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The Global Carbon Cycle

The Global Carbon Cycle Book
Author : David Archer
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2010-11-01
ISBN : 1400837073
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Global Carbon Cycle is a short introduction to this essential geochemical driver of the Earth's climate system, written by one of the world's leading climate-science experts. In this one-of-a-kind primer, David Archer engages readers in clear and simple terms about the many ways the global carbon cycle is woven into our climate system. He begins with a concise overview of the subject, and then looks at the carbon cycle on three different time scales, describing how the cycle interacts with climate in very distinct ways in each. On million-year time scales, feedbacks in the carbon cycle stabilize Earth's climate and oxygen concentrations. Archer explains how on hundred-thousand-year glacial/interglacial time scales, the carbon cycle in the ocean amplifies climate change, and how, on the human time scale of decades, the carbon cycle has been dampening climate change by absorbing fossil-fuel carbon dioxide into the oceans and land biosphere. A central question of the book is whether the carbon cycle could once again act to amplify climate change in centuries to come, for example through melting permafrost peatlands and methane hydrates. The Global Carbon Cycle features a glossary of terms, suggestions for further reading, and explanations of equations, as well as a forward-looking discussion of open questions about the global carbon cycle.

Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change

Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change Book
Author : K. Ia Kondratev,Kirill I͡Akovlevich Kondratʹev,Kirill Y. Kondratyev,Kirill Ja Kondratʹev,Vladimir F. Krapivin,Costas Varotsos,Kōnstantinos Barōtsos
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2003-09-24
ISBN : 9783540008095
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Professor Kondratyev and his team consider the concept of global warming due to the greenhouse effect and put forward a new approach to the problem of assessing the impact of anthropogenic processes. Considering data on both sources and sinks for atmospheric carbon and various conceptual schemes of the global carbon dioxide cycle, they suggest a new approach to studies of the problem of the greenhouse effect. They assess the role of different types of soil and vegetation in the assimilation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and discuss models of the atmosphere ocean gas exchange and its role in the carbon dioxide cycle, paying special attention to the role of the Arctic Basin. The authors also consider models of other global atmospheric cycles for a range of atmospheric constituents, and conclude by drawing together a range of scenarios on modelling the global carbon cycle.

Radiocarbon and Climate Change

Radiocarbon and Climate Change Book
Author : Edward A.G. Schuur,Ellen R.M. Druffel,Susan E. Trumbore
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-05-17
ISBN : 3319256432
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is a useful guide for researchers in ecology and earth science interested in the use of accelerator mass spectrometry technology. The development of research in radiocarbon measurements offers an opportunity to address the human impact on global carbon cycling and climate change. Presenting radiocarbon theory, history, applications, and analytical techniques in one volume builds a broad outline of the field of radiocarbon and its emergent role in defining changes in the global carbon cycle and links to climate change. Each chapter presents both classic and cutting-edge studies from different disciplines involving radiocarbon and carbon cycling. The book also includes a chapter on the history and discovery of radiocarbon, and advances in radiocarbon measurement techniques and radiocarbon theory. Understanding human alteration of the global carbon cycle and the link between atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and climate remains one of the foremost environmental problems at the interface of ecology and earth system science. Many people are familiar with the terms ‘global warming’ and ‘climate change’, but fewer are able to articulate the science that support these hypotheses. This book addresses general questions such as: what is the link between the carbon cycle and climate change; what is the current evidence for the fate of carbon dioxide added by human activities to the atmosphere, and what has caused past changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide? How can the radiocarbon and stable isotopes of carbon combined with other tools be used for quantifying the human impact on the global carbon cycle?

The Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change

The Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change Book
Author : David E. Reichle
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-11-12
ISBN : 0128217677
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change examines the global carbon cycle and the energy balance of the biosphere, following carbon and energy through increasingly complex levels of metabolism from cells to ecosystems. Utilizing scientific explanations, analyses of ecosystem functions, extensive references, and cutting-edge examples of energy flow in ecosystems, it is an essential resource to aid in understanding the scientific basis of the role played by ecological systems in climate change. This book addresses the need to understand the global carbon cycle and the interrelationships among the disciplines of biology, chemistry, and physics in a holistic perspective. The Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change is a compendium of easily accessible, technical information that provides a clear understanding of energy flow, ecosystem dynamics, the biosphere, and climate change. "Dr. Reichle brings over four decades of research on the structure and function of forest ecosystems to bear on the existential issue of our time, climate change. Using a comprehensive review of carbon biogeochemistry as scaled from the physiology of organisms to landscape processes, his analysis provides an integrated discussion of how diverse processes at varying time and spatial scales function. The work speaks to several audiences. Too often students study their courses in a vacuum without necessarily understanding the relationships that transcend from the cellular process, to organism, to biosphere levels and exist in a dynamic atmosphere with its own processes, and spatial dimensions. This book provides the template whereupon students can be guided to see how the pieces fit together. The book is self-contained but lends itself to be amplified upon by a student or professor. The same intellectual quest would also apply for the lay reader who seeks a broad understanding." --W.F. Harris| Deputy Assistant Director, Biological Sciences, National Science Foundation (Retired); Associate Vice Chancellor for Research, University of Tennessee, Knoxville (Retired) Provides clear explanations, examples, and data for understanding fossil fuel emissions affecting atmospheric CO2 levels and climate change, and the role played by ecosystems in the global cycle of energy and carbon Presents a comprehensive, factually based synthesis of the global cycle of carbon in the biosphere and the underlying scientific bases Includes clear illustrations of environmental processes

Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle

Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle Book
Author : Brian J. McPherson,Eric T. Sundquist
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-05-02
ISBN : 1118671791
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 183. For carbon sequestration the issues of monitoring, risk assessment, and verification of carbon content and storage efficacy are perhaps the most uncertain. Yet these issues are also the most critical challenges facing the broader context of carbon sequestration as a means for addressing climate change. In response to these challenges, Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle presents current perspectives and research that combine five major areas: The global carbon cycle and verification and assessment of global carbon sources and sinks Potential capacity and temporal/spatial scales of terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage Assessing risks and benefits associated with terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage Predicting, monitoring, and verifying effectiveness of different forms of carbon storage Suggested new CO2 sequestration research and management paradigms for the future. The volume is based on a Chapman Conference and will appeal to the rapidly growing group of scientists and engineers examining methods for deliberate carbon sequestration through storage in plants, soils, the oceans, and geological repositories.

The Global Carbon Cycle

The Global Carbon Cycle Book
Author : Christopher B. Field,Michael R. Raupach
Publisher : Island Press
Release : 2012-09-26
ISBN : 1610910753
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

While a number of gases are implicated in global warming, carbon dioxide is the most important contributor, and in one sense the entire phenomena can be seen as a human-induced perturbation of the carbon cycle. The Global Carbon Cycle offers a scientific assessment of the state of current knowledge of the carbon cycle by the world's leading scientists sponsored by SCOPE and the Global Carbon Project, and other international partners. It gives an introductory over-view of the carbon cycle, with multidisciplinary contributions covering biological, physical, and social science aspects. Included are 29 chapters covering topics including: an assessment of carbon-climate-human interactions; a portfolio of carbon management options; spatial and temporal distribution of sources and sinks of carbon dioxide; socio-economic driving forces of emissions scenarios. Throughout, contributors emphasize that all parts of the carbon cycle are interrelated, and only by developing a framework that considers the full set of feedbacks will we be able to achieve a thorough understanding and develop effective management strategies. The Global Carbon Cycle edited by Christopher B. Field and Michael R. Raupach is part of the Rapid Assessment Publication series produced by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), in an effort to quickly disseminate the collective knowledge of the world's leading experts on topics of pressing environmental concern.

Climate Change and the Oceanic Carbon Cycle

Climate Change and the Oceanic Carbon Cycle Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018-05
ISBN : 9781642240689
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The carbon cycle in the Earth System constitutes a fundamental, pressing research topic in modern Earth system science. The greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) provide an important forcing factor of the global climate, which, on the other hand, controls the sources and sinks of these gases. In addition, the carbon cycle is currently being seriously perturbed by direct and indirect emissions from human activities. Unraveling and quantifying these interactions and feedbacks is essential to understand the climate history of the Earth, but also to predict its evolution in the future. The ocean is important to climate change and global warming-as a storer and transporter of heat and carbon-but our understanding of the operative processes is inadequate to make predictions with the required skill. CO2 increases will lead to the increased carbon storage by the land and ocean. Climate change will reduce the land and ocean's capacity to absorb atmospheric CO2 due to the increasing temperatures of both the land and ocean and increasing oceanic stratification. The ocean, which has absorbed 27.9% of the anthropogenic CO2 in the past 200 years, plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle. Climate Change and the Oceanic Carbon Cycle provides complete understanding of the variables and consequences of oceanic carbon cycling in the context of climate change. It reviews the ocean's role in the global CO2 cycle and climate change; describe the importance of mesoscale processes in the ocean; examine the main pathways of carbon exchange between the ocean surface layer and the ocean interior; analyze the scales of the physical processes involved in nutrient limitation of the "biological pump"; and review the implications for climate change. The contributed chapters explores the importance of marine plankton in carbon processing as well as the effects of rising CO2 and temperature in their functioning.

Recarbonization of the Biosphere

Recarbonization of the Biosphere Book
Author : Rattan Lal,Klaus Lorenz,Reinhard F. Hüttl,Bernd Uwe Schneider,Joachim von Braun
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-03-28
ISBN : 9400741596
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Human activities are significantly modifying the natural global carbon (C) cycles, and concomitantly influence climate, ecosystems, and state and function of the Earth system. Ever increasing amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) are added to the atmosphere by fossil fuel combustion but the biosphere is a potential C sink. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of C cycling in the biosphere is crucial for identifying and managing biospheric C sinks. Ecosystems with large C stocks which must be protected and sustainably managed are wetlands, peatlands, tropical rainforests, tropical savannas, grasslands, degraded/desertified lands, agricultural lands, and urban lands. However, land-based sinks require long-term management and a protection strategy because C stocks grow with a progressive improvement in ecosystem health.

North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle

North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle Book
Author : U. S. Climate Program
Publisher : CreateSpace
Release : 2015-02-16
ISBN : 9781508499800
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The carbon cycle chapter of the Strategic Plan for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) describes a plan to produce ..".a series of increasingly comprehensive and informative reports about the status and trends of carbon emissions and sequestration," each to be called a State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR). The Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group's (CCIWG) Terms of Reference (TOR)1 for a first SOCCR elaborated this in June 2003, saying that what is envisioned is ..".a series of reports on the state of the carbon cycle designed to provide accurate, unbiased, and policy-relevant scientific information concerning the carbon cycle to a broad range of stakeholders. The two broad objectives for a State of the Carbon Cycle Report are (1) to summarize scientific knowledge about carbon cycle properties and changes, and (2) to provide scientific information for decision support and policy formulation concerning carbon." The first SOCCR will be CCSP Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP) 2.2. The carbon cycle chapter of the CCSP Strategic Plan describes a long-term vision to regularly produce a comprehensive report on the state of the global carbon cycle within 10 years and projects that a near-term, prototype report focused on North America can be produced within 2 years. SAP 2.2 will summarize substantive information about North America's carbon budget. It also will serve as a prototype for future enhancement and extension to a global report. Subsequent reports are expected to evolve based on the lessons learned in producing earlier reports. SAP 2.2 will provide a synthesis and integration of the current knowledge of the North American (including land, atmosphere, and adjacent oceans) carbon budget and its context within the global carbon cycle. In a format useful to decisionmakers, it will (1) summarize our knowledge of carbon cycle properties and changes relevant to the contributions of and impacts2 upon the United States and the rest of the world, and (2) provide scientific information for U.S. decision support focused on key issues for carbon management and policy. SAP 2.2 will address carbon emissions; natural reservoirs and sequestration; rates of transfer; the consequences of changes in carbon cycling on land and the ocean; effects of purposeful carbon management; effects of agriculture, forestry, and natural resource management on the carbon cycle; and the socio-economic drivers and consequences of changes in the carbon cycle. It will cover North America's land, atmosphere, inland waters, and adjacent oceans. It will include an analysis of North America's carbon budget that will document the state of knowledge and quantify best estimates (i.e., consensus, accepted, official) and uncertainties. This analysis will provide a baseline against which future results from the North American Carbon Program (NACP) can be compared. SAP 2.2 will be coordinated with other CCSP synthesis and assessment products as appropriate.

Green Carbon Part 1

Green Carbon Part 1 Book
Author : Brendan Mackey,Heather Keith,Sandra L. Berry,David B. Lindenmayer
Publisher : ANU E Press
Release : 2008-08-01
ISBN : 1921313889
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The colour of carbon matters. Green carbon is the carbon stored in the plants and soil of natural ecosystems and is a vital part of the global carbon cycle. This report is the first in a series that examines the role of natural forests in the storage of carbon, the impacts of human land use activities, and the implications for climate change policy nationally and internationally. REDD ("reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation") is now part of the agenda for the "Bali Action Plan" being debated in the lead-up to the Copenhagen climate change conference in 2009. Currently, international rules are blind to the colour of carbon so that the green carbon in natural forests is not recognized, resulting in perverse outcomes including ongoing deforestation and forest degradation, and the conversion of extensive areas of land to industrial plantations. This report examines REDD policy from a green carbon scientific perspective. Subsequent reports will focus on issues concerning the carbon sequestration potential of commercially logged natural forests, methods for monitoring REDD, and the long term implications of forest policy and management for the global carbon cycle and climate change.

The Ocean Carbon Cycle and Climate

The Ocean Carbon Cycle and Climate Book
Author : Mick Follows,Temel Oguz
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1402020872
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Our desire to understand the global carbon cycle and its link to the climate system represents a huge challenge. These overarching questions have driven a great deal of scientific endeavour in recent years: What are the basic oceanic mechanisms which control the oceanic carbon reservoirs and the partitioning of carbon between ocean and atmosphere? How do these mechanisms depend on the state of the climate system and how does the carbon cycle feed back on climate? What is the current rate at which fossil fuel carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans and how might this change in the future? To begin to answer these questions we must first understand the distribution of carbon in the ocean, its partitioning between different ocean reservoirs (the "solubility" and "biological" pumps of carbon), the mechanisms controlling these reservoirs, and the relationship of the significant physical and biological processes to the physical environment. The recent surveys from the JGOFS and WOCE (Joint Global Ocean Flux Study and World Ocean Circulation Ex periment) programs have given us a first truly global survey of the physical and biogeochemical properties of the ocean. These new, high quality data provide the opportunity to better quantify the present oceans reservoirs of carbon and the changes due to fossil fuel burning. In addition, diverse process studies and time-series observations have clearly revealed the complexity of interactions between nutrient cycles, ecosystems, the carbon-cycle and the physical envi ronment.

CO2 Rising

CO2 Rising Book
Author : Tyler Volk
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2010-09-24
ISBN : 026226501X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An introduction to the global carbon cycle and the human-caused disturbances to it that are at the heart of global warming and climate change. The most colossal environmental disturbance in human history is under way. Ever-rising levels of the potent greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) are altering the cycles of matter and life and interfering with the Earth's natural cooling process. Melting Arctic ice and mountain glaciers are just the first relatively mild symptoms of what will result from this disruption of the planetary energy balance. In CO2 Rising, scientist Tyler Volk explains the process at the heart of global warming and climate change: the global carbon cycle. Vividly and concisely, Volk describes what happens when CO2 is released by the combustion of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas), letting loose carbon atoms once trapped deep underground into the interwoven web of air, water, and soil. To demonstrate how the carbon cycle works, Volk traces the paths that carbon atoms take during their global circuits. Showing us the carbon cycle from a carbon atom's viewpoint, he follows one carbon atom into a leaf of barley and then into an alcohol molecule in a glass of beer, through the human bloodstream, and then back into the air. He also compares the fluxes of carbon brought into the biosphere naturally against those created by the combustion of fossil fuels and explains why the latter are responsible for rising temperatures. Knowledge about the global carbon cycle and the huge disturbances that human activity produces in it will equip us to consider the hard questions that Volk raises in the second half of CO2 Rising: projections of future levels of CO2; which energy systems and processes (solar, wind, nuclear, carbon sequestration?) will power civilization in the future; the relationships among the wealth of nations, energy use, and CO2 emissions; and global equity in per capita emissions. Answering these questions will indeed be our greatest environmental challenge.

Land cover change vegetation dynamics and the global carbon cycle

Land cover change  vegetation dynamics and the global carbon cycle Book
Author : H. Damon Matthews
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This thesis explores the role of terrestrial vegetation in the global climate system in a series of modelling studies using the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM). The ways that vegetation affects climate, as well as the feedbacks that operate between changing climate and vegetation distributions, are investigated within the framework of three foci: 1) historical land cover changes that have resulted from human modification of natural vegetation cover; 2) historical land cover change and the dynamics of terrestrial vegetation in the context of anthropogenic and natural climate change; and 3) the role of terrestrial vegetation in the global carbon cycle. First, the radiative effect of changing human land-use patterns on the climate of the past 300 years is discussed through analysis of a series of equilibrium and transient climate simulations using the UVic ESCM. These experiments highlight the biogeophysical effects of historical land cover change on climate: those that result from physical changes to the land surface under altered vegetation cover. Results show a global cooling in the range of -0.06 to -0.22 "C, though this effect is not found to be detectable in observed temperature trends. Using a global carbon cycle the climatic effects of land cover change emissions (the biogeochemical effect of historical land cover change) are assessed. The resultant warming is found to exceed the biogeophysical cooling by 0.15 "C. Second, the effect of historical land cover change is compared with the effects of natural forcings (volcanic aerosols, solar insolation variability and orbital changes) and other anthropogenic forcings (greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols). Transient model runs from the year 1700 to 2000 are presented for each forcing individually as well as for combinations of forcings. I find that the UVic model reproduces well the global temperature data when all forcings are included. In the context of these anthropogenic and natural climate influences, the response of vegetation distributions to changing climate is explored through the use of a dynamic global vegetation model coupled interactively to the UVic ESCM. Transient simulations of the past 300 years are repeated using this new model so as to isolate the biogeophysical feedbacks that operate between vegetation and climate. Dynamic vegetation is found to act as a positive feedback to climate, amplifying both warming and cooling climate trends. Third, the development of a global carbon cycle model allows for investigation of the role of terrestrial carbon cycle dynamics under past and future climate change. When forced by historical emissions of C02 from fossil fuels and land-use change, the coupled carbon cycle model accurately reproduces historical atmospheric C02 trends, as well as terrestrial and oceanic uptake for the past two decades. Under six 21St century C02 emissions scenarios, both terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks continue to increase, though terrestrial uptake slows in the latter half of the century. The modelled positive feedback between the carbon cycle and climate is relatively small, resulting in an increase in simulated C02 of 60 ppmv at the year 2100. Including non- C02 greenhouse gas forcing and increasing the model's climate sensitivity increases the effect of this feedback to 140 ppmv. The UVic model does not, however, simulate a switch from a terrestrial carbon sink to a source during the 2lSt century, as earlier studies have suggested. This can be explained by a lack of substantial reductions in simulated vegetation productivity due to climate changes.

Radiocarbon and Climate Change

Radiocarbon and Climate Change Book
Author : Aaron Brookes
Publisher : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Release : 2017-08-11
ISBN : 9781979721714
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book includes a chapter on the history and discovery of radiocarbon, and advances in radiocarbon measurement techniques and radiocarbon theory. Understanding human alteration of the global carbon cycle and the link between atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and climate remains one of the foremost environmental problems at the interface of ecology and earth system science. Many people are familiar with the terms 'global warming' and 'climate change', but fewer are able to articulate the science that support these hypotheses. This book addresses general questions such as: what is the link between the carbon cycle and climate change; what is the current evidence for the fate of carbon dioxide added by human activities to the atmosphere, and what has caused past changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide? How can the radiocarbon and stable isotopes of carbon combined with other tools be used for quantifying the human impact on the global carbon cycle?

The Global Carbon Cycle

The Global Carbon Cycle Book
Author : Martin Heimann
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 3642846084
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is the outcome of a NAill Advanced Study Institute on the contemporary glo bal carbon cycle, held in n Ciocco, Italy, September 8-20, 1991. The motivation for this ASI originated from recent controversial findings regarding the relative roles of the ocean and the land biota in the current global balance of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Consequently, the pur pose of this institute was to review, among leading experts in the field, the multitude of known constraints on the present day global carbon cycle as identified by the fields of meteorology, physical and biological oceanography, geology and terrestrial biosphere sciences. At the same time the form of an Advanced Study Institute was chosen, thus providing the opportunity to convey the information in tutorial form across disciplines and to young researchers entering the field. The first three sections of this book contain the lectures held in II Ciocco. The first sec tion reviews the atmospheric, large-scale global constraints on the present day carbon cycle including the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use and it provides a brief look into the past. The second section discusses the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the third the role of the ocean in the contemporary global carbon cycle.

The Carbon Cycle

The Carbon Cycle Book
Author : Peter Folger
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbon is stored in the atmosphere, in the oceans, in vegetation, and in soils on the land surface. Huge quantities of carbon are actively exchanged between the atmosphere and the other storage pools of carbon. The exchange, or flux, of carbon between the atmosphere, oceans, and land surface is called the carbon cycle. In sheer magnitude, human activities contribute a relatively small amount of carbon, primarily as carbon dioxide (CO2), to the global carbon cycle. Burning fossil fuels, for example, adds less than 5% to the total amount of CO2 released from the oceans and land surface to the atmosphere each year. If humans add only a small amount of CO2 to the atmosphere each year, why is that contribution important to global climate change? In short, the oceans, vegetation, and soils cannot consume carbon released from human activities quickly enough to stop CO2 from accumulating in the atmosphere. Humans tap the huge pool of fossil carbon for energy, and affect the global carbon cycle by transferring fossil carbon -- which took millions of years to accumulate -- into the atmosphere over a relatively short time span. As a result, the atmosphere contains 100 parts per million more today (380 ppm vs 280 ppm) than prior to the beginning of the industrial revolution. As the CO2 concentration grows it increases the radiative forcing (more incoming radiation energy than outgoing) of the atmosphere, warming the planet. In response, Congress is considering legislative strategies that would reduce U.S. emissions of CO2, or increase the uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere, or both. Less than half of the total amount of CO2 released from burning fossil fuels during the past 250 years has remained in the atmosphere because two huge reservoirs for carbon -- the global oceans and the land surface -- take up more carbon than they release. They are net sinks for carbon. If the oceans, vegetation, and soils did not accumulate as much carbon as they do today, then the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere would increase even more rapidly. A key issue to consider is whether these two sinks will continue to store carbon at the same rate over the next few decades. Will the sinks remove more, less, or the same amount of CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion each year? Currently, most of the total global carbon sink is referred to as the unmanaged, or background, carbon cycle. Very little carbon is removed from the atmosphere and stored, or sequestered, by deliberate action. Congress may opt to consider how land management practices, such as afforestation, conservation tillage, and other techniques, might increase the net flux of carbon from the atmosphere to the land surface. How the ocean sink could be managed to store more carbon is unclear. Iron fertilization and deep ocean injection of CO2 are in an experimental stage, and their promise for long-term enhancement of carbon uptake by the oceans is not well understood. Congress may consider incorporating what is known about the carbon cycle into its legislative strategies, and may also evaluate whether the global carbon cycle is sufficiently well understood so that the consequences of long-term policies aimed at mitigating global climate change are fully appreciated.

Global Climate Change and Response of Carbon Cycle in the Equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans and Adjacent Landmasses

Global Climate Change and Response of Carbon Cycle in the Equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans and Adjacent Landmasses Book
Author : Hodaka Kawahata,Yoshio A. Awaya
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2006-12-08
ISBN : 9780080469416
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

To understand the global warming mechanism, global mapping of primary production was carried out under the GCMAPS program. The program was concerned with marine and terrestrial environmental changes, which affect carbon cycle on the regional and global scales. On the regional scale, warm phase of ENSO (El Niño / Southern Oscillation) has been shown to affect economic activities in many countries. The keyword for understanding mechanism of global warming is ‘primary productivity’. The earth observation satellites (EOS) like the ADEOS of Japan, and the SeaWiFS, Sea Star and Terra of the U.S.A. provided much required data for modeling and verification of primary production estimates on both land and ocean. The knowledge gained during the GCMAPS program has been documented in this book. Interpretation of the data suggests that global warming, which causes temperature and sea level rise, and changes in climate and ecosystems, is likely to have the largest influence on mankind. The first half of this book discuss changes in marine environments. Physical and chemical oceanographic properties of the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans are presented. Changes in partial pressure of carbon dioxide, flux and composition of settling particles and biological communities in the surface ocean have also been discussed. In addition to this, over hundred years of environmental records based upon coral skeletons are presented. Estimations of primary production and its utilization in validating satellite imagery data were conducted in the western North Pacific. Primary productivity estimates based upon the validated satellite imagery are presented on the global scale. Climate change modeling of primary production in global oceans is also presented. The latter half of this book deals with changes in terrestrial environments. Primary productivity estimates for different types of ecosystems (e.g., forest, grassland) are presented together with soil carbon dynamics. Also, biomass and productivity estimation and environmental monitoring based upon remote sensing techniques are presented with a model analysis of the relationship between climate perturbations and carbon budget anomalies in global terrestrial ecosystems. This book elucidates integrated aspects of the global carbon cycle involving marine and terrestrial environments. Discusses a current understanding of the biogeochemical processes on land and ocean Provides global mapping of primary production based on satellite imagery data and modelling Presents the latest interpretations of relationships between carbon cycle and climatic change

The First State of the Carbon Cycle Report Soccr

The First State of the Carbon Cycle Report Soccr Book
Author : United States Climate Change Science Program
Publisher : CreateSpace
Release : 2015-02-03
ISBN : 9781507829936
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

North America is currently a net source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, contributing to the global buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and associated changes in the Earth's climate. In 2003, North America emitted nearly two billion metric tons of carbon to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. North America's fossil-fuel emissions in 2003 were 27% of global emissions. The combustion of fossil fuels for commercial energy (primarily electricity) is the single largest contributor, accounting for approximately 42% of North American fossil emissions in 2003. Transportation is the second largest, accounting for 31% of total emissions. In 2003, growing vegetation in North America removed approximately 500 million tons of carbon per year (± 50%) from the atmosphere and stored it as plant material and soil organic matter. This land sink is equivalent to approximately 30% of the fossil-fuel emissions from North America. Approximately 50% of North America's terrestrial sink is due to the regrowth of forests in the United States on former agricultural land that was last cultivated decades ago, and on timberland recovering from harvest. The contribution of forest regrowth is expected to decline as the maturing forests grow more slowly and take up less carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. But, how regrowing forests and other sinks will respond to changes in climate and carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere is highly uncertain. The large difference between current sources and sinks and the expectation that the difference could become larger if the growth of fossil-fuel emissions continues and land sinks decline suggest that addressing imbalances in the North American carbon budget will likely require actions focused on reducing fossil-fuel emissions. Options to enhance sinks (growing forests or sequestering carbon in agricultural soils) can contribute, but enhancing sinks alone is likely insufficient to deal with either the current or future imbalance. Options to reduce emissions include efficiency improvement, fuel switching, and technologies such as carbon capture and geological storage. Implementing these options will likely require an array of policy instruments at local, regional, national, and international levels, ranging from the encouragement of voluntary actions to economic incentives, tradable emissions permits, and regulations. Meeting the demand for information by decision makers will likely require new modes of research characterized by close collaboration between scientists and carbon management stakeholders. A primary objective of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is to provide the best possible scientific information to support public discussion, as well as government and private sector decision making, on key climate-related issues. To help meet this objective, the CCSP has identified an initial set of 21 Synthesis and Assessment Products (SAPs) that address its highest priority research, observation, and decision support needs. This report—CCSP SAP 2.2—addresses Goal 2 of the CCSP Strategic Plan: Improve quantification of the forces bringing about changes in the Earth's climate and related systems. The report provides a synthesis and integration of the current knowledge of the North American carbon budget and its context within the global carbon cycle. This report addresses carbon emissions; natural reservoirs and sequestration (absorption and storage); rates of transfer; the consequences of changes in carbon cycling on land and the ocean; effects of purposeful carbon management; effects of agriculture, forestry, and natural resource management on the carbon cycle; and the socio-economic drivers and consequences of changes in the carbon cycle. It covers North America's land, atmosphere, inland waters, and coastal oceans, where “North America” is defined as Canada, the United States of America (excluding Hawaii), and Mexico.

Carbon Sequestration for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

Carbon Sequestration for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Book
Author : David A. N. Ussiri,Rattan Lal
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-03-28
ISBN : 3319538454
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides an understanding of the role of human activities in accelerating change in global carbon cycling summarizes current knowledge of the contemporary carbon budget. Starting from the geological history, this volume follows a multidisciplinary approach to analyze the role of human activities in perturbing carbon cycling by quantifying changes in different reservoirs and fluxes of carbon with emphasis on the anthropogenic activities, especially after the industrial revolution. It covers the role of different mitigation options – natural ecological, engineered, and geoengineered processes as well as the emerging field of climate engineering in avoiding dangerous abrupt climate change. Although the targeted audience is the educators, students, researchers and scientific community, the simplified analysis and synthesis of current and up to date scientific literature makes the volume easier to understand and a tool policy makers can use to make an informed policy decisions.