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The Future of Soil Carbon

The Future of Soil Carbon Book
Author : Carlos Garcia,Paolo Nannipieri,Teresa Hernandez
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-04-10
ISBN : 0128116889
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Future of Soil Carbon: Its Conservation and Formation provides readers with an integrative approach to understanding the important role of organic carbon in soil functioning and fertility. Terrestrial interactions between SOC and complex human-natural systems require new fundamental and applied research into regional and global SOC budgets. This book provides new and synthesized information on the dynamics of SOC in the terrestrial environment. In addition to rigorous state-of-the art on soil science, the book also provides strategies to avoid risks of soil carbon losses. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a vital component of soils, with important and far-reaching effects on the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Human activities over the last several decades have significantly changed the regional and global balance of SOC, greatly exacerbating global warming and climate change. Provides a holistic overview of soil carbon status and main threats for its conservation Offers innovative solutions to conserve soil carbon Includes in-depth treatment of regional and global changes in soil organic carbon budget

Soil Carbon Management

Soil Carbon Management Book
Author : John M. Kimble,Charles W. Rice,Debbie Reed,Sian Mooney,Ronald F. Follett,Rattan Lal
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2007-05-21
ISBN : 1420044095
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Better Manage Soil C for Improved Soil Quality In the United States, soil has fueled the availability of abundant, safe food, thus underpinning economic growth and development. In the future we need to be more vigilant in managing and renewing this precious resource by replacing the nutrients and life-sustaining matter that we remove for

Soil Carbon in Sensitive European Ecosystems

Soil Carbon in Sensitive European Ecosystems Book
Author : Robert Jandl,Mirco Rodeghiero,Mats Olsson
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-10-20
ISBN : 1119977673
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Soil Carbon in Sensitive European Ecosystems - From Science to Land Management is a comprehensive overview of the latest research in this field drawn together by a network of scientists from across Europe. Soil carbon assessments are crucial at present to our understanding of the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems and our ability to assess implications for the global carbon exchange and its consequences on the future climate. This book focuses primarily on ecosystems and their soil carbon stocks. The book identifies three key sensitive ecosystems within Europe: Mediterranean Forest and Agricultural Systems; Mountains; and Peatland. Contributors include those currently working for the European research programme, COST Action 639 BurnOut (www.cost639.net; 2006-2010). COST Action 639 emerged from a demand from policy makers in Europe for more detailed information on soil carbon dynamics. The cooperation between experts for reporting and experts for soil dynamics is the focus of the book. This book seeks to provide an up-to-date account on the state-of-the-art research within this topical field.

Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon

Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon Book
Author : R. Lal
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Methods for assessing soil C pools; Methodology for sampling and preparation for soil carbon determination; Importance of soil bulk density and methods of its measurement; The effects of terrain position and elevation on soil C in the southern Appalachians; Approaching "functional"soil organic matter pools through particle-size fractionation: examples for tropical soils; Spatial variability: enhancing the mean estimate of organic and inorganic carbon in a sampling unit; Assessment of soil organic carbon using the U.S. soil survey; Organic carbon methods, microbial biomass, root biomass, and sampling design under development by NRCS; Characterization of soil organic carbon pools; Measuring and comparing soil carbon storage; Estimating total systems C in smallhold farming systems of the East African highlands; Assessment and significance of labile organic C pools in forest soils; Interlaboratory carbon isotope measurements of five soils; The determination of soil C pool sizes and turnover rates: biophysical fractionation and tracers; Ecozone and soil profile screening for C-residence time, rejuvenation, bomb 14C photosynthetic 13 changes; Use of 13C isotopes to determine net carbon sequestration in soil under ambient and elevated CO2; Methods using amino sugars as markers for microbial residues in soil; Characterization of soil organic matter; Fractionating soil in stable aggregates using a rainfall simulator; Toward an efficient method for measuring total organic stocks in forests; Soil organic matter evaluation; The development of the KMnO4 oxidation technique to determine labile carbon in soil and its use in a carbon management index; Effects of soil morphological and physical properties on estimation of carbon storage in arctic soils; Estimation of particulate and total organic matter by weight loss-on-ignition; Use of near infrared spectroscopy to determine inorganic and organic carbon fractions in soil and litter; Development of rapid instrumental methods for measuring soil organic carbon; Soil quality evaluations of alternative and conventional management systems in the great plains; 137 Cs for measuring soil erosion and redeposition: application for understanding soil carbon; Assesing the impact of erosion on soil organic carbon pools and fluxes; Assessing water erosion impacts on soil carbon pools fluxes; Soil organic carbon erosion assessment by Cesium- 137; A simple model to estmate soil carbon dynamics at the BOREAS northern study area, Manitoba, Canada; Methods used to create the North American Soil Organic Carbon Digital Database; Basic principles for soil carbon sequestration and calculating dynamic country-level balances including future scenarios; Examining the carbon stocks of boreal forest ecosystems at stand and regional scales; Predicting broadscale C stores of woody detritus from plot data; Soil C dynamics: measurement, simulation and site-to-region scale-up; Some factors affecting the distribution of carbon in soils of a dryland agricultural system in southwestern Australia; A national inventory of changes in soil carbon from national resources inventory data; Assessing economics of carbon sequestration in agriculture; Climate change policy and the agricultural sector; Approaches to assessing carbon credits and identifying trading mechanisms; Methodological challenges: toward balancing soil C pools and fluxes.

Soil Management and Climate Change

Soil Management and Climate Change Book
Author : Maria Angeles Munoz,Raúl Zornoza
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-10-27
ISBN : 0128121297
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Soil Management and Climate Change: Effects on Organic Carbon, Nitrogen Dynamics, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions provides a state of the art overview of recent findings and future research challenges regarding physical, chemical and biological processes controlling soil carbon, nitrogen dynamic and greenhouse gas emissions from soils. This book is for students and academics in soil science and environmental science, land managers, public administrators and legislators, and will increase understanding of organic matter preservation in soil and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Given the central role soil plays on the global carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, there is an urgent need to increase our common understanding about sources, mechanisms and processes that regulate organic matter mineralization and stabilization, and to identify those management practices and processes which mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, helping increase organic matter stabilization with suitable supplies of available N. Provides the latest findings about soil organic matter stabilization and greenhouse gas emissions Covers the effect of practices and management on soil organic matter stabilization Includes information for readers to select the most suitable management practices to increase soil organic matter stabilization

Organic Carbon Sequestration in the Soils of Puerto Rico

Organic Carbon Sequestration in the Soils of Puerto Rico Book
Author : Gilberto Acevedo,F. H. Beinroth,University of Puerto Rico (Mayagüez Caampus). Department of Agronomy and Soils,United States. Soil Conservation Service
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1992
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An overview of carbon sequestration in soils of Latin America; Review of soil organic matter research in Puerto Rico; Organic carbon content of the soils of Puerto Rico; Recommendations for future soil carbon research in Puerto Rico.

Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Ecosystems

Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Ecosystems Book
Author : Klaus Lorenz,Rattan Lal
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-05-31
ISBN : 3319923188
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A comprehensive book on basic processes of soil C dynamics and the underlying factors and causes which determine the technical and economic potential of soil C sequestration. The book provides information on the dynamics of both inorganic (lithogenic and pedogenic carbonates) and organic C (labile, intermediate and passive). It describes different types of agroecosystems, and lists questions at the end of each chapter to stimulate thinking and promote academic dialogue. Each chapter has a bibliography containing up-to-date references on the current research, and provides the state-of-the-knowledge while also identifying the knowledge gaps for future research. The critical need for restoring C stocks in world soils is discussed in terms of provisioning of essential ecosystem services (food security, carbon sequestration, water quality and renewability, and biodiversity). It is of interest to students, scientists, and policy makers.

Soil Carbon Stabilization to Mitigate Climate Change

Soil Carbon Stabilization to Mitigate Climate Change Book
Author : Rahul Datta,Ram Swaroop Meena
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2021-08-26
ISBN : 9789813367647
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbon stabilization involves to capturing carbon from the atmosphere and fix it in the forms soil organic carbon stock for a long period of time, it will be present to escape as a greenhouse gas in the form of carbon dioxide. Soil carbon storage is an important ecosystem service, resulting from interactions of several ecological processes. This process is primarily mediated by plants through photosynthesis, with carbon stored in the form of soil organic carbon. Soil carbon levels have reduced over decades of conversion of pristine ecosystems into agriculture landscape, which now offers the opportunity to store carbon from air into the soil. Carbon stabilization into the agricultural soils is a novel approach of research and offers promising reduction in the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. This book brings together all aspects of soil carbon sequestration and stabilization, with a special focus on diversity of microorganisms and management practices of soil in agricultural systems. It discusses the role of ecosystem functioning, recent and future prospects, soil microbial ecological studies, rhizosphere microflora, and organic matter in soil carbon stabilization. It also explores carbon transformation in soil, biological management and its genetics, microbial transformation of soil carbon, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), and their role in sustainable agriculture. The book offers a spectrum of ideas of new technological inventions and fundamentals of soil sustainability. It will be suitable for teachers, researchers, and policymakers, undergraduate and graduate students of soil science, soil microbiology, agronomy, ecology, and environmental sciences

Soil Carbon Sequestration

Soil Carbon Sequestration Book
Author : D. Kalaivanan,C. Ravindran
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2012-05
ISBN : 9783659127656
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Soil carbon sequestration is a natural, cost-effective, and environmentally-friendly process. Once sequestered, carbon remains in the soil as long as restorative land use, continuous no-till, and other Best Management Practices are followed. Soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate global warming through reducing the rate of enrichment of atmospheric concentration of CO2 and achieves food security through improvement in soil quality. It has the potential to offset fossil-fuel emissions by 0.4 to 1.2 Gt C/year, or 5 to 15% of the global emissions. Soil organic carbon is an extremely valuable natural resource. Irrespective of the climate debate, the SOC stock must be restored, enhanced, and improved.Yet, the close link between soil C Sequestration and world food security on the one hand and climate change on the other can neither be overemphasized nor ignored.The potential of SOC sequestration is finite. Therefore, it is only a short-term solution. The long-term solution lies in developing alternatives to fossil fuel. Yet, SOC sequestration buys us time during which alternatives to fossil fuel can take effect. It is a bridge to the future.

Investing in Soils for a Sustainable Future

Investing in Soils for a Sustainable Future Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Investing in Soils for a Sustainable Future book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Soil Carbon

Soil Carbon Book
Author : Bhaidas Patil,Ravindra Borade
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015-03-01
ISBN : 9781681170947
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Managing Soil Organic Carbon for Global Benefits presents an overview of current technical and scientific knowledge of soil organic carbon (SOC). Such an overview is needed in order to understand how and why soil organic carbon management should be an important component of future strategy for the Global Environment Facility (GEF). SOC management may contribute to and/or be affected by progress toward the achievement of the GEF objectives. It has a vital role to play in regard to each of the GEF focal areas: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Land Degradation, International Waters, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Links also exist between SOC management and the GEF's cross-cutting themes (Sustainable Forest Management, and Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry LULUCF).

Disturbance Effects on Soil Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Forest Ecosystems

Disturbance Effects on Soil Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Forest Ecosystems Book
Author : Scott X. Chang,Yanjiang Cai
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-05-23
ISBN : 3039286668
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Forest ecosystems are often disturbed by agents such as harvesting, fire, wind, insects and diseases, and acid deposition, with differing intensities and frequencies. Such disturbances can markedly affect the amount, form, and stability of soil organic carbon in, and the emission of greenhouse gases, including CO2, CH4, and N2O from, forest ecosystems. It is vitally important that we improve our understanding of the impact of different disturbance regimes on forest soil carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions to guide our future research, forest management practices, and policy development. This Special Issue provides an important update on the disturbance effects on soil carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in forest ecosystems in different climate regions.

Production and Preservation of Organic and Fire derived Carbon Across the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum

Production and Preservation of Organic and Fire derived Carbon Across the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum Book
Author : Elizabeth Denis
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The storage and release of organic carbon from the biosphere are influenced by temperature and precipitation through changes in plant productivity and in oxidative loss, such as fire and microbial respiration. The long-term fate of soil organic carbon during global warming is important because soil carbon is the largest terrestrial organic carbon reservoir and soil can serve as a sink or a source for atmospheric CO2. Soil carbon degradation is multifaceted as different pools of organic carbon in soils (e.g., fresh biomass, refractory soil organic matter, and thermally mature fossil organic matter) have different reactivity. Fire, an important component of ecosystems at a range of spatial and temporal scales, affects vegetation distribution, the carbon cycle, and climate. Because there are several variables and mechanisms are complex, it is difficult to predict future and infer past changes in both soil degradation and fire activity based on climate and environmental conditions. Examining changes in soil organic carbon, climate, and fire during past warming events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), should help elucidate climate-carbon cycle relationships, especially effects that are expressed over long durations (e.g., 100 10,000 years).Abrupt global warming during the PETM dramatically altered vegetation and hydrologic patterns, and, likely, terrestrial organic carbon production and preservation. The PETM coincided with a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE), signifying a large release of 13C-depleted carbon to the biosphere and a major perturbation to the carbon cycle. Bulk organic carbon isotopes (13Corg) are often used to identify the CIE, but in terrestrial sections the 13Corg CIE can be highly variable and distorted. It has been suggested that 13Corg values were highly variable because of soil carbon degradation by microbes and allochthonous (pre-PETM) fossil carbon inputs. Constraining the degree and extent of degradation is critical in identifying the 13C-depleted carbon source and understanding carbon cycling processes and possible underlying organic carbon destabilization mechanisms during the PETM. At three Paleocene-Eocene fluvial sites in the western USA, my co-authors and I test the hypothesis that there were increased degradation (soil carbon loss) and refractory (allochthonous) carbon inputs during the PETM. Clay minerals stabilize organic carbon, but we hypothesize decreased clay content and changes in mineralogy destabilized organic carbon during the PETM. If soil moisture was a control on soil organic carbon degradation, then sites with similar soil moistirue conditions would have a similar loss of organic carbon. Using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), combustion byproducts that are relatively resistant to degradation, as a proxy for intermediate refractory carbon helped to discern the relative preservation of different carbon pools in the soils. I developed a novel molecular metric of degradation by calculating the percent loss of PAHs relative to total organic carbon (TOC) to estimate the extent of organic carbon loss and proportion of refractory allochthonous carbon during the PETM. All forms of soil carbon decreased during the PETM, and PAH concentrations decreased even more than TOC, which suggests a more refractory phase was present, such as allochthonous fossil carbon. Positive correlations between elemental oxide weight percents (e.g., Al2O3 and TiO2) and TOC suggests organic carbon preservation was associated with clay minerals. Wetter sites had a greater percent loss of organic carbon during the PETM than drier sites. Reduced soil organic matter preservation during the PETM was due to a combination of increased temperatures (which increased microbial decomposition rates), decreased clay content and changes in mineralogy (which inhibited stability of fresh carbon), and fluctuations in soil moisture (which destabilized older, refractory carbon). Soil carbon degradation, even of intermediately refractory carbon, was not just a local phenomenon and was regional, and potentially global, in scope.In the marine sediments of the Arctic, where organic carbon was well-preserved during the PETM, we used PAHs as an indicator for fire and plant biomarkers, as well as published pollen data, to decipher the dynamics between fire, precipitation, and vegetation changes in the paleoecosystem. In modern ecosystems, climate influences fuel availability (e.g., vegetation), fuel flammability (e.g., precipitation and temperature), and ignitions (i.e., lightning). In the paleorecord, authors often invoke drier conditions as a cause of increased fire occurrence. During the PETM, Arctic sediments exhibit higher PAH concentrations, and they both increased relative to plant input and tracked the increase in angiosperms (inferred from plant biomarker ratios and pollen). Our results suggest wetter conditions, followed by increased temperature, favored angiosperms and enhanced fire occurrence. Like modern fire dynamics, shifts in past fire patterns reflect a balance of variability in precipitation and sufficiently flammable vegetation. Increased fire in a wetter Arctic suggests PETM precipitation was seasonal, or variable on a longer timescale, and that hotter temperatures and angiosperm-dominated forests further facilitated burning.Overall, we used PAHs as a primary signal of production (i.e., fire occurrence) in marine sediments and as a secondary signal of preservation (e.g., organic carbon degradation) in ancient soils. Our results highlight that terrestrial organic carbon was better preserved in the marine section than the fluvial sections. Increased temperatures, decreased clay content, changes in mineralogy, and variations in soil moisture destabilized carbon on millennial timescales and, with sustained higher temperatures across the PETM (~150 thousand years), increased soil carbon degradation persisted for tens of thousands of years. As temperatures warmed and remained warmer than the Paleocene, soils served as a sustained source of CO2 to the atmosphere rather than a sink. Although CO2 released from microbial respiration enhanced the greenhouse warming, increased organic carbon preservation in the marine realm may have counteracted the increased carbon output from soils.

The Soils of Egypt

The Soils of Egypt Book
Author : Hassan El-Ramady,Tarek Alshaal,Noura Bakr,Tamer Elbana,Elsayed Mohamed,Abdel-Aziz Belal
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-08-20
ISBN : 3319955160
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book reviews the distribution of soils across Egypt, their history, genesis, pollution and management. The conservation of Egyptian soils, soils and their connections to human activities, as well as some future soil issues are also highlighted. It is well known that soil is the main source for food, feed, fuel and fiber production. Accordingly, the study of soils is not only a crucial issue but also an urgent task for all nations worldwide. Due to their important roles in agroecosystems as well as many aspects of our lives, soils have direct and indirect functions in the agricultural, industrial and medicinal sectors. Therefore, understanding the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils, as well as soil security, have now become emerging issues. Climate change has a very dangerous dimension in Egypt concerning the rising sea level. Many coastal zones are already threatened by this sea level rise, and may ultimately disappear. At the same time, water shortages and soil pollution represent the main challenges for the Egyptian nation. Generally speaking, the environmental challenges that Egypt now faces include improving and sustaining soil health, soil carbon sequestration, wastewater treatment, and avoiding the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides. Therefore, this book examines in detail the soils of Egypt from various perspectives including their genesis, history, classification, pollution and degradation, soil security, soil fertility and land uses.

Soil Carbon Cycling Constrained by Oxygen dependent Enzyme Activity and Microbial Energetics

Soil Carbon Cycling Constrained by Oxygen dependent Enzyme Activity and Microbial Energetics Book
Author : Hannah Rose Naughton
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Soils contain up to three times as much dynamic carbon as the atmosphere, making them a critical carbon sink. Soil organic carbon (SOC) performs ecosystem services such as atmospheric carbon sequestration, retention of nutrients and water, promotion of good soil structure, and fueling microbial activity that leads to soil fertility. However, future climate and land use change endanger soil carbon stocks. An incomplete understanding of the mechanisms behind SOC degradation hinders our ability to model carbon cycling, particularly considering temporally and spatially heterogeneous soils. One key factor is the role oxygen availability plays in microbial energetics and enzyme activity, information critical to providing mechanistic predictions of SOC decay. My research explores how oxygen limitations and ensuing redox heterogeneity in soils control both the energetics of respiration, which ultimately controls greenhouse gas production of soils, and microbial access to organic substrates via oxidative enzyme depolymerization. I use both laboratory soil reactors and a floodplain field site as soil environments with spatially or temporally varying oxygen availability to test for enzymatic and thermodynamic limitations on SOC degradation and accompanying greenhouse gas production. Soil redox environment altered dissolved organic carbon (DOC) composition and chemistry over short times in the reactor setup and over short spatial scales in field soils. Oxygen-limited soils had more reduced organic C corresponding to lower thermodynamic favorability as a microbial substrate in anaerobic metabolisms. The reactors had a stark increase in relative abundance of lignin-like carbon going from aerobic to anaerobic environments, indicative of enzymatic limitations, but field soils indicated plant inputs counteract this often depth-related pattern. Aeration of soils resulted in equivalent respiration when normalized to SOC content, regardless of original microbial community or SOC composition, even in methanogenic soils lacking saprotrophic communities. This finding prompted exploration of the potential for abiotic, metal-catalyzed processes to depolymerize SOC in redox-heterogeneous floodplain soils. Ferrous iron better corresponded to phenol oxidation potential than any microbial or carbon-related predictors, highlighting the potential for rapid oxidative SOC depolymerization upon aeration of permanently or temporarily saturated soils containing reduced transition metals. Altogether, this work highlights the rapidity with which novel redox status of soils alters SOC composition, favorability as a microbial substrate, and potential for unexpected greenhouse gas release. Terrestrial carbon models are unlikely to accurately predict future stocks and fluxes of SOC if they do not account for the influence of heterogeneity of oxygen availability and ensuing effects on carbon lability.

Soil Organic Carbon and Feeding the Future

Soil Organic Carbon and Feeding the Future Book
Author : R. Lal
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2022
ISBN : 9781032152202
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Soil organic matter (SOM) is a highly reactive constituent of the soil matrix. This volume of Advances in Soil Science explains pedological processes set-in-motion by increases in SOM content of depleted and degraded soils. The book identifies policy options needed to translate science into action for making sustainable management of SOM a strategy for adaptation to and mitigation of climate change. It will appeal to agricultural, environmental and soil scientists demonstrating the link between soil organic matter stock and provisioning of critical ecosystem services for nature and humans"--

Modelling Organic Carbon Turnover in Salt affected Soils

Modelling Organic Carbon Turnover in Salt affected Soils Book
Author : Raj Setia
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Salinity and sodicity are major constraints for crop production in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Salt-affected soils cover 6.5% of the total land area of the world. Since the global soil carbon (C) pool is greater than the atmospheric and biotic pool combined, changes in soil organic matter content will affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. Therefore it is important to understand soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Soil organic carbon models, which have been successfully validated for non-saline soils, are important for estimation of past and future SOC contents and for evaluating management effects on SOC. However, it was unclear if they accurately predict CO2 emission/SOC stocks in salt-affected soils. In this work, an integrated approach using remote sensing, incubation experiments, modelling and geographical information system was used to simulate SOC dynamics in salt-affected soils at field and regional scale in the past, present and the future.

Assessing Soil Carbon and Soil Quality for Sustainable Agricultural Systems in Tropical Hillslope Soils Using Spectroscopic Methods

Assessing Soil Carbon and Soil Quality for Sustainable Agricultural Systems in Tropical Hillslope Soils Using Spectroscopic Methods Book
Author : Bunjirtluk Jintaridth
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Soil quality is a concept that integrates physical, chemical, and biological components and processes of soil across landscapes. Identifying and developing appropriate methods to quantify and assess changes in soil quality are necessary for evaluating soil degradation and improving management practices. Many parameters that are associated with soil quality depend on soil organic matter (SOM) levels and composition. The objectives of this research were to: 1) conduct a literature review of soil quality assessment techniques to evaluate soil quality across a wide-range of environments and agricultural practices; 2) determine if some standard soil sampling and analytical protocols could be identified or developed to enhance soil quality comparisons across a wide range of environments around the world; and 3) assess the efficacy of spectroscopic-based (i.e. near-infrared, mid-infrared, and visible range) analytical methods to evaluate soil organic matter fractions and soil quality. To assess soil quality for sustainable agricultural systems in hillslope soils using spectroscopic methods, surface soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected from hillslope agricultural sites in Bolivia, the Philippines and Indonesia which had differences in length of fallow, levels of soil degradation, and cultivation by landscape position. To determine the efficacy of spectroscopic-based on visible range, the use of the potassium permanganate test (MnOxC) for active organic carbon was studied. The MnOxC test was generally responsive to a range of fallow lengths among different agricultural fields and communities in Umala Municipality in Bolivia. A major objective of fallowing agricultural fields in this region is to restore soil fertility in the field after cropping. This general increase in MnOxC with increased length fallowing may be due to inputs of residue and roots from regrowth of native vegetation after cropping in fallowed areas and possible manure inputs from sheep that generally graze these fallow areas. In addition, higher concentrations of MnOxC were generally observed in non-degraded soil compared to that of degraded soil in all sampled communities in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Comparisons of soil quality among agroforestry and nonagroforestry sites were studied near Bogor, Indonesia. Both agroforestry and nonagroforestry sites had been managed with different types and rates (low, medium, and high) of amendments including manure, compost and chemical fertilizer. Soil MnOxC was generally higher with increasing amounts of added animal manure and in agroforestry areas compared to that of non-agroforestry areas. A set of soil samples was collected along a hill-slope transect from the top to the bottom of agricultural valley on Mindanao Island in the Philippines. The transect across the landscape was divided into summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope and toeslope landscape positions. Soil MnOxC from cultivated fields areas at each landscape position were generally lower than noncultivated areas at similar landscape positions. Among the non-cultivated sites, soil MnOxC was the highest at the summit position and the lowest at the backslope positions while soil MnOxC among cultivated sites were relatively similar across the hill-slope transect. This comparison of the use of the soil MnOxC test to determine changes in active C among a wide range of environmental conditions, cropping systems and soil management practices among agroecosystems with hillslopes in tropical countries around the world indicates that the soil MnOxC test is a sensitive indicator to assess changes in active C with changes in crop and soil management. Several advantages to using this procedure include its ease of use that requires a minimal of training for the field method, its low relative cost and growing research results that facilitate interpretation of the test results. Therefore, this method has potential for supporting management decisions, and sustainable management of agricultural systems in tropical hillslope ecosystems. The ability of visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy to estimate soil organic carbon and carbon fractions from diverse soils in tropical hillslope agroecosystems around the world that were under different soil management and cropping systems was evaluated in this research. It was shown that VNIR spectroscopy could be an effective technique to estimate SOC and soil organic carbon fractions for a wide range of soils from tropical hillslope agroecosystems around the world. Several potential advantages of use of VNIR compared to conventional soil testing methods in developing countries are that it may allow for simultaneous evaluation of several soil properties and it can be done rapidly and possibly in the field. Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFT) is considered to be one of the most sensitive infrared techniques for analyzing the structural composition of soil organic matter. The benefit of the DRIFT technique is the ability to characterize the functional group composition of heterogeneous materials with minimal sample preparation. Results showed that this method can be used to characterize the functional groups of heterogeneous soil organic materials and it may be a more direct method to determine changes in soil organic matter and soil quality caused by soil management practices than several other chemical and spectral techniques. The high resolution of the spectra and quantitative estimations of functional groups can be used to analyze soil organic carbon composition. Therefore, in future work this technique has great potential to be an accurate and simple method for helping to understand the changes in the composition of soil organic carbon due to soil organic management practices and to estimate changes in soil quality resulting from those practices in these hillslope agroecosystems.

Rubber Plantations and Carbon Management

Rubber Plantations and Carbon Management Book
Author : Arun Jyoti Nath,Biplab Brahma,Ashesh Kumar Das
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-10-16
ISBN : 0429659865
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With the increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and the resulting environmental consequences for plants, it is necessary to consider the future of rubber plantations, an important source of latex for rubber production. In this volume, the authors explore the ecology of rubber plantations in the context of carbon management under a scenario of our changing climate. The authors provide an in-depth study of the carbon stock and sequestration potentiality of rubber plantations. The volume also provides information on a biomass estimating model that can be used in the future study of non-harvesting biomass estimation for a variety of plants. Key features: • Provides an understanding of the role of rubber plantations in carbon management • Presents biomass models and biomass carbon stocks • Explores the impact of land use changes on soil organic carbon • Looks at ecosystem carbon sequestration • Explores methods of allometric model development for different growth ages of rubber plantations • Advances our knowledge of the global carbon cycle that will be helpful in studying changing environmental effects on other crops and plant products.