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The Human Microbiome In Early Life

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The Human Microbiome in Early Life

The Human Microbiome in Early Life Book
Author : Omry Koren,Samuli Rautava
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-09-18
ISBN : 0128180986
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Human Microbiome in Early Life: Implications to Health and Disease presents recent research advances that have highlighted the significance of early life, possibly beginning before birth, in the establishment of both the microbiome and its role in health and disease. The book reviews current knowledge on the origins of the human microbiota in early life, presents exposures which may disturb normal microbial colonization, and covers their implications to the risk of disease. Finally, emerging means to modify the early human microbiome to improve health are discussed. Examines the timeline of the human microbiome, from before conception to infancy, with an emphasis on clinical implications Evaluates the effort to understand not only the composition but also the origin of the microbiome Proves the emerging means to modify the human microbiome and particularly ‘the first 1000 days of life’ improve human health and prevent disease Generates resources to facilitate characterization of the human microbiota to further our understanding of how the microbiome impacts human health and disease

Environmental Chemicals the Human Microbiome and Health Risk

Environmental Chemicals  the Human Microbiome  and Health Risk Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Advancing Understanding of the Implications of Environmental-Chemical Interactions with the Human Microbiome
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2018-01-29
ISBN : 0309468728
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A great number of diverse microorganisms inhabit the human body and are collectively referred to as the human microbiome. Until recently, the role of the human microbiome in maintaining human health was not fully appreciated. Today, however, research is beginning to elucidate associations between perturbations in the human microbiome and human disease and the factors that might be responsible for the perturbations. Studies have indicated that the human microbiome could be affected by environmental chemicals or could modulate exposure to environmental chemicals. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk presents a research strategy to improve our understanding of the interactions between environmental chemicals and the human microbiome and the implications of those interactions for human health risk. This report identifies barriers to such research and opportunities for collaboration, highlights key aspects of the human microbiome and its relation to health, describes potential interactions between environmental chemicals and the human microbiome, reviews the risk-assessment framework and reasons for incorporating chemicalâ€"microbiome interactions.

Impact of Early Life Nutrition on Immune System Development and Related Health Outcomes in Later Life

Impact of Early Life Nutrition on Immune System Development and Related Health Outcomes in Later Life Book
Author : Laxmi Yeruva,Daniel Munblit,Maria Carmen Collado
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-05-28
ISBN : 2889668134
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Impact of Early Life Nutrition on Immune System Development and Related Health Outcomes in Later Life book written by Laxmi Yeruva,Daniel Munblit,Maria Carmen Collado, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Microbiota in health and disease from pregnancy to childhood

Microbiota in health and disease  from pregnancy to childhood Book
Author : Pamela D. Browne,Eric Claassen,Michael D. Cabana
Publisher : Wageningen Academic Publishers
Release : 2017-07-20
ISBN : 9086868398
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of the vital relationship between human microbiota and infant and child health. Renowned clinical-experimental experts in this field discuss the development of microbiota during early life and review the environmental inputs that affect the developing infant’s gut microbiota, such as early diet and (postnatal) medical interventions. They further describe the interplay between gut microbiota and functional systems of the body, from the immune system to the central nervous system. The book discusses a range of infant and childhood diseases that are associated with microbial changes or dysbiosis, such as gastrointestinal disorders, allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and respiratory disorders. Additionally mechanisms by which microbial dysbiosis may influence behaviour in infants are discussed. Other topics include the use of current tools in molecular microbiology for microbiota-related research and clinical practice. In the management of particular paediatric disorders, the potential of microbial manipulation with pre- and probiotics during infancy and childhood is increasingly being investigated. This book presents the evidence supporting their use in practice and reviews safety aspects. Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood has the ambition to provide the reader with an overview of the most recent and stunning advances in the field of infant and child microbiota and their role in health, disease and prevention. As such, it is an excellent resource for health care professionals, students and researchers in the field of life sciences.

Let Them Eat Dirt

Let Them Eat Dirt Book
Author : B. Brett Finlay,Marie-Claire Arrieta
Publisher : Algonquin Books
Release : 2017-09-05
ISBN : 1616207388
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

“A must-read . . . Takes you inside a child’s gut and shows you how to give kids the best immune start early in life.” —William Sears, MD, coauthor of The Baby Book Like the culture-changing Last Child in the Woods, here is the first parenting book to apply the latest cutting-edge scientific research about the human microbiome to the way we raise our children. In the two hundred years since we discovered that microbes cause infectious diseases, we’ve battled to keep them at bay. But a recent explosion of scientific knowledge has led to undeniable evidence that early exposure to these organisms is beneficial to a child’s well-being. Our modern lifestyle, with its emphasis on hyper-cleanliness, is taking a toll on children’s lifelong health. In this engaging and important book, microbiologists Brett Finlay and Marie-Claire Arrieta explain how the trillions of microbes that live in and on our bodies influence childhood development; why an imbalance of those microbes can lead to obesity, diabetes, and asthma, among other chronic conditions; and what parents can do--from conception on--to positively affect their own behaviors and those of their children. They describe how natural childbirth, breastfeeding, and solid foods influence children’s microbiota. They also offer practical advice on matters such as whether to sterilize food implements for babies, the use of antibiotics, the safety of vaccines, and why having pets is a good idea. Forward-thinking and revelatory, Let Them Eat Dirt is an essential book in helping us to nurture stronger, more resilient, happy, and healthy kids.

Intestinal Microbiome Functional Aspects in Health and Disease

Intestinal Microbiome  Functional Aspects in Health and Disease Book
Author : E. Isolauri,P.M. Sherman,W.A. Walker
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release : 2017-03-27
ISBN : 3318060313
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The intestinal microbiome is especially important during the first thousand days of life. Exposure to microbes in utero significantly impacts fetal development, in part through epigenetic processes and in part through hormonal influences which cause a change in the mother's intestinal microbiome. The nature of delivery and perinatal antibiotic treatment, as well as diet (especially in the postpartum period), can also influence initial microbial colonization and the development of appropriate intestinal defense mechanisms. These, in turn, can affect the expression of allergy, autoimmune disease, and brain function, among other things, later in life. The first part of this publication focuses on the development of the human microbiome in utero and the importance of normal colonization of the newborn gut in immune development and disease prevention. The second section deals with the normal development of gut microbiota and with clinical conditions associated with dysbiosis. The final chapters cover various aspects of human milk evolution and oligosaccharides.

The Human Microbiota in Health and Disease

The Human Microbiota in Health and Disease Book
Author : Mike Wilson
Publisher : Garland Science
Release : 2018-09-03
ISBN : 1351068350
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A human being consists of a mammalian component and a multiplicity of microbes, collectively referred to as the "microbiota" or "microbiome," with which it has a symbiotic relationship. The microbiota is comprised of a variety of communities, the composition of each being dependent on the body site it inhabits. This community variation arises because the numerous locations on a human being provide very different environments, each of which favors the establishment of a distinct microbial community. Each community consists of bacteria, fungi and viruses with, in some cases, archaea and/or protozoa. It is increasingly being recognized that the indigenous microbiota plays an important role in maintaining the health of its human host. However, changes in the overall composition of a microbial community at a body site, or an increase in the proportion of a particular species in that community, can result in disease or other adverse consequences for the host. The Human Microbiota in Health and Disease: An Ecological and Community-Based Approach describes the nature of the various communities inhabiting humans as well as the important roles they play in human health and disease. It discusses techniques used to determine microbial community composition and features a chapter devoted to the many factors that underlie this mammalian–microbe symbiosis. Uniquely, the book adopts an ecological approach to examining the microbial community’s composition at a particular body site and why certain factors can shift a community from a eubiotic to a dysbiotic state. The book is for undergraduates and postgraduates on courses with a module on the indigenous microbiota of humans. It will also be useful to scientists, clinicians, and others seeking information on the human microbiota and its role in health and disease.

The Human Microbiome Handbook

The Human Microbiome Handbook Book
Author : Jason Tetro,Emma Allen-Vercoe
Publisher : DEStech Publications, Inc
Release : 2016-03-15
ISBN : 1605951595
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Critical reference explains strategies of microbiome research in humansSummarizes the microbiome's effects on immunity, metabolism, genetics and psychologyEvaluates medical and nutritional therapies for modifying the microbiomeFor healthcare researchers, nutritionists, microbiologists, and medical professionals Written by a team of leading scientists, this book offers a concise technical reference covering human microbiome research and its ramifications for medicine and nutrition. The initial chapters furnish a scientific explanation of the microbiome in general and its ecology. The book then provides a detailed investigation of microbial populations as these pertain to physiology, metabolism and immunology. The final portions are devoted to exploration of the microbiome's effects on chronic and autoimmune diseases and include assessments of clinical therapies and nutritional interventions designed to alter the microbiome to mitigate chronic health conditions.

Human Microbiome Symbiosis to Pathogenesis

Human Microbiome  Symbiosis to Pathogenesis Book
Author : Learn-Han Lee,Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib,Sunny Hei Wong,Siok-Fong Chin,Vishal Singh
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-03-24
ISBN : 2889666239
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Human Microbiome Symbiosis to Pathogenesis book written by Learn-Han Lee,Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib,Sunny Hei Wong,Siok-Fong Chin,Vishal Singh, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Human Microbiome Diet and Health

The Human Microbiome  Diet  and Health Book
Author : Food Forum,Food and Nutrition Board,Institute of Medicine
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2013-02-27
ISBN : 030926586X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Food Forum convened a public workshop on February 22-23, 2012, to explore current and emerging knowledge of the human microbiome, its role in human health, its interaction with the diet, and the translation of new research findings into tools and products that improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop. Over the two day workshop, several themes covered included: The microbiome is integral to human physiology, health, and disease. The microbiome is arguably the most intimate connection that humans have with their external environment, mostly through diet. Given the emerging nature of research on the microbiome, some important methodology issues might still have to be resolved with respect to undersampling and a lack of causal and mechanistic studies. Dietary interventions intended to have an impact on host biology via their impact on the microbiome are being developed, and the market for these products is seeing tremendous success. However, the current regulatory framework poses challenges to industry interest and investment.

Early life Exposures and Their Impact on Gut Microbiota Assembly

Early life Exposures and Their Impact on Gut Microbiota Assembly Book
Author : Kameron Sugino
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Background: Obesity is a global epidemic and is responsible for increasing burdens on public health. Factors like diet and lifestyle have been investigated as modifiable factors that can help prevent the development of obesity, but another possible mediator of obesity development is the gut microbiome. The gut contains a diverse community of microbes that influences several physiological functions in humans and animals. There have been many studies investigating this association between obesity and the microbiota in adults, however, few studies have been done on the establishment of the infant gut microbiota in the context of its association with maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), breastfeeding and delivery mode. Hypothesis: We expect maternal pre-pregnancy BMI will be associated with altered microbiota composition of women and their children. However, in children, this association will have less of an effect on the gut microbiota than exposure to human milk in the diet.Methods: Fecal samples and participant information were collected from a subset of dyads enrolled in two related prospective cohorts (ARCHGUT and BABYGUT) in Michigan. Sequencing the V4 region of the 16S gene was used to analyze fecal bacterial samples collected from mothers in their third trimester and infants at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months of age. The microbiota data was analyzed using alpha and beta diversity metrics, negative binomial regression to compare taxa abundances between groups and LonGP, a microbiota analysis tool for longitudinal data sets. Results: We found that fecal bacterial communities from overweight women had lower microbiota diversity than communities from normal weight or obese women and beta diversity of overweight women differed from those of normal and obese women at the genus and phylum levels. Infant alpha diversity at 1 month of age differed in membership (Sorensen index) by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI category and also differed by delivery mode and breastfeeding exclusivity. At 6 months of age, fewer infants born to women with pre-pregnancy obesity were breastfeeding compared to infants born to non-obese women (35.7% and 81.8%, respectively). Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and human milk exposure were both significantly associated with alpha and beta diversity of the infant microbiota in univariate analyses. However, in multivariate analyses, human milk exposure accounted for 20% of variation in alpha diversity, but pre-pregnancy BMI was not significantly associated with microbiota diversity. The infant diet at six months was the major determinant of alpha and beta diversity of the infant. In our longitudinal analysis of the infant fecal microbiota from 1 month to 2 years of age, we found that age and participant explained most of the changes in abundance in our dataset. In the top 10 most abundant taxa, human milk exposure and antibiotic exposure at the time of sampling were the only variables important besides age and ID, specifically for Lachnospiraceae unclassified and Bacteroides abundances. Lachnospiraceae abundance was much higher as infants aged, in infants receiving 30.Conclusion: Here, we found several associations between the infant gut microbiota and infant exposures during the first two years of life. Exploring the relationship between gut health and early infant exposures could help develop potential preventative treatments for many gut-linked chronic diseases such as obesity.

The Microbiome

The Microbiome Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-10-23
ISBN : 0128207981
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Microbiome, Volume 176, assembles known facts and provides guidance for their implementation on topics relating to associations between the gut microbiome and personality traits, depression, anxiety, autism, schizophrenia, cognition, dementia and neurodegeneration. Additionally, this volume considers the influence of the maternal microbiome on brain development, with chapters covering Intervention, prevention, and the brain: prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal transplants, The microbiota-gut-brain axis: focus on the fundamental communication pathways, and Microbiome composition and locations. Provides a comprehensive review of the bidirectional interactions between gut microbes and the brain Includes data across the lifespan Focuses on microbiome related therapies with broad appeal within, and beyond, the medical and scientific community

The Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology

The Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology Book
Author : Martin H. Floch,Yehuda Ringel,W. Allen Walker
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-11-16
ISBN : 0128040629
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology: Implications for Human Health, Prebiotics, Probiotics and Dysbiosis is a one-stop reference on the state-of-the-art research on gut microbial ecology in relation to human disease. This important resource starts with an overview of the normal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach, Ileum, and colon. The book then identifies what a healthy vs. unhealthy microbial community looks like, including methods of identification. Also included is insight into which features and contributions the microbiota make that are essential and useful to host physiology, as is information on how to promote appropriate mutualisms and prevent undesirable dysbioses. Through the power of synthesizing what is known by experienced researchers in the field, current gaps are closed, raising understanding of the role of the microbiome and allowing for further research. Explains how to modify the gut microbiota and how the current strategies used to do this produce their effects Explores the gut microbiota as a therapeutic target Provides the synthesis of existing data from both mainstream and non-mainstream sources through experienced researchers in the field Serves as a ‘one-stop’ shop for a topic that’s currently spread across a number of various journals

Host and Microbe Adaptations in the Evolution of Immunity

Host and Microbe Adaptations in the Evolution of Immunity Book
Author : Larry J. Dishaw,Gary W. Litman
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-12-31
ISBN : 2889630226
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The evolution of metazoans has been accompanied by new interfaces with the microbial environment that include biological barriers and surveillance by specialized cell types. Increasingly complex organisms require increased capacities to confront pathogens, achieved by co-evolution of recognition mechanisms and regulatory pathways. Two distinct but interactive forms of immunity have evolved. Innate immunity, shared by all metazoans, is traditionally viewed as simple and non-specific. Adaptive immunity possesses the capacity to anticipate new infectious challenges and recall previous exposures; the most well-understood example of such a system, exhibited by lymphocytes of vertebrates, is based on somatic gene alterations that generate extraordinary specificity in discrimination of molecular structures. Our understanding of immune phylogeny over the past decades has tried to reconcile immunity from a vertebrate standpoint. While informative, such approaches cannot completely address the complex nature of selective pressures brought to bear by the complex microbiota (including pathogens) that co-exist with all metazoans. In recent years, comparative studies (and new technologies) have broadened our concepts of immunity from a systems-wide perspective. Unexpected findings, e.g., genetic expansions of innate receptors, high levels of polymorphism, RNA-based forms of generating diversity, adaptive evolution and functional divergence of gene families and the recognition of novel mediators of adaptive immunity, prompt us to reconsider the very nature of immunity. Even fundamental paradigms as to how the jawed vertebrate adaptive immune system should be structured for “optimal” recognition potential have been disrupted more than once (e.g., the discovery of the multicluster organization and germline joining of immunoglobulin genes in sharks, gene conversion as a mechanism of somatic diversification, absence of IgM or MHC II in certain teleost fishes). Mechanistically, concepts of innate immune memory, often referred to as “trained memory,” have been realized further, with the development of new discoveries in studies of epigenetic regulation of somatic lineages. Immune systems innovate and adapt in a taxon-specific manner, driven by the complexity of interactions with microbial symbionts (commensals, mutualists and pathogens). Immune systems are shaped by selective forces that reflect consequences of dynamic interactions with microbial environments as well as a capacity for rapid change that can be facilitated by genomic instabilities. We have learned that characterizing receptors and receptor interactions is not necessarily the most significant component in understanding the evolution of immunity. Rather, such a subject needs to be understood from a more global perspective and will necessitate re-consideration of the physical barriers that afford protection and the developmental processes that create them. By far, the most significant paradigm shifts in our understanding of immunity and the infection process has been that microbes no longer are considered to be an automatic cause or consequence of illness, but rather integral components of normal physiology and homeostasis. Immune phylogeny has been shaped not only by an arms race with pathogens but also perhaps by mutualistic interactions with resident microbes. This Research Topic updates and extends the previous eBook on Changing Views of the Evolution of Immunity and contains peer-reviewed submissions of original research, reviews and opinions.

Maternal Microbiome in Health and Disease Advances and Possible Outcomes

Maternal Microbiome in Health and Disease  Advances and Possible Outcomes Book
Author : Carla R. Taddei,Laura K. Sycuro,Omry Koren
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2022-05-25
ISBN : 288976222X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Maternal Microbiome in Health and Disease Advances and Possible Outcomes book written by Carla R. Taddei,Laura K. Sycuro,Omry Koren, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Developing Microbiome

The Developing Microbiome Book
Author : Erika Chiong Claud
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-05-23
ISBN : 0128206179
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Developing Microbiome: Lessons from Early Life focuses on the establishment of the microbiome in early life, exposing it as a key mediator of diseases and health throughout the lifecycle. The content presents a comprehensive view of the status of the field and draws real-world correlations to health and disease states. It collates the significant research being done in the pediatric microbiome research space and bridges the knowledge gap showing the factors that impact health and disease states throughout the lifecycle. Finally, it offers knowledge on how the microbiome is and can be manipulated to promote change. This is a perfect reference for both researchers and clinical scientists who are interested in the role of the infant microbiome in health and disease, as well as gastroenterologists and pediatricians looking to affect change in their patients. Provides comprehensive coverage of the factors that influence microbiome development Links research in pediatric patients to later life stages Examines increasing evidence on the impact of the microbiome beyond the gut

The Long and Short Term Dynamics of the Human Gut Microbiome

The Long and Short Term Dynamics of the Human Gut Microbiome Book
Author : Thilini Nilusha Jayasinghe Maddegoda Vidanelage
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The microbiome is closely linked to human health and disease. Research has shown that the microbiome changes throughout life but studies looking at: how early life events influence the differences in the microbial composition in mid-childhood; how the microbiome changes over a long period of time; and whether microbiome transplantation can shift imbalance in the human microbiome are limited. Thus, here I explore short and long-term fluctuations in the human gut microbiome that are associated with early life-events, ageing, and an intervention. Firstly, I hypothesise that adverse early life events in preterm children change the microbial composition, functions and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in midchildhood. My results identified different active microbial species as classifiers of the preterm condition together with functional changes, altered profiles of plasma and faecal amino acids, faecal volatiles and faecal calprotectin levels. I speculate that the pretermspecific changes observed in the active gut microbiome were established in early infancy and are associated with on-going low-grade gut inflammation. Secondly, characterisation of the gut microbial composition of artist Billy Apple® from stool contaminated toilet tissues collected in 1970 and 2016 showed that the microbial composition in 2016 represents 45% of the microbial species in 1970. Moreover, components of Apple‟s microbiome were associated with the allele frequency at seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in his genome confirming that genetics contribute to the selection and maintenance of the microbiome over the artist‟s lifetime. Thirdly, I studied the short- and medium-term effects of lean donor faecal microbiota transplantation on the gut microbiota composition in a group of female adolescents with severe obesity. My results showed that the faecal microbiome transplantation is capable of shifting the recipient microbiota successfully at 6 weeks, postfaecal microbiota transplantation. The engrafted microbiota remained unchanged for half of a year in spite of subtle dietary and environmental changes.

Human Microbiota in Health and Disease

Human Microbiota in Health and Disease Book
Author : Bryan Tungland
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-05-25
ISBN : 0128146508
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Human Gut Microbiota in Health and Disease: From Pathogenesis to Therapy is a comprehensive discussion on all the aspects associated with the early colonization of gut microbiota, its development and maintenance, and its symbiotic relationship with the host in promoting health. Chapters illustrate the complex mechanisms and metabolic signaling pathways related to how the gut microbiota maintain proper regulation of glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis and immune response, all while mediating inflammatory processes involved in the etiology of many chronic disease conditions. With today's common use of pharmaceutical medicine in treating symptoms and frequent overuse of antibiotics in chronic disease within mainstream medical practice, our understanding of the etiological mechanisms of dysbiosis-induced chronic disease and natural approaches to prevention and potential cures for these diseases is of vital importance to overall human health. Details the complex relationship between human microbiota in the gut, oral cavity and skin as well as their colonization, development and impact of factors that influence the relationship Illustrates the mechanisms associated with dysbiosis-associated inflammation and its role in the onset and progression in chronic disease Provides the primary mechanisms and comprehensive scientific evidence for the use of dietary modification and pro- and prebiotics in preventing chronic disease

Patterns and Processes of Community Assembly in the Human Microbiome

Patterns and Processes of Community Assembly in the Human Microbiome Book
Author : Daniel David Sprockett
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The following dissertation presents an overview of host-associated microbial community assembly, focusing on the question: How do you acquire your microbiome, and what determines how it develops and matures over time? Chapter 1 highlights selected concepts in the fields of ecology, microbiology, and immunology that provide context to the subsequent chapters of this dissertation. Chapter 2 provides a conceptual overview of how the timing and order of colonization can impact assembly of the microbiome in early life -- as a phenomenon known as priority effects. I also highlight the importance of both maternal and non-maternal sources of infant-colonizing microbes, and examine factors that may alter assembly patterns, including regional or cultural differences in infant care associated behaviors (ICABs). Chapter 3 details the process of community assembly in a large cohort of indigenous Bolivians called the Tsimane people. I applied a neutral model of community assembly and estimated the relative importance of stochastic dispersal during assembly. I then further used this model to place Tsimane infants in a global context through a comparative analysis with two other large infant populations from Bangladesh and Finland. Finally, I identified microbes that are changing in response to large-scale societal changes experienced by the Tsimane, including increased market access, and speculated on the consequences that these shifts may have on traditional modes of infant colonization. Chapter 4 identifies heritable features of the oral microbiome and oral metabolome using saliva samples collected from the TwinsUK cohort. I report that the saliva of monozygotic twin pairs harbor more similar microbial communities and metabolites, on average, than do dizygotic twins, which is consistent with the hypothesis that there is an affect of host genetics on the oral microbiome and metabolome. I also identified a wide range of heritable bacterial taxa and metabolites present in human saliva using two different statistical approaches for quantifying heritability, Falconer's Heritability (H2) and the A.C.E. model of heritability. A network analysis of the microbial co-occurrence patterns revealed that the majority of species interactions in adult saliva were positive, and that there is also a positive correlation between the heritably of a microbe and the number of positive ecological interactions it participates in with other microbes. Finally, I observed that the three most abundant and prevalent Absconditabacteriales (SR1) ASVs had linear correlations and strong positive associations with Prevotella shahii and Alloprevotella, suggesting that these bacterial taxa may be candidate symbiotic partners of Absconditabacteriales, a highly heritable and prevalent clade in the Candidate Phyla Radiation. Chapter 5 characterizes the effects of dual antibiotic administration of metronidazole and azithromycin versus the standard of care, metronidazole alone, in a randomized controlled trial using a large, multinational cohort of children with Crohn's Disease. We report variable effects of the dual vs. single antibiotics on the gut microbiome, and somewhat limited associations with disease remission or treatment outcome. However, we did observe that the microbiome configurations from patients who went into remission were significantly different between the antibiotic treatment regimens, suggesting that there is no single "remission compatible" microbiome, a finding which should inform the design of future clinical studies. Chapter 6 summarizes what I've learned through the course of this work, and highlights some areas that I think are deserving of more attention in the coming years.

Handbook of Epigenetics

Handbook of Epigenetics Book
Author : Trygve Tollefsbol
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-07-10
ISBN : 0128054778
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Epigenetics: The New Molecular and Medical Genetics, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive analysis of epigenetics, from basic biology, to clinical application. Epigenetics is considered by many to be the new genetics in that many biological phenomena are controlled, not through gene mutations, but rather through reversible and heritable epigenetic processes. These epigenetic processes range from DNA methylation to prions. The biological processes impacted by epigenetics are vast and encompass effects in lower organisms and humans that include tissue and organ regeneration, X-chromosome inactivation, stem cell differentiation, genomic imprinting, and aging. The first edition of this important work received excellent reviews; the second edition continues its comprehensive coverage adding more current research and new topics based on customer and reader reviews, including new discoveries, approved therapeutics, and clinical trials. From molecular mechanisms and epigenetic technology, to discoveries in human disease and clinical epigenetics, the nature and applications of the science is presented for those with interests ranging from the fundamental basis of epigenetics, to therapeutic interventions for epigenetic-based disorders. Timely and comprehensive collection of fully up-to-date reviews on epigenetics that are organized into one volume and written by leading figures in the field Covers the latest advances in many different areas of epigenetics, ranging from basic aspects, to technologies, to clinical medicine Written at a verbal and technical level that can be understood by scientists and college students Updated to include new epigenetic discoveries, newly approved therapeutics, and clinical trials