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The History Of Alternative Test Methods In Toxicology

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The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-11-05
ISBN : 9780128136973
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement,Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated, miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing, capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialized areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies. The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now-classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialised areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies. Covers each global region in a systematic fashion, showing how regions compare in terms of problems faced and resolution approaches Includes a thorough chronology of alternatives research, thus providing a complete overview Focuses on methods of direct relevance to humans to address issues of efficacy and waste

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-10-20
ISBN : 0128136987
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement,Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated, miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing, capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialized areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies. The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now-classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialised areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies.

Principles of Toxicology

Principles of Toxicology Book
Author : Stephen M. Roberts,Robert C. James,Phillip L. Williams
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2022-04-26
ISBN : 1119635179
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Principles of Toxicology concisely and efficiently presents the scientific basis for toxicology as it applies to the workplace and the environment, covering diverse chemical hazards encountered in modern workplaces and natural environments and providing a practical understanding of these hazards for those concerned with protecting the health of humans and ecosystems. The work presents not only theory, but also practical information regarding chemical hazards to give the student and new professional a working knowledge of the practice of toxicology and the ability to solve problems in environmental and industrial settings. Case histories and examples from industrial and environmental exposures to chemicals are included to demonstrate the application of toxicological principles. To allow for seamless reader comprehension and further exploration of covered topics, the work is supplemented with numerous illustrations to clarify and summarize key points, as well as annotated bibliographies. In the 4th edition, all chapters and references have been updated to account for the latest scientific thinking, and new color figures have been added. New topics covered in 4th Edition of Principles of Toxicology include: Regulatory toxicology, including the key regulatory framework in which much of the field of toxicology operates Alternative methods in toxicology, including cutting-edge approaches to developing new information on the toxicity of drugs and chemicals The dilemma of selecting safe exposure limits, guiding readers through practical considerations and pitfalls in developing and using safe exposure limits Ecological risk assessment, with detailed discussion of methods and considerations when evaluating the effects of contaminants on plants and animals. Providing information on the principles of toxicology and the application of those principles to solve problems in environmental and industrial settings, Principles of Toxicology serves as an excellent textbook resource for advanced undergraduate, graduate, and professional students in a range of environmental and health fields. It is also valuable to health professionals who need toxicological information and assistance beyond what is found in an introductory text to general toxicology.

Information Resources in Toxicology

Information Resources in Toxicology Book
Author : Steve Gilbert,Asish Mohapatra,Sol Bobst,Antoinette Hayes,Sara T. Humes
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-05-16
ISBN : 0128137258
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This new fifth edition of Information Resources in Toxicology offers a consolidated entry portal for the study, research, and practice of toxicology. Both volumes represents a unique, wide-ranging, curated, international, annotated bibliography, and directory of major resources in toxicology and allied fields such as environmental and occupational health, chemical safety, and risk assessment. The editors and authors are among the leaders of the profession sharing their cumulative wisdom in toxicology’s subdisciplines. This edition keeps pace with the digital world in directing and linking readers to relevant websites and other online tools. Due to the increasing size of the hardcopy publication, the current edition has been divided into two volumes to make it easier to handle and consult. Volume 1: Background, Resources, and Tools, arranged in 5 parts, begins with chapters on the science of toxicology, its history, and informatics framework in Part 1. Part 2 continues with chapters organized by more specific subject such as cancer, clinical toxicology, genetic toxicology, etc. The categorization of chapters by resource format, for example, journals and newsletters, technical reports, organizations constitutes Part 3. Part 4 further considers toxicology’s presence via the Internet, databases, and software tools. Among the miscellaneous topics in the concluding Part 5 are laws and regulations, professional education, grants and funding, and patents. Volume 2: The Global Arena offers contributed chapters focusing on the toxicology contributions of over 40 countries, followed by a glossary of toxicological terms and an appendix of popular quotations related to the field. The book, offered in both print and electronic formats, is carefully structured, indexed, and cross-referenced to enable users to easily find answers to their questions or serendipitously locate useful knowledge they were not originally aware they needed. Among the many timely topics receiving increased emphasis are disaster preparedness, nanotechnology, -omics, risk assessment, societal implications such as ethics and the precautionary principle, climate change, and children’s environmental health. Introductory chapters provide a backdrop to the science of toxicology, its history, the origin and status of toxicoinformatics, and starting points for identifying resources. Offers an extensive array of chapters organized by subject, each highlighting resources such as journals, databases,organizations, and review articles. Includes chapters with an emphasis on format such as government reports, general interest publications, blogs, and audiovisuals. Explores recent internet trends, web-based databases, and software tools in a section on the online environment. Concludes with a miscellany of special topics such as laws and regulations, chemical hazard communication resources, careers and professional education, K-12 resources, funding, poison control centers, and patents. Paired with Volume Two, which focuses on global resources, this set offers the most comprehensive compendium of print, digital, and organizational resources in the toxicological sciences with over 120 chapters contributions by experts and leaders in the field.

Genetic Toxicology Testing

Genetic Toxicology Testing Book
Author : Ray Proudlock
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-05-28
ISBN : 0128010061
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genetic Toxicology Testing: A Laboratory Manual presents a practical guide to genetic toxicology testing of chemicals in a GLP environment. The most commonly used assays are described, from laboratory and test design to results analysis. In a methodical manner, individual test methods are described step-by-step, along with equipment, suggested suppliers, recipes for reagents, and evaluation criteria. An invaluable resource in the lab, this book will help to troubleshoot any assay problems you may encounter to optimise quality and efficiency in your genetic toxicology tests. Genetic Toxicology Testing: A Laboratory Manual is an essential reference for those new to the genetic toxicology laboratory, or anyone involved in setting up their own. Offers practical and consistent guidance on the most commonly-performed tests and procedures in a genetic toxicology lab Describes standard genetic toxicology assays, their methodology, reagents, suppliers, and analysis of their results Includes guidance on general approaches: formulation for in vitro assays, study monitoring, and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) Serves as an essential reference for those new to the genetic toxicology laboratory, or anyone involved in setting up their own lab

Animal Experimentation

Animal Experimentation Book
Author : Kathrin Herrmann,Kimberley Jayne
Publisher : Human-Animal Studies
Release : 2019
ISBN : 9789004356184
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change critically appraises current animal use in science and discusses ways in which we can contribute to a paradigm change towards human-biology based approaches.

An Introduction to Interdisciplinary Toxicology

An Introduction to Interdisciplinary Toxicology Book
Author : Carey N. Pope,Jing Liu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-03-06
ISBN : 0128136022
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An Introduction to Interdisciplinary Toxicology: From Molecules to Man integrates the various aspects of toxicology, from "simple” molecular systems, to complex human communities, with expertise from a spectrum of interacting disciplines. Chapters are written by specialists within a given subject, such as a chemical engineer, nutritional scientist, or a microbiologist, so subjects are clearly explained and discussed within the toxicology context. Many chapters are comparative across species so that students in ecotoxicology learn mammalian toxicology and vice versa. Specific citations, further reading, study questions, and other learning features are also included. The book allows students to concurrently learn concepts in both biomedical and environmental toxicology fields, thus better equipping them for the many career opportunities toxicology provides. This book will also be useful to those wishing to reference how disciplines interact within the broad field of toxicology. Covers major topics and newer areas in toxicology, including nanotoxicology, Tox21, epigenetic toxicology, and organ-specific toxicity Includes a variety of perspectives to give a complete understanding of toxicology Written by specialists within each subject area, e.g., a chemical engineer, to ensure concepts are clearly explained

Prof of Drug Substances Excipients and Related Methodology

Prof  of Drug Substances  Excipients and Related Methodology Book
Author : Abdulrahman Al-Majed
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-01-16
ISBN : 0128241284
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and Related Methodology, Volume 46 contains comprehensive profiles of five drug compounds: Darunavir, Bisoprolol, Betaxolol, Rabeprazole and Irbesartan. In addition, the work contains a chapter reviewing Bioassay Methods and Their Applications in Herbal Drug Research. The comprehensive reviews in the book cover all aspects of drug development and the formulation of drugs, helping readers understand how the drug development community remains essential to all phases of pharmaceutical development. In addition, this work answers why such profiles are of immeasurable importance to workers in the field. The scope of the Profiles series encompasses review articles and database compilations that fall within one or more of the following five broad categories: Physical Profiles of Drug Substances and Excipients, Analytical Profiles of Drug Substances and Excipients, ADME Profiles of Drug Substances and Excipients, Methodology Related to the Characterization of Drug Substances and Excipients, and Methods of Chemical Synthesis. Contains contributions from leading authorities Presents an excellent overview on the physical, chemical and biomedical properties of some regularly prescribed drugs Includes a cumulative index in each volume

Big Data in Predictive Toxicology

Big Data in Predictive Toxicology Book
Author : Andrea-Nicole Richarz,Daniel Neagu
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2019-12-10
ISBN : 1839160829
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The rate at which toxicological data is generated is continually becoming more rapid and the volume of data generated is growing dramatically. This is due in part to advances in software solutions and cheminformatics approaches which increase the availability of open data from chemical, biological and toxicological and high throughput screening resources. However, the amplified pace and capacity of data generation achieved by these novel techniques presents challenges for organising and analysing data output. Big Data in Predictive Toxicology discusses these challenges as well as the opportunities of new techniques encountered in data science. It addresses the nature of toxicological big data, their storage, analysis and interpretation. It also details how these data can be applied in toxicity prediction, modelling and risk assessment. This title is of particular relevance to researchers and postgraduates working and studying in the fields of computational methods, applied and physical chemistry, cheminformatics, biological sciences, predictive toxicology and safety and hazard assessment.

Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century

Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Institute for Laboratory Animal Research,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Toxicity Testing and Assessment of Environmental Agents
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2007-11-05
ISBN : 0309151732
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in molecular biology and toxicology are paving the way for major improvements in the evaluation of the hazards posed by the large number of chemicals found at low levels in the environment. The National Research Council was asked by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to review the state of the science and create a far-reaching vision for the future of toxicity testing. The book finds that developing, improving, and validating new laboratory tools based on recent scientific advances could significantly improve our ability to understand the hazards and risks posed by chemicals. This new knowledge would lead to much more informed environmental regulations and dramatically reduce the need for animal testing because the new tests would be based on human cells and cell components. Substantial scientific efforts and resources will be required to leverage these new technologies to realize the vision, but the result will be a more efficient, informative and less costly system for assessing the hazards posed by industrial chemicals and pesticides.

Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science

Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science Book
Author : Jann Hau,Steven J. Schapiro
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-05-17
ISBN : 0429801599
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Building upon the success of previous editions of the bestselling Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science, first published in 1994, this latest revision combines all three volumes in one definitive guide. It covers the essential principles and practices of Laboratory Animal Science as well as selected animal models in scientific disciplines where much progress has been made in recent years. Each individual chapter focuses on an important subdiscipline of laboratory animal science, and the chapters can be read and used as stand-alone texts, with only limited necessity to consult other chapters for information. With new contributors at the forefront of their fields, the book reflects the scientific and technological advances of the past decade. It also responds to advances in our understanding of animal behavior, emphasizing the importance of implementing the three Rs: replacing live animals with alternative methods, reducing the number of animals used, and refining techniques to minimize animal discomfort. This fourth edition will be useful all over the world as a textbook for laboratory animal science courses for postgraduate and undergraduate students and as a handbook for scientists who work with animals in their research, for university veterinarians, and for other specialists in laboratory animal science.

Microscale Testing in Aquatic Toxicology

Microscale Testing in Aquatic Toxicology Book
Author : Peter G. Wells,Kenneth Lee,Christian Blaise
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-05-04
ISBN : 1351431455
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bioassays are among the ecotoxicologist's most effective weapons in the evaluation of water quality and the assessment of ecological impacts of effluents, chemicals, discharges, and emissions on the aquatic environment. Information on these assessment aids is needed throughout the international scientific and environmental management community. This comprehensive reference provides an excellent overview of the small-scale aquatic bioassay techniques and applications currently in use around the world. This special volume is the result of several years of collaboration between Environment Canada and Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Internationally recognized research scientists at many institutions have contributed to this state-of-the-art examination of the exciting, environmentally important field of microscale testing in aquatic toxicology. Microscale Testing in Aquatic Toxicology contains over forty chapters covering relevant principles, new techniques and recent advancements, and applications in scientific research, environmental management, academia, and the private sector.

Pharmacokinetics and Toxicokinetic Considerations Vol II

Pharmacokinetics and Toxicokinetic Considerations   Vol II Book
Author : Rakesh Kumar Tekade
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2022-02-17
ISBN : 0323913164
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pharmacokinetics and Toxicokinetic Considerations explains the central principles, cutting-edge methodologies, and incipient thought processes applied to toxicology research. As part of the Advances in Pharmaceutical Product Development and Research series, the book provides expert literature on dose, dosage regimen and dose adjustment, medication errors, and approaches for its prevention, the concept of pharmacotherapy, and managed care in clinical interventions. It expounds on strategies to revamp the pharmacokinetics of the drug and the factors affecting the stability of drugs and their metabolites in biological matrices. Finally, the book offers focused elaborations on various bioanalytical methods for bioavailability and bioequivalence assessment and integrates the wide-ranging principles and concepts shared by toxicokinetics and pharmacodynamics as mutual crosstalk rather than isolated observations. It will be helpful to researchers and advanced students working in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, biotechnology, food, and related industries including toxicologists, pharmacists, and pharmacologists. Allows readers to systematically integrate up-to-date research findings into their laboratory work Presents focused explorations of bioanalytical methods for bioavailability and bioequivalence assessment Provides clinical applications of concepts

Hayes Principles and Methods of Toxicology Sixth Edition

Hayes  Principles and Methods of Toxicology  Sixth Edition Book
Author : A. Wallace Hayes,Claire L. Kruger
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-10-10
ISBN : 1842145363
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hayes’ Principles and Methods of Toxicology has long been established as a reliable reference to the concepts, methodologies, and assessments integral to toxicology. The new sixth edition has been revised and updated while maintaining the same high standards that have made this volume a benchmark resource in the field. With new authors and new chapters that address the advances and developments since the fifth edition, the book presents everything toxicologists and students need to know to understand hazards and mechanisms of toxicity, enabling them to better assess risk. The book begins with the four basic principles of toxicology—dose matters, people differ, everything transforms, and timing is crucial. The contributors discuss various agents of toxicity, including foodborne, solvents, crop protection chemicals, radiation, and plant and animal toxins. They examine various methods for defining and measuring toxicity in a host of areas, including genetics, carcinogenicity, toxicity in major body systems, and the environment. This new edition contains an expanded glossary reflecting significant changes in the field. New topics in this edition include: The importance of dose–response Systems toxicology Food safety The humane use and care of animals Neurotoxicology The comprehensive coverage and clear writing style make this volume an invaluable text for students and a one-stop reference for professionals.

Nanomaterials Synthesis Characterization Hazards and Safety

Nanomaterials  Synthesis  Characterization  Hazards and Safety Book
Author : Muhammad Bilal Tahir,Muhammad Sagir,Abdullah M. Asiri
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-02-16
ISBN : 0128238372
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization, Hazards and Safety explains the fundamental properties of nanomaterials, covering their types and classifications. The book includes methods of preparation and characterization of nanostructured materials. It explains the principles and fundamentals of nanomaterials, with information on both pure and composite-based materials with e nanostructures, outlines the latest developments and advances in nanomaterials, and highlights toxic effects and protection. This book is designed to appeal to a wide readership of academic and industrial researchers, focusing on nanotechnology and nanomaterials, sustainable chemistry, energy conversion and storage, nanotechnology, chemical engineering, environmental protection, optoelectronics, sensors, and surface and interface science. Provides information on major concepts and advances made in the areas of nanomaterials properties and nano safety Identifies the major physiochemical properties of nanomaterials Explores the toxicity of different class of nanomaterials and how they can be used safely

Principles and Methods of Toxicology Fifth Edition

Principles and Methods of Toxicology  Fifth Edition Book
Author : A. Wallace Hayes
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2007-09-25
ISBN : 9780849337789
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Founded on the paradox that all things are poisons and the difference between poison and remedy is quantity, the determination of safe dosage forms the base and focus of modern toxicology. In order to make a sound determination there must be a working knowledge of the biologic mechanisms involved and of the methods employed to define these mechanisms. While the vastness of the field and the rapid accumulation of data may preclude the possibility of absorbing and retaining more than a fraction of the available information, a solid understanding of the underlying principles is essential. Extensively revised and updated with four new chapters and an expanded glossary, this fifth edition of the classic text, Principles and Methods of Toxicology provides comprehensive coverage in a manageable and accessible format. New topics include 'toxicopanomics', plant and animal poisons, information resources, and non-animal testing alternatives. Emphasizing the cornerstones of toxicology-people differ, dose matters, and things change, the book begins with a review of the history of toxicology and followed by an explanation of basic toxicological principles, agents that cause toxicity, target organ toxicity, and toxicological testing methods including many of the test protocols required to meet regulatory needs worldwide. The book examines each method or procedure from the standpoint of technique and interpretation of data and discusses problems and pitfalls that may be associated with each. The addition of several new authors allow for a broader and more diverse treatment of the ever-changing and expanding field of toxicology. Maintaining the high-quality information and organizational framework that made the previous editions so successful, Principles and Methods of Toxicology, Fifth Edition continues to be a valuable resource for the advanced practitioner as well as the new disciple of toxicology.

A Framework to Guide Selection of Chemical Alternatives

A Framework to Guide Selection of Chemical Alternatives Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on the Design and Evaluation of Safer Chemical Substitutions: A Framework to Inform Government and Industry Decisions
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2014-10-29
ISBN : 0309310164
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Historically, regulations governing chemical use have often focused on widely used chemicals and acute human health effects of exposure to them, as well as their potential to cause cancer and other adverse health effects. As scientific knowledge has expanded there has been an increased awareness of the mechanisms through which chemicals may exert harmful effects on human health, as well as their effects on other species and ecosystems. Identification of high-priority chemicals and other chemicals of concern has prompted a growing number of state and local governments, as well as major companies, to take steps beyond existing hazardous chemical federal legislation. Interest in approaches and policies that ensure that any new substances substituted for chemicals of concern are assessed as carefully and thoroughly as possible has also burgeoned. The overarching goal of these approaches is to avoid regrettable substitutions, which occur when a toxic chemical is replaced by another chemical that later proved unsuitable because of persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, or other concerns. Chemical alternative assessments are tools designed to facilitate consideration of these factors to assist stakeholders in identifying chemicals that may have the greatest likelihood of harm to human and ecological health, and to provide guidance on how the industry may develop and adopt safer alternatives. A Framework to Guide Selection of Chemical Alternatives develops and demonstrates a decision framework for evaluating potentially safer substitute chemicals as primarily determined by human health and ecological risks. This new framework is informed by previous efforts by regulatory agencies, academic institutions, and others to develop alternative assessment frameworks that could be operationalized. In addition to hazard assessments, the framework incorporates steps for life-cycle thinking - which considers possible impacts of a chemical at all stages including production, use, and disposal - as well as steps for performance and economic assessments. The report also highlights how modern information sources such as computational modeling can supplement traditional toxicology data in the assessment process. This new framework allows the evaluation of the full range of benefits and shortcomings of substitutes, and examination of tradeoffs between these risks and factors such as product functionality, product efficacy, process safety, and resource use. Through case studies, this report demonstrates how different users in contrasting decision contexts with diverse priorities can apply the framework. This report will be an essential resource to the chemical industry, environmentalists, ecologists, and state and local governments.

Present Knowledge in Food Safety

Present Knowledge in Food Safety Book
Author : Michael E. Knowles,Lucia Anelich,Alan Boobis,Bert Popping
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2022-10-08
ISBN : 0128231548
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Present Knowledge in Food Safety: A Risk-Based Approach Through the Food Chain presents approaches for exposure-led risk assessment and the management of changes in the chemical, pathogenic microbiological and physical (radioactivity) contamination of ’food’ at all key stages of production, from farm to consumption. This single volume resource introduces scientific advances at all stages of the production to improve reliability, predictability and relevance of food safety assessments for the protection of public health. This book is aimed at a diverse audience, including graduate and post-graduate students in food science, toxicology, microbiology, medicine, public health, and related fields. The book's reach also includes government agencies, industrial scientists, and policymakers involved in food risk analysis. Includes new technologies such as nanotechnology, genetic modification, and cloning Provides information on advances in pathogen risk assessment through novel and real-time molecular biological techniques, biomarkers, resistance measurement, and cell-to-cell communication in the gut Covers the role of the microbiome and the use of surrogates (especially for viruses)

Validation of Alternative Methods for Toxicity Testing

Validation of Alternative Methods for Toxicity Testing Book
Author : Chantra Eskes,Maurice Whelan
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-09-26
ISBN : 3319338269
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides information on best practices and new thinking regarding the validation of alternative methods for toxicity testing. It covers the validation of experimental and computational methods and integrated approaches to testing and assessment. Validation strategies are discussed for methods employing the latest technologies such as tissue-on-a-chip systems, stem cells and transcriptomics, and for methods derived from pathway-based concepts in toxicology. Validation of Alternative Methods for Toxicity Testing is divided into two sections, in the first, practical insights are given on the state-of-the-art and on approaches that have resulted in successfully validated and accepted alternative methods. The second section focuses on the evolution of validation principles and practice that are necessary to ensure fit-for-purpose validation that has the greatest impact on international regulatory acceptance of alternative methods. In this context validation needs to keep pace with the considerable scientific advancements being made in toxicology, the availability of sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied in a variety of ways, and the increasing societal and regulatory demands for better safety assessment. This book will be a useful resource for scientists in the field of toxicology, both from industry and academia, developing new test methods, strategies or techniques, as well as Governmental and regulatory authorities interested in understanding the principles and practicalities of validation of alternative methods for toxicity testing.