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The Human Microbiome In Early Life

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The Human Microbiome in Early Life

The Human Microbiome in Early Life Book
Author : Omry Koren,Samuli Rautava
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-09-18
ISBN : 0128180986
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Human Microbiome in Early Life: Implications to Health and Disease presents recent research advances that have highlighted the significance of early life, possibly beginning before birth, in the establishment of both the microbiome and its role in health and disease. The book reviews current knowledge on the origins of the human microbiota in early life, presents exposures which may disturb normal microbial colonization, and covers their implications to the risk of disease. Finally, emerging means to modify the early human microbiome to improve health are discussed. Examines the timeline of the human microbiome, from before conception to infancy, with an emphasis on clinical implications Evaluates the effort to understand not only the composition but also the origin of the microbiome Proves the emerging means to modify the human microbiome and particularly ‘the first 1000 days of life’ improve human health and prevent disease Generates resources to facilitate characterization of the human microbiota to further our understanding of how the microbiome impacts human health and disease

The Developing Microbiome

The Developing Microbiome Book
Author : Erika Chiong Claud
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-06-18
ISBN : 0128206020
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Developing Microbiome: Lessons from Early Life focuses on the establishment of the microbiome in early life, exposing it as a key mediator of diseases and health throughout the lifecycle. The content presents a comprehensive view of the status of the field and draws real-world correlations to health and disease states. It collates the significant research being done in the pediatric microbiome research space and bridges the knowledge gap showing the factors that impact health and disease states throughout the lifecycle. Finally, it offers knowledge on how the microbiome is and can be manipulated to promote change. This is a perfect reference for both researchers and clinical scientists who are interested in the role of the infant microbiome in health and disease, as well as gastroenterologists and pediatricians looking to affect change in their patients. Provides comprehensive coverage of the factors that influence microbiome development Links research in pediatric patients to later life stages Examines increasing evidence on the impact of the microbiome beyond the gut

Patterns and Processes of Community Assembly in the Human Microbiome

Patterns and Processes of Community Assembly in the Human Microbiome Book
Author : Daniel David Sprockett
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The following dissertation presents an overview of host-associated microbial community assembly, focusing on the question: How do you acquire your microbiome, and what determines how it develops and matures over time? Chapter 1 highlights selected concepts in the fields of ecology, microbiology, and immunology that provide context to the subsequent chapters of this dissertation. Chapter 2 provides a conceptual overview of how the timing and order of colonization can impact assembly of the microbiome in early life -- as a phenomenon known as priority effects. I also highlight the importance of both maternal and non-maternal sources of infant-colonizing microbes, and examine factors that may alter assembly patterns, including regional or cultural differences in infant care associated behaviors (ICABs). Chapter 3 details the process of community assembly in a large cohort of indigenous Bolivians called the Tsimane people. I applied a neutral model of community assembly and estimated the relative importance of stochastic dispersal during assembly. I then further used this model to place Tsimane infants in a global context through a comparative analysis with two other large infant populations from Bangladesh and Finland. Finally, I identified microbes that are changing in response to large-scale societal changes experienced by the Tsimane, including increased market access, and speculated on the consequences that these shifts may have on traditional modes of infant colonization. Chapter 4 identifies heritable features of the oral microbiome and oral metabolome using saliva samples collected from the TwinsUK cohort. I report that the saliva of monozygotic twin pairs harbor more similar microbial communities and metabolites, on average, than do dizygotic twins, which is consistent with the hypothesis that there is an affect of host genetics on the oral microbiome and metabolome. I also identified a wide range of heritable bacterial taxa and metabolites present in human saliva using two different statistical approaches for quantifying heritability, Falconer's Heritability (H2) and the A.C.E. model of heritability. A network analysis of the microbial co-occurrence patterns revealed that the majority of species interactions in adult saliva were positive, and that there is also a positive correlation between the heritably of a microbe and the number of positive ecological interactions it participates in with other microbes. Finally, I observed that the three most abundant and prevalent Absconditabacteriales (SR1) ASVs had linear correlations and strong positive associations with Prevotella shahii and Alloprevotella, suggesting that these bacterial taxa may be candidate symbiotic partners of Absconditabacteriales, a highly heritable and prevalent clade in the Candidate Phyla Radiation. Chapter 5 characterizes the effects of dual antibiotic administration of metronidazole and azithromycin versus the standard of care, metronidazole alone, in a randomized controlled trial using a large, multinational cohort of children with Crohn's Disease. We report variable effects of the dual vs. single antibiotics on the gut microbiome, and somewhat limited associations with disease remission or treatment outcome. However, we did observe that the microbiome configurations from patients who went into remission were significantly different between the antibiotic treatment regimens, suggesting that there is no single "remission compatible" microbiome, a finding which should inform the design of future clinical studies. Chapter 6 summarizes what I've learned through the course of this work, and highlights some areas that I think are deserving of more attention in the coming years.

The Long and Short Term Dynamics of the Human Gut Microbiome

The Long and Short Term Dynamics of the Human Gut Microbiome Book
Author : Thilini Nilusha Jayasinghe Maddegoda Vidanelage
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The microbiome is closely linked to human health and disease. Research has shown that the microbiome changes throughout life but studies looking at: how early life events influence the differences in the microbial composition in mid-childhood; how the microbiome changes over a long period of time; and whether microbiome transplantation can shift imbalance in the human microbiome are limited. Thus, here I explore short and long-term fluctuations in the human gut microbiome that are associated with early life-events, ageing, and an intervention. Firstly, I hypothesise that adverse early life events in preterm children change the microbial composition, functions and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in midchildhood. My results identified different active microbial species as classifiers of the preterm condition together with functional changes, altered profiles of plasma and faecal amino acids, faecal volatiles and faecal calprotectin levels. I speculate that the pretermspecific changes observed in the active gut microbiome were established in early infancy and are associated with on-going low-grade gut inflammation. Secondly, characterisation of the gut microbial composition of artist Billy Apple® from stool contaminated toilet tissues collected in 1970 and 2016 showed that the microbial composition in 2016 represents 45% of the microbial species in 1970. Moreover, components of Apple‟s microbiome were associated with the allele frequency at seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in his genome confirming that genetics contribute to the selection and maintenance of the microbiome over the artist‟s lifetime. Thirdly, I studied the short- and medium-term effects of lean donor faecal microbiota transplantation on the gut microbiota composition in a group of female adolescents with severe obesity. My results showed that the faecal microbiome transplantation is capable of shifting the recipient microbiota successfully at 6 weeks, postfaecal microbiota transplantation. The engrafted microbiota remained unchanged for half of a year in spite of subtle dietary and environmental changes.

Intestinal Microbiome Functional Aspects in Health and Disease

Intestinal Microbiome  Functional Aspects in Health and Disease Book
Author : E. Isolauri,P.M. Sherman,W.A. Walker
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release : 2017-03-27
ISBN : 3318060313
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The intestinal microbiome is especially important during the first thousand days of life. Exposure to microbes in utero significantly impacts fetal development, in part through epigenetic processes and in part through hormonal influences which cause a change in the mother's intestinal microbiome. The nature of delivery and perinatal antibiotic treatment, as well as diet (especially in the postpartum period), can also influence initial microbial colonization and the development of appropriate intestinal defense mechanisms. These, in turn, can affect the expression of allergy, autoimmune disease, and brain function, among other things, later in life. The first part of this publication focuses on the development of the human microbiome in utero and the importance of normal colonization of the newborn gut in immune development and disease prevention. The second section deals with the normal development of gut microbiota and with clinical conditions associated with dysbiosis. The final chapters cover various aspects of human milk evolution and oligosaccharides.

Let Them Eat Dirt

Let Them Eat Dirt Book
Author : B. Brett Finlay,Marie-Claire Arrieta
Publisher : Algonquin Books
Release : 2017-09-05
ISBN : 1616207388
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

“A must-read . . . Takes you inside a child’s gut and shows you how to give kids the best immune start early in life.” —William Sears, MD, coauthor of The Baby Book Like the culture-changing Last Child in the Woods, here is the first parenting book to apply the latest cutting-edge scientific research about the human microbiome to the way we raise our children. In the two hundred years since we discovered that microbes cause infectious diseases, we’ve battled to keep them at bay. But a recent explosion of scientific knowledge has led to undeniable evidence that early exposure to these organisms is beneficial to a child’s well-being. Our modern lifestyle, with its emphasis on hyper-cleanliness, is taking a toll on children’s lifelong health. In this engaging and important book, microbiologists Brett Finlay and Marie-Claire Arrieta explain how the trillions of microbes that live in and on our bodies influence childhood development; why an imbalance of those microbes can lead to obesity, diabetes, and asthma, among other chronic conditions; and what parents can do--from conception on--to positively affect their own behaviors and those of their children. They describe how natural childbirth, breastfeeding, and solid foods influence children’s microbiota. They also offer practical advice on matters such as whether to sterilize food implements for babies, the use of antibiotics, the safety of vaccines, and why having pets is a good idea. Forward-thinking and revelatory, Let Them Eat Dirt is an essential book in helping us to nurture stronger, more resilient, happy, and healthy kids.

Microbiota in health and disease from pregnancy to childhood

Microbiota in health and disease  from pregnancy to childhood Book
Author : Pamela D. Browne,Eric Claassen,Michael D. Cabana
Publisher : Wageningen Academic Publishers
Release : 2017-07-20
ISBN : 9086868398
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of the vital relationship between human microbiota and infant and child health. Renowned clinical-experimental experts in this field discuss the development of microbiota during early life and review the environmental inputs that affect the developing infant’s gut microbiota, such as early diet and (postnatal) medical interventions. They further describe the interplay between gut microbiota and functional systems of the body, from the immune system to the central nervous system. The book discusses a range of infant and childhood diseases that are associated with microbial changes or dysbiosis, such as gastrointestinal disorders, allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and respiratory disorders. Additionally mechanisms by which microbial dysbiosis may influence behaviour in infants are discussed. Other topics include the use of current tools in molecular microbiology for microbiota-related research and clinical practice. In the management of particular paediatric disorders, the potential of microbial manipulation with pre- and probiotics during infancy and childhood is increasingly being investigated. This book presents the evidence supporting their use in practice and reviews safety aspects. Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood has the ambition to provide the reader with an overview of the most recent and stunning advances in the field of infant and child microbiota and their role in health, disease and prevention. As such, it is an excellent resource for health care professionals, students and researchers in the field of life sciences.

Impact of Early Life Nutrition on Immune System Development and Related Health Outcomes in Later Life

Impact of Early Life Nutrition on Immune System Development and Related Health Outcomes in Later Life Book
Author : Laxmi Yeruva,Daniel Munblit,Maria Carmen Collado
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-05-28
ISBN : 2889668134
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Impact of Early Life Nutrition on Immune System Development and Related Health Outcomes in Later Life book written by Laxmi Yeruva,Daniel Munblit,Maria Carmen Collado, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Human Microbiome

The Human Microbiome Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-11-17
ISBN : 0128137150
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Methods in Microbiology, Volume 44 presents the latest volume in the most prestigious series devoted to techniques and methodology in the field, with updated chapters that cover Metabolomics and the vaginal microbial ecosystem and health, Esophageal microbiome, Bioinformatics methods, Evolution of biomolecules, genomes and communities, and Gut microbial metabolism or the acquisition of the gut microbiome. Established for over 30 years, this comprehensive series provides ready-to-use recipes, the latest emerging techniques, and novel approaches on tried, tested and established methods. Written by recognized leaders and experts in the field Provides a comprehensive and cutting-edge review of current and emerging technologies in the field of clinical microbiology Presents discussions on newly emerging technologies

COVID 19 A Multidimensional Response

COVID 19  A Multidimensional Response Book
Author : Dr N Udupa,Dr Raviraja N Seetharam,Dr Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay
Publisher : Manipal Universal Press
Release : 2020-09-10
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

COVID-19 disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, first detected in Wuhan, China in November/December 2019. To date, around 15 million+ people are infected with novel coronavirus around the globe and count is going up every passing day. Even though it causes severe respiratory problems, the majority of patients show mild infections and pathogenesis is under investigation. Several drugs are being re-purposed and many of them are undergoing clinical trials, however, currently, there are no approved drugs/vaccines to cure this disease. In this context, ‘COVID-19 A Multidimensional Response’ is an evolving e-book published by Manipal Universal Press with the initiative and editorship of Dr N Udupa, Dr Raviraja N S and Dr Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay, with excellent scientific contribution of experts in the field. The book is a redemptive exercise in creating awareness with facts and figures about the dreaded disease in these troubled times. The book has the information on history and origin of the disease, pathogenicity, host factors, laboratory diagnosis, management, immunoprophylaxis, and newer advancements in research.

Mosaic of Autoimmunity

Mosaic of Autoimmunity Book
Author : Carlo Perricone,Yehuda Shoenfeld
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-02-08
ISBN : 0128143088
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Mosaic of Autoimmunity: The Novel Factors of Autoimmune Diseases describes the multifactorial origin and diversity of expression of autoimmune diseases in humans. The term implies that different combinations of factors in autoimmunity produce varying and unique clinical pictures in a wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases. Most of the factors involved in autoimmunity can be categorized into four groups: genetic, immune defects, hormonal and environmental factors. In this book, the environmental factors are reviewed, including infectious agents, vaccines as triggers of autoimmunity, smoking and its relationship with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel diseases. An entirely new syndrome, the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA), is also included, along with other diseases that are now recognized as having an autoimmune etiopathogenesis. Highlights the concept of the mosaic of autoimmune manifestations Includes new visions on unsuspected molecules Provides updated knowledge to physicians helping patients with autoimmune diseases Presents thorough, up-to-date information on specific diseases, along with clinical applications

Murray Nadel s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine E Book

Murray   Nadel s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine E Book Book
Author : V.Courtney Broaddus,Joel D Ernst,Talmadge E King, Jr,Stephen C. Lazarus,Kathleen F. Sarmiento,Lynn M. Schnapp,Renee D Stapleton,Michael B. Gotway
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2021-05-28
ISBN : 0323655882
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Known for its clear readability, thorough coverage, and expert authorship, Murray & Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine has long been the gold standard text in the fast-changing field of pulmonary medicine. The new 7th Edition brings you fully up to date with newly expanded content, numerous new chapters, a new editorial team, and extensive updates throughout. It covers the entire spectrum of pulmonology in one authoritative point-of-care reference, making it an ideal resource for pulmonary physicians, fellows, and other pulmonary practitioners. Offers definitive, full-color coverage of basic science, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of the full range of respiratory diseases. Provides detailed explanations of each disease entity and differential diagnoses with state-of-the-art, evidence-based content by global leaders in the field. Contains a newly expanded section on common presentations of respiratory disease, plus new chapters on COVID-19, asthma and obesity, airplane travel, lung cancer screening, noninvasive support of oxygenation, lung microbiome, thoracic surgery, inhaled substances, treatment of lung cancer, and more. Covers hot topics such as vaping; advanced ultrasound applications and procedures; interventional pulmonology; immunotherapy; lung cancer targeted therapy; outbreaks, pandemics and bioterrorism; point-of-care ultrasound; use of high-flow oxygen, and more. Includes extensively reorganized sections on basic science, pleural disease, and sleep, with new chapters and approaches to the topics. Features more than 1,450 anatomic, algorithmic, and radiologic images (400 are new!) including CT, PET, MR, and HRCT, plus extensive online-only content: 200 procedural and conceptual videos plus audio clips of lung sounds. Brings you up to date with the latest respiratory drugs, mechanisms of action, indications, precautions, adverse effects, and recommendations, with increased emphasis on algorithms to illustrate decision making.

The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life

The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life Book
Author : Josef Neu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-01-18
ISBN : 0128206098
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life clarifies that the microbiome in the maternal fetal unit and immediate changes that occur as new microbes are acquired postnatally play major roles in subsequent health and disease. Rapidly developing technologies for multi-omic analyses and systems biology are shifting paradigms in both scientific knowledge and clinical care with regard to this topic. In essence, we are changing the idea that newborns emerge from sterile environments. As such, in-utero colonization may have impacts on the development of immunity and metabolism that, with epigenetic modifications, will lead to diseases in later life. In addition, the microbial profile that develops during and after birth depends on mode of delivery, type of feeding (human milk versus formula), and various other environmental factors to which the newborn is exposed. Discusses the critical nonredundant timeframe in a newborn's life during which many factors drive immune and tissue maturation and influence the susceptibility to immune-mediated and other diseases in adult life Proves that the fetus and uterine membranes are exposed to not only microbes in close proximity but also to microbial products from metabolism of microbes in the mother Shows that since early life periods are a critical window for development, epigenetic and/or immunologic alterations may occur that can affect not only the infant during his/her lifetime but also subsequent generations Gives insight into factors that may affect the newborn microbiome and subsequent development

The Gut Brain Axis

The Gut Brain Axis Book
Author : Niall Hyland,Catherine Stanton
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-05-13
ISBN : 0128025441
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Gut-Brain Axis: Dietary, Probiotic, and Prebiotic Interventions on the Microbiota examines the potential for microbial manipulation as a therapeutic avenue in central nervous system disorders in which an altered microbiota has been implicated, and explores the mechanisms, sometimes common, by which the microbiota may contribute to such disorders. Focuses on specific areas in which the microbiota has been implicated in gut-brain communication Examines common mechanisms and pathways by which the microbiota may influence brain and behavior Identifies novel therapeutic strategies targeted toward the microbiota in the management of brain activity and behavior

Grow Healthy Babies

Grow Healthy Babies Book
Author : Michelle Henning,Victor Henning, Ph.D.
Publisher : Rubinen
Release : 2021-01-26
ISBN : 154450781X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A practical, easy guide for expecting parents, Grow Healthy Babies provides clear and simple steps for a healthy pregnancy and preventing chronic diseases including asthma, eczema, and allergies. Written by lifelong allergy sufferers who wanted their own children to grow up healthy, this is the comprehensive guidebook every parent needs. As parents, we wish for our children to live happy, healthy lives - but we are facing an epidemic of chronic diseases. Half of all babies born today will develop allergies, and up to a third will become asthmatic or suffer from eczema. You don't have to accept these odds. Through simple and natural food & lifestyle choices during and after pregnancy, you can lower your baby's risk of developing a chronic illness by up to 90 percent. Referencing over 660 scientific studies, Grow Healthy Babies shows you how. You'll discover: - How friendly bacteria, your microbiome, shape both your and your baby's immune system - Which foods, supplements, birth choices, and feeding practices make a real difference to your baby's health - Why environmental factors and certain household products can trigger chronic disease, and how to choose healthier alternatives This book shows you how to let your and your baby's health flourish, thus increasing your baby's chances of growing up happy, strong, and free from the burden of chronic disease. Praise for Grow Healthy Babies: "This is an impressive book. With the depth and quality of information, logical flow, consistency and balance, this is something that everyone planning a family urgently needs to read. It goes straight to the top of my recommended book list for our students!" - Richard Burton, Founder and Director, Irish Institute of Nutrition & Health "Grow Healthy Babies is a great starting point for those who want to understand how to avoid one of the most mysterious and troublesome trends in modern life: kids that are, with each new generation, more and more allergic—and more vulnerable to inflammatory conditions in general. Many of the recommendations it contains have achieved something like “common sense” status among microbiologists (...) This book is a good evidence-based guide to get parents thinking about how to better play the odds of their children developing allergic and other chronic diseases." - Moises Velasquez-Manoff, Author of An Epidemic of Absence: A New Way of Understanding Allergies And Autoimmune Diseases "This book is a brilliant feat. Michelle and Victor take a huge amount of research and sift through it in a logical way, with a structure that flows clearly. Here's to growing healthy babies and children!" - Simone Davies, Bestselling Author of The Montessori Toddler "A fantastic accomplishment. It is easy to read, incredibly well researched and has enough history, personal touches, and detail to make it an exciting read, not just a simple guideline for new parents. As a physician, I understand the difficulty of explaining very complex issues in a way that can be understood by new parents seeking out the best information to raise healthy children. And as a parent I know how important this information is. This is a truly excellent book and I will definitely be getting copies for all my friends planning to have children." - Dr Lowan Stewart MD, former Clinical Assistant Professor, Oregon Health & Science University; Emergency Physician & Medical Researcher; CSV Regional Medical Center, Santa Fe

The Human Microbiome Diet and Health

The Human Microbiome  Diet  and Health Book
Author : Institute of Medicine,Food and Nutrition Board,Food Forum
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2013-03-13
ISBN : 0309265851
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Food Forum convened a public workshop on February 22-23, 2012, to explore current and emerging knowledge of the human microbiome, its role in human health, its interaction with the diet, and the translation of new research findings into tools and products that improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop. Over the two day workshop, several themes covered included: The microbiome is integral to human physiology, health, and disease. The microbiome is arguably the most intimate connection that humans have with their external environment, mostly through diet. Given the emerging nature of research on the microbiome, some important methodology issues might still have to be resolved with respect to undersampling and a lack of causal and mechanistic studies. Dietary interventions intended to have an impact on host biology via their impact on the microbiome are being developed, and the market for these products is seeing tremendous success. However, the current regulatory framework poses challenges to industry interest and investment.

Premature Rupture of Membranes An Issue of Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics E Book

Premature Rupture of Membranes  An Issue of Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics  E Book Book
Author : Edward Chien
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2020-11-07
ISBN : 0323776604
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In collaboration with Consulting Editor, Dr. William Rayburn, Guest Editor Dr. Edward Chien has created a state-of-the-art monograph that focuses on Premature Rupture of Membranes. The issue separates articles into three sections: Prediction and Prevention, Interventions, and Special Topics, with articles on the following topics: Vaginal Microbiome; Cervical and Fetal Membrane Biomechanics; Management of the Short Cervix, Prolapsing Membranes, and Rescue Cerclage; Time to Deliver: Early - Late Preterm Management; Tocolysis; Use of Corticosteroids in Premature Rupture of Membranes; Antibiotics Prophylaxis for PPROM; Viral Infections (HIV, Hep B, Herpes, HCV); Antenatal Monitoring after PPROM; Periviable PROM; PPROM in Multiple Gestations and after Fetal Surgery; and Neonatal Issues after PPROM. Readers will come away with the current and clinical information they need to improve patient outcomes.

Early life Exposures and Their Impact on Gut Microbiota Assembly

Early life Exposures and Their Impact on Gut Microbiota Assembly Book
Author : Kameron Sugino
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Background: Obesity is a global epidemic and is responsible for increasing burdens on public health. Factors like diet and lifestyle have been investigated as modifiable factors that can help prevent the development of obesity, but another possible mediator of obesity development is the gut microbiome. The gut contains a diverse community of microbes that influences several physiological functions in humans and animals. There have been many studies investigating this association between obesity and the microbiota in adults, however, few studies have been done on the establishment of the infant gut microbiota in the context of its association with maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), breastfeeding and delivery mode. Hypothesis: We expect maternal pre-pregnancy BMI will be associated with altered microbiota composition of women and their children. However, in children, this association will have less of an effect on the gut microbiota than exposure to human milk in the diet.Methods: Fecal samples and participant information were collected from a subset of dyads enrolled in two related prospective cohorts (ARCHGUT and BABYGUT) in Michigan. Sequencing the V4 region of the 16S gene was used to analyze fecal bacterial samples collected from mothers in their third trimester and infants at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months of age. The microbiota data was analyzed using alpha and beta diversity metrics, negative binomial regression to compare taxa abundances between groups and LonGP, a microbiota analysis tool for longitudinal data sets. Results: We found that fecal bacterial communities from overweight women had lower microbiota diversity than communities from normal weight or obese women and beta diversity of overweight women differed from those of normal and obese women at the genus and phylum levels. Infant alpha diversity at 1 month of age differed in membership (Sorensen index) by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI category and also differed by delivery mode and breastfeeding exclusivity. At 6 months of age, fewer infants born to women with pre-pregnancy obesity were breastfeeding compared to infants born to non-obese women (35.7% and 81.8%, respectively). Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and human milk exposure were both significantly associated with alpha and beta diversity of the infant microbiota in univariate analyses. However, in multivariate analyses, human milk exposure accounted for 20% of variation in alpha diversity, but pre-pregnancy BMI was not significantly associated with microbiota diversity. The infant diet at six months was the major determinant of alpha and beta diversity of the infant. In our longitudinal analysis of the infant fecal microbiota from 1 month to 2 years of age, we found that age and participant explained most of the changes in abundance in our dataset. In the top 10 most abundant taxa, human milk exposure and antibiotic exposure at the time of sampling were the only variables important besides age and ID, specifically for Lachnospiraceae unclassified and Bacteroides abundances. Lachnospiraceae abundance was much higher as infants aged, in infants receiving 30.Conclusion: Here, we found several associations between the infant gut microbiota and infant exposures during the first two years of life. Exploring the relationship between gut health and early infant exposures could help develop potential preventative treatments for many gut-linked chronic diseases such as obesity.

The Human Microbiome Handbook

The Human Microbiome Handbook Book
Author : Jason Tetro,Emma Allen-Vercoe
Publisher : DEStech Publications, Inc
Release : 2016-03-15
ISBN : 1605951595
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Critical reference explains strategies of microbiome research in humansSummarizes the microbiome's effects on immunity, metabolism, genetics and psychologyEvaluates medical and nutritional therapies for modifying the microbiomeFor healthcare researchers, nutritionists, microbiologists, and medical professionals Written by a team of leading scientists, this book offers a concise technical reference covering human microbiome research and its ramifications for medicine and nutrition. The initial chapters furnish a scientific explanation of the microbiome in general and its ecology. The book then provides a detailed investigation of microbial populations as these pertain to physiology, metabolism and immunology. The final portions are devoted to exploration of the microbiome's effects on chronic and autoimmune diseases and include assessments of clinical therapies and nutritional interventions designed to alter the microbiome to mitigate chronic health conditions.

The Microbiome

The Microbiome Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-11-01
ISBN : 0128207981
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Microbiome, Volume 176, assembles known facts and provides guidance for their implementation on topics relating to associations between the gut microbiome and personality traits, depression, anxiety, autism, schizophrenia, cognition, dementia and neurodegeneration. Additionally, this volume considers the influence of the maternal microbiome on brain development, with chapters covering Intervention, prevention, and the brain: prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal transplants, The microbiota-gut-brain axis: focus on the fundamental communication pathways, and Microbiome composition and locations. Provides a comprehensive review of the bidirectional interactions between gut microbes and the brain Includes data across the lifespan Focuses on microbiome related therapies with broad appeal within, and beyond, the medical and scientific community