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The Evolutionary Biology Of Extinct And Extant Organisms

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The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms

The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms Book
Author : Subir Ranjan Kundu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-03-23
ISBN : 0128232838
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms offers a thorough and detailed narration of the journey of biological evolution and its major transitional links to the biological world, which began with paleontological exploration of extinct organisms and now carries on with reviews of phylogenomic footprint reviews of extant, living fossils. This book moves through the defining evolutionary stepping stones starting with the evolutionary changes in prokaryotic, aquatic organisms over 4 billion years ago to the emergence of the modern human species in Earth’s Anthropocene. The book begins with an overview of the processes of evolutionary fitness, the epicenter of the principles of evolutionary biology. Whether through natural or experimental occurrence, evolutionary fitness has been found to be the cardinal instance of evolutionary links in an organism between its ancestral and contemporary states. The book then goes on to detail evolutionary trails and lineages of groups of organisms including mammalians, reptilians, and various fish. The final section of the book provides a look back at the evolutionary journey of "nonliving" or extinct organisms, versus the modern-day transition to "living" or extant organisms. The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms is the ideal resource for any researcher or advanced student in evolutionary studies, ranging from evolutionary biology to general life sciences. Provides an updated compendium of evolution research history Details the evolution trails of organisms, including mammals, reptiles, arthropods, annelids, mollusks, protozoa, and more Offers an accessible and easy-to-read presentation of complex, in-depth evolutionary biology facts and theories

Embryos in Deep Time

Embryos in Deep Time Book
Author : Marcelo Sánchez-Villagra
Publisher : Univ of California Press
Release : 2012-04-03
ISBN : 0520952308
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

How can we bring together the study of genes, embryos and fossils? Embryos in Deep Time is a critical synthesis of the study of individual development in fossils. It brings together an up-to-date review of concepts from comparative anatomy, ecology and developmental genetics, and examples of different kinds of animals from diverse geological epochs and geographic areas. Can fossil embryos demonstrate evolutionary changes in reproductive modes? How have changes in ocean chemistry in the past affected the development of marine organisms? What can the microstructure of fossil bone and teeth reveal about maturation time, longevity and changes in growth phases? This book addresses these and other issues and documents with numerous examples and illustrations how fossils provide evidence not only of adult anatomy but also of the life history of individuals at different growth stages. The central topic of Biology today—the transformations occurring during the life of an organism and the mechanisms behind them—is addressed in an integrative manner for extinct animals.

Evolutionary Patterns

Evolutionary Patterns Book
Author : Alan H. Cheetham
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2001-08
ISBN : 9780226389318
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With all the recent advances in molecular and evolutionary biology, one could almost wonder why we need the fossil record. Molecular sequence data can resolve taxonomic relationships, experiments with fruit flies demonstrate evolution and development in real time, and field studies of Galapagos finches have provided the strongest evidence for natural selection ever measured in the wild. What, then, can fossils teach us that living organisms cannot? Evolutionary Patterns demonstrates the rich variety of clues to evolution that can be gleaned from the fossil record. Chief among these are the major trends and anomalies in species development revealed only by "deep time," such as periodic mass extinctions and species that remain unchanged in form for millions of years. Contributors explore modes of development, the tempo of speciation and extinction, and macroevolutionary patterns and trends. The result is an important contribution to paleobiology and evolutionary biology, and a spirited defense of the fossil record as a crucial tool for understanding evolution and development. The contributors are Ann F. Budd, Efstathia Bura, Leo W. Buss, Mike Foote, Jörn Geister, Stephen Jay Gould, Eckart Hâkansson, Jean-Georges Harmelin, Lee-Ann C. Hayek, Jeremy B. C. Jackson, Kenneth G. Johnson, Nancy Knowlton, Scott Lidgard, Frank K. McKinney, Daniel W. McShea, Ross H. Nehm, Beth Okamura, John M. Pandolfi, Paul D. Taylor, and Erik Thomsen.

The Timetree of Life

The Timetree of Life Book
Author : S. Blair Hedges,Sudhir Kumar
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2009-04-23
ISBN : 0191560154
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The evolutionary history of life includes two primary components: phylogeny and timescale. Phylogeny refers to the branching order (relationships) of species or other taxa within a group and is crucial for understanding the inheritance of traits and for erecting classifications. However, a timescale is equally important because it provides a way to compare phylogeny directly with the evolution of other organisms and with planetary history such as geology, climate, extraterrestrial impacts, and other features. The Timetree of Life is the first reference book to synthesize the wealth of information relating to the temporal component of phylogenetic trees. In the past, biologists have relied exclusively upon the fossil record to infer an evolutionary timescale. However, recent revolutionary advances in molecular biology have made it possible to not only estimate the relationships of many groups of organisms, but also to estimate their times of divergence with molecular clocks. The routine estimation and utilization of these so-called 'time-trees' could add exciting new dimensions to biology including enhanced opportunities to integrate large molecular data sets with fossil and biogeographic evidence (and thereby foster greater communication between molecular and traditional systematists). They could help estimate not only ancestral character states but also evolutionary rates in numerous categories of organismal phenotype; establish more reliable associations between causal historical processes and biological outcomes; develop a universally standardized scheme for biological classifications; and generally promote novel avenues of thought in many arenas of comparative evolutionary biology. This authoritative reference work brings together, for the first time, experts on all major groups of organisms to assemble a timetree of life. The result is a comprehensive resource on evolutionary history which will be an indispensable reference for scientists, educators, and students in the life sciences, earth sciences, and molecular biology. For each major group of organism, a representative is illustrated and a timetree of families and higher taxonomic groups is shown. Basic aspects of the evolutionary history of the group, the fossil record, and competing hypotheses of relationships are discussed. Details of the divergence times are presented for each node in the timetree, and primary literature references are included. The book is complemented by an online database (www.timetree.net) which allows researchers to both deposit and retrieve data.

Extinction and Phylogeny

Extinction and Phylogeny Book
Author : Michael J. Novacek
Publisher : Columbia University Press
Release : 1992
ISBN : 9780231074384
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

More than 99 percent of all life that has ever existed on this planet is extinct. Moreover, human acceleration of the extinction of species has created a crisis in biodiversity. How can the history of past life be retrieved? How does this history bear on our understanding of the organization and evolution of present-day species? These questions are addressed in Extinction and Phylogeny. This book offers new and original research by leading authorities on evolutionary and systematic biology, who rank among the best of the dynamic investigators of botany, zoology, and paleontology. This exciting book includes chapters about the recovery of information from living biota, taking into account the limitations of sampling and the steady rate of contemporary extinction of taxa. Complementary discussions elucidate problems involving the analysis of data sets of variable completeness--for example, partially preserved fossils or patchy samples of extant taxa. Extinction and Phylogeny balances empirical issues with the theoretical and applies cladistic methodology. This detailed text will prove to be a leading-edge book for professional and student biologists alike and for those in related disciplines. The relationship between extinction and phylogenetic theory must be understood if we are to explain existing biological diversity and effectively assess the declining biodiversity of our planet in the decades to come.

Species and Speciation in the Fossil Record

Species and Speciation in the Fossil Record Book
Author : Warren D. Allmon,Margaret M. Yacobucci
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2016-10-05
ISBN : 022637758X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Although the species is one of the fundamental units of biological classification, there is remarkably little consensus among biologists about what defines a species, even within distinct sub-disciplines. The literature of paleobiology, in particular, is littered with qualifiers and cautions about applying the term to the fossil record or equating such species with those recognized among living organisms. In Species and Speciation in the Fossil Record, experts in the field examine how they conceive of species of fossil animals and consider the implications these different approaches have for thinking about species in the context of macroevolution. After outlining views of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary disciplines and detailing the development within paleobiology of quantitative methods for documenting and analyzing variation within fossil assemblages, contributors explore the challenges of recognizing and defining species from fossil specimens—and offer potential solutions. Addressing both the tempo and mode of speciation over time, they show how with careful interpretation and a clear species concept, fossil species may be sufficiently robust for meaningful paleobiological analyses. Indeed, they demonstrate that the species concept, if more refined, could unearth a wealth of information about the interplay between species origins and extinctions, between local and global climate change, and greatly deepen our understanding of the evolution of life.

Time Traveler

Time Traveler Book
Author : Michael Novacek
Publisher : Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Release : 2003-03-15
ISBN : 1429935731
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hunting for fossils with a preeminent guide and teacher Michael Novacek, a world-renowned paleontologist who has discovered important fossils on virtually every continent, is an authority on patterns of evolution and on the relationships among extinct and extant organisms. Time Traveler is his captivating account of how his boyhood enthusiasm for dinosaurs became a lifelong commitment to vanguard science. He takes us with him as he discovers fossils in his own backyard in Los Angeles, then goes looking for them in the high Andes, the black volcanic mountains of Yemen, and the incredibly rich fossil badlands of the Gobi desert. Wherever Novacek goes he searches for still undiscovered evidence of what life was like on Earth millions of years ago. Along the way he has almost drowned, been stung by deadly scorpions, been held at gunpoint by a renegade army, and nearly choked in raging dust storms. Fieldwork is very demanding in a host of unusual, dramatic, sometimes hilarious ways, and Novacek writes of its alluring perils with affection and discernment. But Time Traveler also makes sense of many complex themes - about dinosaur evolution, continental drift, mass extinctions, new methods for understanding ancient environments, and the evolutionary secrets of DNA in fossil organisms. It is also an enthralling adventure story.

Predation in Organisms

Predation in Organisms Book
Author : Ashraf M.T. Elewa
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-01-10
ISBN : 3540460462
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Predation is considered one of the distinct phenomena related to the interrelationships between species on the Earth. In general, predation is widespread not only in wildlife but also in marine environments where big fishes eat small fishes and other organisms of the sea. This book considers predation in organisms and is aimed at the prevention of predation in wildlife and marine environments.

The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs

The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs Book
Author : David E. Fastovsky,David B. Weishampel
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2005-02-07
ISBN : 9780521811729
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is a comprehensive 2005 book is simply the best textbook on dinosaurs available.

Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology

Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology Book
Author : Douglas Futuyma,Janis Antonovics
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 1992-10-08
ISBN : 9780195360417
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This new volume in the OSEB series presents reviews of key theoretical ideas and frameworks, and outlines progress in evolutionary studies.

Strickberger s Evolution

Strickberger s Evolution Book
Author : Brian K. Hall,Benedikt Hallgrímsson
Publisher : Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Release : 2011-06-07
ISBN : 1449663907
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thoroughly updated and reorganized, Strickberger's Evolution, Fourth Edition, presents biology students with a basic introduction to prevailing knowledge and ideas about evolution, discussing how, why, and where the world and its organisms changed throughout history. Keeping consistent with Strickberger's engaging writing style, the authors carefully unfold a broad range of philosophical and historical topics that frame the theories of today including cosmological and geological evolution and its impact on life, the origins of life on earth, the development of molecular pathways from genetic systems to organismic morphology and function, the evolutionary history of organisms from microbes to animals, and the numerous molecular and populational concepts that explain the earth's dynamic evolution. Important Notice: The digital edition of this book is missing some of the images or content found in the physical edition.

Telling the Evolutionary Time

Telling the Evolutionary Time Book
Author : Philip C J Donoghue,M. Paul Smith
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2003-12-16
ISBN : 1134477295
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Determining the precise timing for the evolutionary origin of groups of organisms has become increasingly important as scientists from diverse disciplines attempt to examine rates of anatomical or molecular evolution and correlate intrinsic biological events to extrinsic environmental events. Molecular clock analyses indicate that many major groups

Arthropod Biology and Evolution

Arthropod Biology and Evolution Book
Author : Alessandro Minelli,Geoffrey Boxshall,Giuseppe Fusco
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-04-11
ISBN : 3642361609
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

More than two thirds of all living organisms described to date belong to the phylum Arthropoda. But their diversity, as measured in terms of species number, is also accompanied by an amazing disparity in terms of body form, developmental processes, and adaptations to every inhabitable place on Earth, from the deepest marine abysses to the earth surface and the air. The Arthropoda also include one of the most fashionable and extensively studied of all model organisms, the fruit-fly, whose name is not only linked forever to Mendelian and population genetics, but has more recently come back to centre stage as one of the most important and more extensively investigated models in developmental genetics. This approach has completely changed our appreciation of some of the most characteristic traits of arthropods as are the origin and evolution of segments, their regional and individual specialization, and the origin and evolution of the appendages. At approximately the same time as developmental genetics was eventually turning into the major agent in the birth of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), molecular phylogenetics was challenging the traditional views on arthropod phylogeny, including the relationships among the four major groups: insects, crustaceans, myriapods, and chelicerates. In the meantime, palaeontology was revealing an amazing number of extinct forms that on the one side have contributed to a radical revisitation of arthropod phylogeny, but on the other have provided evidence of a previously unexpected disparity of arthropod and arthropod-like forms that often challenge a clear-cut delimitation of the phylum.

Evolutionary Innovations

Evolutionary Innovations Book
Author : Matthew H. Nitecki
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 1990-12-15
ISBN : 9780226586953
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Evolutionary innovations—the bony skeleton of vertebrates, avian flight, or the insect pollination system of angiosperms, for example—have in recent years become the focus of much fertile new research in evolutionary biology. Innovations may hold the keys to understanding why whole new groups of organisms evolve or, conversely, why groups of organisms become extinct. This volume brings together contributors from the fields of morphology, genetics, embryology, physiology, and paleontology to present research on evolutionary innovations and to suggest directions for further work. The topics covered include the plurality of evolutionary innovations, patterns and processes at different hierarchical levels, evolutionary genetics of adaptations, heterochrony and other mechanisms of radical evolutionary change in early development, developmental mechanisms at the origin of morphological novelty, the evolution of morphological variation patterns, functional design and its punctuated products, plausibility and testability in assessing the consequences of evolutionary innovations, paradigms and pitfalls of studying physiological evolution, polyphyletic constructional breakthroughs in fossil and extant species, ecology of evolutionary innovations in the fossil record.

Graptolite Paleobiology

Graptolite Paleobiology Book
Author : Jörg Maletz
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-03-14
ISBN : 1118515706
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The graptolites constitute one of the geologically most useful taxonomic groups of fossils for dating rock successions, understanding paleobiogeography and reconstructing plate tectonic configurations in the Lower Palaeozoic. Graptolites were largely planktic, marine organisms, and as one of the first groups that explored the expanses of the world’s oceans are vital for understanding Palaeozoic ecology. They are the best and often the only fossil group for dating Lower Palaeozoic rock successions precisely. Thousands of taxa have been described from all over the planet and are used for a wide variety of geological and palaeontological (biological) research topics. The recent recognition of the modern pterobranch Rhabdopleura as a living benthic graptolite enables a much better understanding and interpretation of the fossil Graptolithina. In the decades since the latest edition of the Graptolite Treatise, the enormous increase of knowledge on this group of organisms has never been synthesised in a compelling and coherent way, and information is scattered in scientific publications and difficult to sort through. This volume provides an up-to-date insight into research on graptolites. Such research has advanced considerably with the use of new methods of investigation and documentation. SEM investigation and research on ultrastructure of the tubaria has made it possible to compare extant and extinct taxa in much more detail. Cladistic interpretation of graptolite taxonomy and evolution has advanced the understanding of this group of organisms considerably in the last two decades, and has highlighted their importance in our understanding of evolutionary processes. This book will show graptolites, including their modern, living relatives, in a quite new and fascinating light, and will demonstrate the impact that the group has had on the evolution of the modern marine ecosystem. This book is aimed not only at earth scientists but also at biologists, ecologists and oceanographers. It is a readable and comprehensible volume for students at the MSc level, while remaining accessible to undergraduates and non-specialists seeking up-to-date information about this fascinating topic in palaeobiology.

Evolutionary Innovations

Evolutionary Innovations Book
Author : Matthew H. Nitecki,Doris V. Nitecki
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 1990-07-14
ISBN : 9780226586946
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Evolutionary innovations—the bony skeleton of vertebrates, avian flight, or the insect pollination system of angiosperms, for example—have in recent years become the focus of much fertile new research in evolutionary biology. Innovations may hold the keys to understanding why whole new groups of organisms evolve or, conversely, why groups of organisms become extinct. This volume brings together contributors from the fields of morphology, genetics, embryology, physiology, and paleontology to present research on evolutionary innovations and to suggest directions for further work. The topics covered include the plurality of evolutionary innovations, patterns and processes at different hierarchical levels, evolutionary genetics of adaptations, heterochrony and other mechanisms of radical evolutionary change in early development, developmental mechanisms at the origin of morphological novelty, the evolution of morphological variation patterns, functional design and its punctuated products, plausibility and testability in assessing the consequences of evolutionary innovations, paradigms and pitfalls of studying physiological evolution, polyphyletic constructional breakthroughs in fossil and extant species, ecology of evolutionary innovations in the fossil record.

Dinosaurs

Dinosaurs Book
Author : Mary Higby Schweitzer,Elena Rita Schroeter,Charles Doug Czajka
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-11-17
ISBN : 0429882459
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This textbook introduces research on dinosaurs by describing the science behind how we know what we know about dinosaurs. A wide range of topics is covered, from fossils and taphonomy to dinosaur physiology, evolution, and extinction. In addition, sedimentology, paleo-tectonics, and non-dinosaurian Mesozoic life are discussed. There is a special opportunity to capitalize on the enthusiasm for dinosaurs that students bring to classrooms to foster a deeper engagement in all sciences. Students are encouraged to synthesize information, employ critical thinking, construct hypotheses, devise methods to test these hypotheses, and come to new defensible conclusions, just as paleontologists do. Key Features Clear and easy to read dinosaur text with well-defined terminology Over 600 images and diagrams to illustrate concepts and aid learning Reading objectives for each chapter section to guide conceptual learning and encourage active reading Companion website (teachingdinosaurs.com) that includes supporting materials such as in-class activities, question banks, lists of suggested specimens, and more to encourage student participation and active learning Ending each chapter with a specific "What We Don’t Know" section to encourage student curiosity Related Titles Singer, R. Encyclopedia of Paleontology (ISBN 978-1-884964-96-1) Fiorillo, A. R. Alaska Dinosaurs: An Ancient Arctic World (ISBN 978-1-138-06087-6) Caldwell, M. W. The Origin of Snakes: Morphology and the Fossil Record (ISBN 978-1-4822-5134-0)

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-04-14
ISBN : 0128004266
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology is the definitive go-to reference in the field of evolutionary biology. It provides a fully comprehensive review of the field in an easy to search structure. Under the collective leadership of fifteen distinguished section editors, it is comprised of articles written by leading experts in the field, providing a full review of the current status of each topic. The articles are up-to-date and fully illustrated with in-text references that allow readers to easily access primary literature. While all entries are authoritative and valuable to those with advanced understanding of evolutionary biology, they are also intended to be accessible to both advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Broad topics include the history of evolutionary biology, population genetics, quantitative genetics; speciation, life history evolution, evolution of sex and mating systems, evolutionary biogeography, evolutionary developmental biology, molecular and genome evolution, coevolution, phylogenetic methods, microbial evolution, diversification of plants and fungi, diversification of animals, and applied evolution. Presents fully comprehensive content, allowing easy access to fundamental information and links to primary research Contains concise articles by leading experts in the field that ensures current coverage of each topic Provides ancillary learning tools like tables, illustrations, and multimedia features to assist with the comprehension process

Grand Challenges in the Field of Earth Science

Grand Challenges in the Field of Earth Science Book
Author : Collaborative
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-11-23
ISBN : 2889197115
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Frontiers in Earth Science is an open-access journal that aims to bring together and publish on a single platform the best research dedicated to our planet. This platform hosts all the rapidly growing and continuously expanding domains in Earth Science, involving the lithosphere (including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and geography), the hydrosphere (including hydrology and cryospheric, marine and ocean sciences, complementing the existing Frontiers journal on Marine Science) and the atmosphere (including meteorology and climatology). As such, Frontiers in Earth Science focuses on the countless processes operating within and among the major spheres constituting our planet. In turn, the understanding of these processes provides the theoretical background to better use the available resources and to face the major environmental challenges (including earthquakes, tsunamis, eruptions, floods, landslides, climate changes, sea level rise, extreme meteorological events): this is where interdependent processes meet, requiring a holistic view to better live on and with our planet. Within this volume are included the Grand Challenge papers for the Earth Science field, authored by the Field Chief Editor, and several of the 16 online specialty sections, authored by the respective Chief Editors. These articles identify and describe the crucial challenges for Earth Science at the dawn of the 21st century.

The Evolutionary Strategies that Shape Ecosystems

The Evolutionary Strategies that Shape Ecosystems Book
Author : J. Philip Grime,Simon Pierce
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-03-26
ISBN : 1118223276
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In 1837 a young Charles Darwin took his notebook, wrote "I think"and then sketched a rudimentary, stick-like tree. Each branch ofDarwin's tree of life told a story of survival and adaptation– adaptation of animals and plants not just to theenvironment but also to life with other living things. However,more than 150 years since Darwin published his singular idea ofnatural selection, the science of ecology has yet to account forhow contrasting evolutionary outcomes affect the ability oforganisms to coexist in communities and to regulate ecosystemfunctioning. In this book Philip Grime and Simon Pierce explain how evidencefrom across the world is revealing that, beneath the wealth ofapparently limitless and bewildering variation in detailedstructure and functioning, the essential biology of all organismsis subject to the same set of basic interacting constraints onlife-history and physiology. The inescapable resulting predicamentduring the evolution of every species is that, according tohabitat, each must adopt a predictable compromise with regard tohow they use the resources at their disposal in order to survive.The compromise involves the investment of resources in either theeffort to acquire more resources, the tolerance of factors thatreduce metabolic performance, or reproduction. This three-waytrade-off is the irreducible core of the universal adaptivestrategy theory which Grime and Pierce use to investigate howtwo environmental filters selecting, respectively, for convergenceand divergence in organism function determine the identity oforganisms in communities, and ultimately how different evolutionarystrategies affect the functioning of ecosystems. This book reflectsan historic phase in which evolutionary processes are finallymoving centre stage in the effort to unify ecological theory, andanimal, plant and microbial ecology have begun to find a commontheoretical framework. Visit ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/grime/evolutionarystrategies"www.wiley.com/go/grime/evolutionarystrategies/ato access the artwork from the book.