent developments. The agronomics of cocoa production are discussed in chapter two whilst chapter three deals with the environmental and practical factors affecting cocoa production. Chapters four, five and six cover issues around the export and trading of physical cocoa, including the actuals market, the physical contracts used and the futures and options markets. In chapter seven, the international consumption and stocks of cocoa are reviewed with chapter eight discussing the issue of quality assessment of cocoa beans for international trade. Finally, chapter nine focuses on the end product, examining the processing of cocoa beans and the manufacture of chocolate. Updated appendices provide copies of some of the most important documents used in the cocoa trade, including contracts, sale rules and world production statistics. This comprehensively updated third edition of The International Cocoa Trade ensures its continued status as the standard reference for all those involved in the production consumption and international trading of cocoa. Provides an authoritative and comprehensive review of the cocoa trade at the beginning of the twenty-first century, and the main factors that drive and affect that business Examines the history and origins of the international cocoa trade, and its recent developments featuring a discussion of environmental and practical factors affecting cocoa production Explores issues concerning the export and trading of physical cocoa, including the actuals market, the physical contracts used and the futures and options markets

The International Cocoa Trade

The International Cocoa Trade Book
Author : Robin Dand
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 1997-07-09
ISBN : 9780471190554
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

First imported to America more than five hundred years ago and propagated on a small scale until the eighteenth century, cocoa is now one of the most heavily traded food commodities in the world. While potentially very lucrative, trading in cocoa remains a highly complex—and risky—venture, rendered even more so today by a sweeping tide of changes that has dramatically altered its landscape. In The International Cocoa Trade, the first comprehensive resource of its kind, commodity expert Robin Dand provides an all-encompassing guide to the global cocoa industry, delineating and clarifying its various intricacies for all who operate and trade within it. Far more sophisticated than it was just a decade ago, the cocoa market has undergone major shifts—low prices, a decrease in the number of companies trading, and an increase in risk levels—that have not only altered the manner in which its key players conduct business, but have necessitated a better grasp of industry fundamentals by all those involved in the production, trading, and distribution of cocoa. As Dand points out, "The requirement of understanding the cocoa trade is not limited to those in the string of buyers and sellers. There are others outside this chain that now have larger roles in cocoa than in the past, in particular the banks, but also the shipping companies and warehousekeepers." In this complete resource, Dand helps all links in this "chain"—exporters, dealers, brokers, bankers—achieve a better understanding of the market by providing a complete and accessible survey of all its essential components. Casting a wide net, The International Cocoa Trade offers a wealth of information on a variety of important topics, including the history and agronomics of cocoa, exchange rules, trading procedures, prices, and contract specifications. Here's where you'll find in-depth coverage of: Cocoa production—its history, evolution, and recent trends Quality assessment—the cut-test, fault definition and standards, methods of achieving quality cocoa The actuals market—export marketing, trade associations, marketing boards, processing Terminal markets—organization of futures markets, players, trading techniques, options, strike prices, regulatory bodies Contracts—weight and delivery terms, physical option contracts, forms and performance Consumption and stocks—the uses of cocoa, factors affecting consumption, assessment of stock levels, visible and invisible stocks, the International Cocoa Organization and the Buffer Stock. Packed with numerous charts, graphs, and tables, and supported by a complete appendix that covers such vital cocoa contracts as AFCC, CAL, and CMAA, The International Cocoa Trade provides an up-to-date and incisive overview of a market that has grown and changed considerably over the past few years. An indispensable resource for everyone involved in the international trade of cocoa. "Over the past few years the cocoa market has had to alter its manner of operation. . . . [A]ll those in the chain of trade, from the exporter, dealer, broker through to the factory not only have to improve their understanding of the market but also some of the difficulties faced by others in the commodity. It is hoped that this book will help all involved in the international trade of cocoa to achieve this."—from the Preface. The first comprehensive guide of its kind, The International Cocoa Trade provides an in-depth overview of one of the most heavily traded and lucrative commodities on the market, with complete details on: The history and origins of cocoa Agronomics and production Consumption and stocks Physical and terminal markets Trade and contract rules Quality assessment of beans Cocoa bean processing The manufacture of chocolate.

Cocoa Industry

Cocoa Industry Book
Author : United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Publisher : United Nations
Release : 2017-03-02
ISBN : 9210579275
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This publication examines the vertical and horizontal integration in the cocoa industry and its potential impacts on stakeholders along the value chain, in particular small cocoa farmers who constitute the backbone of cocoa production worldwide. It contends that the concentration pattern observed at all segments of cocoa GVC may have contributed to a high level of efficiency, but could become problematic, in particular if it fosters oligopsonic/monopsonic or monopolistic/oligopolistic behaviour in the industry with detrimental effects for small players. It also discusses the extent of integration of cocoa farmers into international markets by assessing the transmission of international cocoa prices to the domestic prices paid to farmers. The results suggest that transmission has increased with trade liberalizing reforms undertaken by cocoa producing countries, but, overall, the outcomes are mixed, so far. The reforms have increased the exposure of farmers to the vagaries of international markets, but they are not associated with a significant, if any, increase in the share of world prices of cocoa accruing to farmers. In order to make cocoa cultivation a more viable source of livelihoods for farmers, and ensure a sustainable global cocoa economy, it would be essential for governments and other stakeholders to implement policies that enable cocoa farmers to increase their incomes. The publication is useful for governments of cocoa producing countries, development practitioners, including agricultural economists and the private sector, with an interest in empowering farmers, and in the development of a sustainable cocoa economy. Ultimately, it should make an invaluable contribution to the debate on how to reduce poverty, and attain the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with their commitment to ''leave no on behind'', especially in cocoa farming communities.

The Economics of Chocolate

The Economics of Chocolate Book
Author : Mara P. Squicciarini,Johan Swinnen
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2016-01-21
ISBN : 0191039918
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book, written by global experts, provides a comprehensive and topical analysis on the economics of chocolate. While the main approach is economic analysis, there are important contributions from other disciplines, including psychology, history, government, nutrition, and geography. The chapters are organized around several themes, including the history of cocoa and chocolate — from cocoa drinks in the Maya empire to the growing sales of Belgian chocolates in China; how governments have used cocoa and chocolate as a source of tax revenue and have regulated chocolate (and defined it by law) to protect consumers' health from fraud and industries from competition; how the poor cocoa producers in developing countries are linked through trade and multinational companies with rich consumers in industrialized countries; and how the rise of consumption in emerging markets (China, India, and Africa) is causing a major boom in global demand and prices, and a potential shortage of the world's chocolate.

The Information Systems of International Inter governmental Organizations

The Information Systems of International Inter governmental Organizations Book
Author : Robert Virgil Williams
Publisher : Greenwood Publishing Group
Release : 1998
ISBN : 9781567503395
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A review of information systems of international inter-governmental organizations. It covers United Nations and UN subsidiary bodies, UN specialized agencies and related organizations, and other inter-governmental organizations such as the Council of Europe and the Organization of African Unity.

Cocoa

Cocoa Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : United Nations Publications
Release : 2001
ISBN : 9789291371631
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This Guide describes trade and industry practices, including regulations that apply to the cocoa business. It discusses customs procedures, systems and techniques used at each stage of the cocoa supply chain, trends in cocoa manufacturing and processing, electronic commerce, cocoa organic farming, fair trade, sustainable production and environmental issues. It also provides a list of the main sector-related trade and industry associations and includes appendices that contain detailed statistical data and list of relevant Internet websites.

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology Book
Author : Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-02-21
ISBN : 1466598239
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

One of the largest food commodities exported from the developing countries to the rest of the world, cocoa has gained increasing attention on the global market—raising many questions about its quality, sustainability and traceability. Cocoa Production and Processing Technology presents detailed explanations of the technologies that could be employed to assure sustainable production of high-quality and safe cocoa beans for the global confectionary industry. It provides overviews of up-to-date technologies and approaches to modern cocoa production practices, global production and consumption trends as well as principles of cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture. The book covers the origin, history and taxonomy of cocoa, and examines the fairtrade and organic cocoa industries and their influence on smallholder farmers. The chapters provide in-depth coverage of cocoa cultivation, harvesting and post-harvest treatments with a focus on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations and their influence on quality, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation techniques, drying, storage and transportation. The author provides details on cocoa fermentation processes as well as the biochemical and microbiological changes involved and how they influence flavour. He also addresses cocoa trading systems, bean selection and quality criteria, as well as industrial processing of fermented and dried cocoa beans into liquor, cake, butter and powder. The book examines the general principles of chocolate manufacture, detailing the various stages of the processes involved, the factors that influence the quality characteristics and strategies to avoid post-processing quality defects. This volume presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product quality.

Cocoa

Cocoa Book
Author : Kristy Leissle
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2018-02-12
ISBN : 1509513205
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Chocolate has long been a favorite indulgence. But behind every chocolate bar we unwrap, there is a world of power struggles and political maneuvering over its most important ingredient: cocoa. In this incisive book, Kristy Leissle reveals how cocoa, which brings pleasure and wealth to relatively few, depends upon an extensive global trade system that exploits the labor of five million growers, as well as countless other workers and vulnerable groups. The reality of this dramatic inequity, she explains, is often masked by the social, cultural, emotional, and economic values humans have placed upon cocoa from its earliest cultivation in Mesoamerica to the present day. Tracing the cocoa value chain from farms in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean, through to chocolate factories in Europe and North America, Leissle shows how cocoa has been used as a political tool to wield power over others. Cocoa's politicization is not, however, limitless: it happens within botanical parameters set by the crop itself, and the material reality of its transport, storage, and manufacture into chocolate. As calls for justice in the industry have grown louder, Leissle reveals the possibilities for and constraints upon realizing a truly sustainable and fulfilling livelihood for cocoa growers, and for keeping the world full of chocolate.

The Nigerian Cocoa Industry and the International Economy in the 1930s

The Nigerian Cocoa Industry and the International Economy in the 1930s Book
Author : Olisa Muojama
Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Release : 2018-07-27
ISBN : 1527515524
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Periodic cycles and waves are characteristics of global capitalism. The contraction in world trade during the Great Depression of the 1930s stands out as the strongest adverse shock to international trade in modern history. This book uses the Nigerian cocoa industry’s encounter with the world economy of the 1930s to knit together a gamut of themes ranging from the social formations of production to the forces of demand and supply, and price fluctuations and stabilization, as well as the protest movements against monopoly capitalism. It examines the Nigerian cocoa industry within the international economy of the inter-war years, in order to demonstrate how the dynamics of the international capitalism of the 1930s such as the Great Depression and the fluctuations in commodity prices affected the cocoa industry and the peasant cocoa producers in colonial Nigeria. It provides an interesting case study of the impact of international capitalism on the periphery economy, as well as the consequences of economic dependence on the external market. This book will be an indispensable resource for historians, economists, anthropologists and the general reader with an interest in the areas of international political economy, depression economics, world commodity trade, and agriculture and its related industries.

Obroni and the Chocolate Factory

Obroni and the Chocolate Factory Book
Author : Steven Wallace
Publisher : Simon and Schuster
Release : 2017-11-21
ISBN : 1510723668
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

What country makes the best chocolate? Most people would answer "Switzerland," or, if they're discerning, "Belgium" or "France." But, how many cocoa trees grow in Zurich? Lyon? Antwerp? Shouldn't the country known for growing the best cocoa beans be the one that makes the best chocolate? So, captivated by theories of international trade but with precious little knowledge of cocoa or chocolate, Steven Wallace set out to build the Omanhene Cocoa Bean Company in Ghana—a country renowned for its cocoa and where Wallace spent part of his youth—in a quest to produce the world's first export-ready, single-origin chocolate bar. What followed would be the true story of an obroni—white person—from Wisconsin taking on the ultimate entrepreneurial challenge. Written with sensitivity and devastating self-awareness, Obroni and the Chocolate Factory is Steven's chaotic, fascinating, and bemusing journey to create a successful international business that aspired to do a bit of good in the world. This book is at once a penetrating business memoir and a story about imagining globalism done right. Wallace's picaresque journey takes him to Ghana's residence for the head of state, to the Amsterdam offices of a secretive international cocoa conglomerate, and face-to-face with key figures in the sharp-elbowed world of global trade and geopolitics. Along the way he'll be forced to deal with bureaucratic roadblocks, a legacy of colonialism, corporate intrigue, inscrutable international politics, a Bond-esque villain nemesis, and constant uncertainty about whether he'll actually pull it off. This rollicking love letter to both Ghana and the world of business is a rare glimpse into the mind of an unusually literate and articulate entrepreneur.

Commodity Market Reforms

Commodity Market Reforms Book
Author : John Baffes,Donald F. Larson,Panos Varangis
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2001-01-01
ISBN : 9780821345887
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Agricultural commodity markets in many developing countries are being reformed and are being based on market forces rather than regulated prices and official monopolies. This book discusses reforms in the markets for cocoa, coffee, cotton, grains, and sugar and looks at the reasons for success and failure.

Annual Report International Cocoa Organization

Annual Report   International Cocoa Organization Book
Author : International Cocoa Organization
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Annual Report International Cocoa Organization book written by International Cocoa Organization, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Encyclopedia of the Developing World

Encyclopedia of the Developing World Book
Author : Thomas M. Leonard
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2006
ISBN : 1579583881
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Collects over 750 entries on the historical and current status of developing countries, topics include civil society, economics, and social progress.

Trading Down

Trading Down Book
Author : Peter Gibbon,Stefano Ponte
Publisher : Temple University Press
Release : 2005
ISBN : 9781592133697
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Examining the changing role of Africa in the global economy.

Beckett s Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use

Beckett s Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use Book
Author : Steve T. Beckett,Mark S. Fowler,Gregory R. Ziegler
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-02-15
ISBN : 1118923588
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since the publication of the first edition of Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use in 1988, it has become the leading technical book for the industry. From the beginning it was recognised that the complexity of the chocolate industry means that no single person can be an expert in every aspect of it. For example, the academic view of a process such as crystallisation can be very different from that of a tempering machine operator, so some topics have more than one chapter to take this into account. It is also known that the biggest selling chocolate, in say the USA, tastes very different from that in the UK, so the authors in the book were chosen from a wide variety of countries making the book truly international. Each new edition is a mixture of updates, rewrites and new topics. In this book the new subjects include artisan or craft scale production, compound chocolates and sensory. This book is an essential purchase for all those involved in the manufacture, use and sale of chocolate containing products, especially for confectionery and chocolate scientists, engineers and technologists working both in industry and academia. The new edition also boasts two new co-editors, Mark Fowler and Greg Ziegler, both of whom have contributed chapters to previous editions of the book. Mark Fowler has had a long career at Nestle UK, working in Cocoa and Chocolate research and development – he is retiring in 2013. Greg Ziegler is a professor in the food science department at Penn State University in the USA.

Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use

Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use Book
Author : S. T. Beckett
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461521114
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use book written by S. T. Beckett, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Chocolate Nations

Chocolate Nations Book
Author : Orla Ryan
Publisher : Zed Books
Release : 2012-04-15
ISBN : 9781780323091
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

FROM BEAN TO BAR - WHERE DOES YOUR CHOCOLATE COME FROM? Chocolate - the very word conjures up a hint of the forbidden and a taste of the decadent. Yet the story behind the chocolate bar is rarely one of luxury... From the thousands of children who work on plantations to the smallholders who harvest the beans, Chocolate Nations reveals the hard economic realities of our favorite sweet. This vivid and gripping exploration of the reasons behind farmer poverty includes the human stories of the producers and traders at the heart of the West African industry. Orla Ryan shows that only a tiny fraction of the cash we pay for a chocolate bar actually makes it back to the farmers, and sheds light on what Fair Trade really means on the ground. Provocative and eye-opening, Chocolate Nations exposes the true story of how the treat we love makes it on to our supermarket shelves.

Chocolate

Chocolate Book
Author : Louis E. Grivetti,Howard-Yana Shapiro
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-09-20
ISBN : 1118210220
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

International Association of Culinary Professionals (IACP) 2010Award Finalists in the Culinary History category. Chocolate. We all love it, but how much do we really knowabout it? In addition to pleasing palates since ancient times,chocolate has played an integral role in culture, society,religion, medicine, and economic development across the Americas,Africa, Asia, and Europe. In 1998, the Chocolate History Group was formed by theUniversity of California, Davis, and Mars, Incorporated to documentthe fascinating story and history of chocolate. This book featuresfifty-seven essays representing research activities andcontributions from more than 100 members of the group. Thesecontributors draw from their backgrounds in such diverse fields asanthropology, archaeology, biochemistry, culinary arts, genderstudies, engineering, history, linguistics, nutrition, andpaleography. The result is an unparalleled, scholarly examinationof chocolate, beginning with ancient pre-Columbian civilizationsand ending with twenty-first-century reports. Here is a sampling of some of the fascinating topics exploredinside the book: Ancient gods and Christian celebrations: chocolate andreligion Chocolate and the Boston smallpox epidemic of 1764 Chocolate pots: reflections of cultures, values, and times Pirates, prizes, and profits: cocoa and early American eastcoast trade Blood, conflict, and faith: chocolate in the southeast andsouthwest borderlands of North America Chocolate in France: evolution of a luxury product Development of concept maps and the chocolate researchportal Not only does this book offer careful documentation, it alsofeatures new and previously unpublished information andinterpretations of chocolate history. Moreover, it offers a wealthof unusual and interesting facts and folklore about one of theworld's favorite foods.

Fair Trade

Fair Trade Book
Author : Alex Nicholls,Charlotte Opal
Publisher : SAGE
Release : 2005-06-07
ISBN : 1446233359
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

'Today, Fair Trade finds itself at a crucial point in its evolution from alternative trading mechanism to a mainstream economic model. As the only certifier in the largest Fair Trade market in the world, TransFair USA has observed the explosive growth in consumer awareness and business interest in Fair Trade certification. New research into the progress of Fair Trade to date and, crucially, its key future directions is urgently needed. Fair Trade is therefore a valuable and timely contribution.The range and depth of the book is considerable. It is international in outlook and engages with a broad spectrum of theory and thinking. Its style is approachable yet rigorous. I would strongly recommend it to industry, academics, students, policy-makers and the interested reader in general' - Paul Rice, CEO, TransFair USA 'This work - a powerful study of the maelstrom of issues and cross currents in the Fair Trade and Development movements is long overdue. Through case studies, quantative analysis and reasoned arguement, this work makes its case with cogent force' - Hamish Renton, Product Manager Food You Can Trust, Tesco 'With the fair trade sector growing rapidly, it is vital that the concept is understood properly and the future potential mapped out. Fair Trade provides a comprehensive guide to all aspects of fair trade which make it a "must read" for everyone from casual buyer right through to seasoned producer. Here's your chance to see how you can easily change the world for the better' - Mel Young, editor-in-chief, New Consumer, Britain's only fair trade magazine, www.newconsumer.org. Fair Trade is at a crucial moment in its evolution from alternative trading mechanism to mainstream economic model. This timely and thoughtful book looks at the strategic future for Fair Trade. Each chapter spearheads a key area of Fair Trade thinking and theory and the political, legal and economic context of Fair Trade is given careful scrutiny. Difficult questions are tackled such as `What is the role and value of corporate social responsibility?' and `What is the brand meaning of Fair Trade?' Throughout, readers are supported by: - Revealing case studies and useful data analysis; - Concise histories of different Fair Trade organisations; - Chapter summaries and conclusions.