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The History Of Alternative Test Methods In Toxicology

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The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-10-20
ISBN : 0128136987
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement,Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated, miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing, capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialized areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies. The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now-classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialised areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies.

Alternative Toxicological Methods

Alternative Toxicological Methods Book
Author : Harry Salem,Sidney A. Katz
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2003-03-26
ISBN : 9780203008799
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bringing together the recent and relevant contributions of over 125 scientists from industry, government, and academia in North America and Western Europe, Alternative Toxicological Methods explores the development and validation of replacement, reduction, and refinement alternatives (the 3Rs) to animal testing. Internationally recognized scientist

Information Resources in Toxicology

Information Resources in Toxicology Book
Author : Steve Gilbert,Asish Mohapatra,Sol Bobst,Antoinette Hayes,Sara T. Humes
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-05-16
ISBN : 0128137258
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This new fifth edition of Information Resources in Toxicology offers a consolidated entry portal for the study, research, and practice of toxicology. Both volumes represents a unique, wide-ranging, curated, international, annotated bibliography, and directory of major resources in toxicology and allied fields such as environmental and occupational health, chemical safety, and risk assessment. The editors and authors are among the leaders of the profession sharing their cumulative wisdom in toxicology’s subdisciplines. This edition keeps pace with the digital world in directing and linking readers to relevant websites and other online tools. Due to the increasing size of the hardcopy publication, the current edition has been divided into two volumes to make it easier to handle and consult. Volume 1: Background, Resources, and Tools, arranged in 5 parts, begins with chapters on the science of toxicology, its history, and informatics framework in Part 1. Part 2 continues with chapters organized by more specific subject such as cancer, clinical toxicology, genetic toxicology, etc. The categorization of chapters by resource format, for example, journals and newsletters, technical reports, organizations constitutes Part 3. Part 4 further considers toxicology’s presence via the Internet, databases, and software tools. Among the miscellaneous topics in the concluding Part 5 are laws and regulations, professional education, grants and funding, and patents. Volume 2: The Global Arena offers contributed chapters focusing on the toxicology contributions of over 40 countries, followed by a glossary of toxicological terms and an appendix of popular quotations related to the field. The book, offered in both print and electronic formats, is carefully structured, indexed, and cross-referenced to enable users to easily find answers to their questions or serendipitously locate useful knowledge they were not originally aware they needed. Among the many timely topics receiving increased emphasis are disaster preparedness, nanotechnology, -omics, risk assessment, societal implications such as ethics and the precautionary principle, climate change, and children’s environmental health. Introductory chapters provide a backdrop to the science of toxicology, its history, the origin and status of toxicoinformatics, and starting points for identifying resources. Offers an extensive array of chapters organized by subject, each highlighting resources such as journals, databases,organizations, and review articles. Includes chapters with an emphasis on format such as government reports, general interest publications, blogs, and audiovisuals. Explores recent internet trends, web-based databases, and software tools in a section on the online environment. Concludes with a miscellany of special topics such as laws and regulations, chemical hazard communication resources, careers and professional education, K-12 resources, funding, poison control centers, and patents. Paired with Volume Two, which focuses on global resources, this set offers the most comprehensive compendium of print, digital, and organizational resources in the toxicological sciences with over 120 chapters contributions by experts and leaders in the field.

Principles and Methods of Toxicology Fifth Edition

Principles and Methods of Toxicology  Fifth Edition Book
Author : A. Wallace Hayes
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2007-09-25
ISBN : 1420005421
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Founded on the paradox that all things are poisons and the difference between poison and remedy is quantity, the determination of safe dosage forms the base and focus of modern toxicology. In order to make a sound determination there must be a working knowledge of the biologic mechanisms involved and of the methods employed to define these mechanisms. While the vastness of the field and the rapid accumulation of data may preclude the possibility of absorbing and retaining more than a fraction of the available information, a solid understanding of the underlying principles is essential. Extensively revised and updated with four new chapters and an expanded glossary, this fifth edition of the classic text, Principles and Methods of Toxicology provides comprehensive coverage in a manageable and accessible format. New topics include 'toxicopanomics', plant and animal poisons, information resources, and non-animal testing alternatives. Emphasizing the cornerstones of toxicology-people differ, dose matters, and things change, the book begins with a review of the history of toxicology and followed by an explanation of basic toxicological principles, agents that cause toxicity, target organ toxicity, and toxicological testing methods including many of the test protocols required to meet regulatory needs worldwide. The book examines each method or procedure from the standpoint of technique and interpretation of data and discusses problems and pitfalls that may be associated with each. The addition of several new authors allow for a broader and more diverse treatment of the ever-changing and expanding field of toxicology. Maintaining the high-quality information and organizational framework that made the previous editions so successful, Principles and Methods of Toxicology, Fifth Edition continues to be a valuable resource for the advanced practitioner as well as the new disciple of toxicology.

Reducing Refining and Replacing the Use of Animals in Toxicity Testing

Reducing  Refining and Replacing the Use of Animals in Toxicity Testing Book
Author : Dave Allen,Mike D Waters
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 1849737924
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Toxicity testing is used to assess the safety or hazards presented by substances such as industrial chemicals, consumer products, and pharmaceuticals. At present, many methods involve laboratory animals. Alternative procedures, some involving human cell-based technologies, are now being developed which reduce, refine, or replace animal usage and minimize the pain and distress caused. These new tests must protect public health and the environment at least as well as currently accepted methods. This book describes the ever-expanding "toolbox" of methods available to assess toxicity. Such techniques often result from our growing understanding of the biochemical and cellular pathways that mediate toxicity mechanisms. This permits evaluations of information generated from several sources to generate a "weight of evidence". By combining in silico, in vitro, and ex vivo methods with technologies that rely on biochemical- and cell-based in vitro assays, toxicologists are developing mechanistically based alternatives to live animal experimentation. This text also explores the complexities associated with adequate validation, and the assessment of test reliability and relevance. It provides an essential reference source for postgraduates, academics and industrialists working in this rapidly changing area.

The Status of Alternative Methods in Toxicology

The Status of Alternative Methods in Toxicology Book
Author : Diana Anderson,Tanya Russell
Publisher :
Release : 1995
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book discusses the status of alternative methods in toxicology and outlines the most well established and most promising in vitro tests currently available.

Non Animal Techniques in Biomedical and Behavioral Research and Testing

Non Animal Techniques in Biomedical and Behavioral Research and Testing Book
Author : Michael Kapis,Shayne C. Gad
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1993-06-24
ISBN : 9781439810903
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Non-Animal Techniques in Biomedical and Behavioral Research and Testing features the contributions of noted experts describing the application of non-animal methods in a wide variety of research and testing situations, including computer modeling/graphics, protein sequence analysis, behavioral analysis, drug design/testing, cosmetic and household products testing, toxicological testing, clinical testing, chemical identification and analysis, and disease investigations. Many of the alternatives covered have applications in behavioral as well as biomedical research and testing. Topics examined include in vitro techniques, molecular genetics, structure-activity relationships, physicochemical methods, computer-assisted drug designs, nutrition, epidemiology, autopsies, neural networks, ethology, image scanning devices, and medical microbiology. Future applications for non-animal methods are also explored. The book will appeal to toxicologists, pharmacologists, cosmetic and household product researchers, epidemiologists, medical microbiologists, biopsychiatrists, biomedical and psychological educators, biochemists, molecular geneticists, and other scientists interested in alternative testing methods.

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Book
Author : George W. Ware
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461226562
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

International concern in scientific, industrial, and governmental communi ties over traces of xenobiotics in foods and in both abiotic and biotic en vironments has justified the present triumvirate of specialized publications in this field: comprehensive reviews, rapidly published research papers and progress reports, and archival documentations. These three international publications are integrated and scheduled to provide the coherency essential for nonduplicative and current progress in a field as dynamic and complex as environmental contamination and toxicology. This series is reserved ex clusively for the diversified literature on "toxic" chemicals in our food, our feeds, our homes, recreational and working surroundings, our domestic an imals, our wildlife and ourselves. Tremendous efforts worldwide have been mobilized to evaluate the nature, presence, magnitude, fate, and toxicology of the chemicals loosed upon the earth. Among the sequelae of this broad new emphasis is an undeniable need for an articulated set of authoritative publications, where one can find the latest irr,portant world literature pro duced by these emerging areas of science together with documentation of pertinent ancillary legislation. Research directors and legislative or administrative advisers do not have the time to scan the escalating number of technical publications that may contain articles impbrtant to current responsibility. Rather, these individuals need the background provided by detailed reviews and the assurance that the latest information is made available to them, all with minimal literature searching.

Principles of Toxicology Testing

Principles of Toxicology Testing Book
Author : Frank A Barile
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2013-04-02
ISBN : 1842145290
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nationally, toxicology programs have evolved from a traditional exploration of the chemistry and applied toxicity of chemicals and drugs to a more comprehensive study of toxicology and toxicology testing as independent entities. Consequently, the second edition of Principles of Toxicology Testing starts with basic toxicological principles, includin

Proceedings

Proceedings Book
Author : Indian National Science Academy
Publisher :
Release : 2001
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals Section 4 Test No 438 Isolated Chicken Eye Test Method for Identifying i Chemicals Inducing Serious Eye Damage and ii Chemicals Not Requiring Classification for Eye Irritation or Serious Eye Damage

OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals  Section 4 Test No  438  Isolated Chicken Eye Test Method for Identifying i  Chemicals Inducing Serious Eye Damage and ii  Chemicals Not Requiring Classification for Eye Irritation or Serious Eye Damage Book
Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2018-06-27
ISBN : 9264203869
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Isolated Chicken Eye Test (ICE) Method is an in vitro test method that can be used to identify chemicals (substances or mixtures) as either 1) causing “serious eye damage” (category 1 of the Globally Harmonised System for the Classification and ...

ATLA

ATLA Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2002
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Blast

Blast Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2002
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Benchmarks

Benchmarks Book
Author : Myron A. Mehlman
Publisher : Princeton Scientific Pub
Release : 1989
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :