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The Evolutionary Biology Of Extinct And Extant Organisms

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The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms

The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms Book
Author : Subir Ranjan Kundu
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-04-15
ISBN : 0128226552
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms offers a thorough and detailed narration of the journey of biological evolution and its major transitional links to the biological world, which began with paleontological exploration of extinct organisms and now carries on with reviews of phylogenomic footprint reviews of extant, living fossils. This book moves through the defining evolutionary stepping stones starting with the evolutionary changes in prokaryotic, aquatic organisms over 4 billion years ago to the emergence of the modern human species in Earth's Anthropocene. The book begins with an overview of the processes of evolutionary fitness, the epicenter of the principles of evolutionary biology. Whether through natural or experimental occurrence, evolutionary fitness has been found to be the cardinal instance of evolutionary links in an organism between its ancestral and contemporary states. The book then goes on to detail evolutionary trails and lineages of groups of organisms including mammalians, reptilians, and various fish. The final section of the book provides a look back at the evolutionary journey of "nonliving" or extinct organisms, versus the modern-day transition to "living" or extant organisms. The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms is the ideal resource for any researcher or advanced student in evolutionary studies, ranging from evolutionary biology to general life sciences. Provides an updated compendium of evolution research history Details the evolution trails of organisms, including mammals, reptiles, arthropods, annelids, mollusks, protozoa, and more Offers an accessible and easy-to-read presentation of complex, in-depth evolutionary biology facts and theories

The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms

The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms Book
Author : Subir Ranjan Kundu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-03-23
ISBN : 0128232838
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms offers a thorough and detailed narration of the journey of biological evolution and its major transitional links to the biological world, which began with paleontological exploration of extinct organisms and now carries on with reviews of phylogenomic footprint reviews of extant, living fossils. This book moves through the defining evolutionary stepping stones starting with the evolutionary changes in prokaryotic, aquatic organisms over 4 billion years ago to the emergence of the modern human species in Earth’s Anthropocene. The book begins with an overview of the processes of evolutionary fitness, the epicenter of the principles of evolutionary biology. Whether through natural or experimental occurrence, evolutionary fitness has been found to be the cardinal instance of evolutionary links in an organism between its ancestral and contemporary states. The book then goes on to detail evolutionary trails and lineages of groups of organisms including mammalians, reptilians, and various fish. The final section of the book provides a look back at the evolutionary journey of "nonliving" or extinct organisms, versus the modern-day transition to "living" or extant organisms. The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms is the ideal resource for any researcher or advanced student in evolutionary studies, ranging from evolutionary biology to general life sciences. Provides an updated compendium of evolution research history Details the evolution trails of organisms, including mammals, reptiles, arthropods, annelids, mollusks, protozoa, and more Offers an accessible and easy-to-read presentation of complex, in-depth evolutionary biology facts and theories

Understanding Evolution

Understanding Evolution Book
Author : Kostas Kampourakis
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2014-04-03
ISBN : 1107034914
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bringing together conceptual obstacles and core concepts of evolutionary theory, this book presents evolution as straightforward and intuitive.

Embryos in Deep Time

Embryos in Deep Time Book
Author : Marcelo Sánchez-Villagra
Publisher : Univ of California Press
Release : 2012-04-03
ISBN : 0520952308
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

How can we bring together the study of genes, embryos and fossils? Embryos in Deep Time is a critical synthesis of the study of individual development in fossils. It brings together an up-to-date review of concepts from comparative anatomy, ecology and developmental genetics, and examples of different kinds of animals from diverse geological epochs and geographic areas. Can fossil embryos demonstrate evolutionary changes in reproductive modes? How have changes in ocean chemistry in the past affected the development of marine organisms? What can the microstructure of fossil bone and teeth reveal about maturation time, longevity and changes in growth phases? This book addresses these and other issues and documents with numerous examples and illustrations how fossils provide evidence not only of adult anatomy but also of the life history of individuals at different growth stages. The central topic of Biology today—the transformations occurring during the life of an organism and the mechanisms behind them—is addressed in an integrative manner for extinct animals.

Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science

Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science Book
Author : National Academy of Sciences,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Science Education,Working Group on Teaching Evolution
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1998-05-06
ISBN : 0309063647
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Today many school students are shielded from one of the most important concepts in modern science: evolution. In engaging and conversational style, Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science provides a well-structured framework for understanding and teaching evolution. Written for teachers, parents, and community officials as well as scientists and educators, this book describes how evolution reveals both the great diversity and similarity among the Earth's organisms; it explores how scientists approach the question of evolution; and it illustrates the nature of science as a way of knowing about the natural world. In addition, the book provides answers to frequently asked questions to help readers understand many of the issues and misconceptions about evolution. The book includes sample activities for teaching about evolution and the nature of science. For example, the book includes activities that investigate fossil footprints and population growth that teachers of science can use to introduce principles of evolution. Background information, materials, and step-by-step presentations are provided for each activity. In addition, this volume: Presents the evidence for evolution, including how evolution can be observed today. Explains the nature of science through a variety of examples. Describes how science differs from other human endeavors and why evolution is one of the best avenues for helping students understand this distinction. Answers frequently asked questions about evolution. Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science builds on the 1996 National Science Education Standards released by the National Research Councilâ€"and offers detailed guidance on how to evaluate and choose instructional materials that support the standards. Comprehensive and practical, this book brings one of today's educational challenges into focus in a balanced and reasoned discussion. It will be of special interest to teachers of science, school administrators, and interested members of the community.

Tempo and Mode in Evolution

Tempo and Mode in Evolution Book
Author : George Gaylord Simpson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1965
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Tempo and Mode in Evolution book written by George Gaylord Simpson, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Evolution

Evolution Book
Author : Brian Charlesworth,Deborah Charlesworth
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0198804369
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text is about the central role of evolution in shaping the nature and diversity of the living world. It describes the processes of natural selection, how adaptations arise, and how new species form, as well as summarizing the evidence for evolution

Evolution of Nervous Systems

Evolution of Nervous Systems Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-11-23
ISBN : 0128040963
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Evolution of Nervous Systems, Second Edition is a unique, major reference which offers the gold standard for those interested both in evolution and nervous systems. All biology only makes sense when seen in the light of evolution, and this is especially true for the nervous system. All animals have nervous systems that mediate their behaviors, many of them species specific, yet these nervous systems all evolved from the simple nervous system of a common ancestor. To understand these nervous systems, we need to know how they vary and how this variation emerged in evolution. In the first edition of this important reference work, over 100 distinguished neuroscientists assembled the current state-of-the-art knowledge on how nervous systems have evolved throughout the animal kingdom. This second edition remains rich in detail and broad in scope, outlining the changes in brain and nervous system organization that occurred from the first invertebrates and vertebrates, to present day fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals, and especially primates, including humans. The book also includes wholly new content, fully updating the chapters in the previous edition and offering brand new content on current developments in the field. Each of the volumes has been carefully restructured to offer expanded coverage of non-mammalian taxa, mammals, primates, and the human nervous system. The basic principles of brain evolution are discussed, as are mechanisms of change. The reader can select from chapters on highly specific topics or those that provide an overview of current thinking and approaches, making this an indispensable work for students and researchers alike. Presents a broad range of topics, ranging from genetic control of development in invertebrates, to human cognition, offering a one-stop resource for the evolution of nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom Incorporates the expertise of over 100 outstanding investigators who provide their conclusions in the context of the latest experimental results Presents areas of disagreement and consensus views that provide a holistic view of the subjects under discussion

The Timetree of Life

The Timetree of Life Book
Author : S. Blair Hedges,Sudhir Kumar
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2009-04-23
ISBN : 019160898X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The evolutionary history of life includes two primary components: phylogeny and timescale. Phylogeny refers to the branching order (relationships) of species or other taxa within a group and is crucial for understanding the inheritance of traits and for erecting classifications. However, a timescale is equally important because it provides a way to compare phylogeny directly with the evolution of other organisms and with planetary history such as geology, climate, extraterrestrialimpacts, and other features.The Timetree of Life is the first reference book to synthesize the wealth of information relating to the temporal component of phylogenetic trees. In the past, biologists have relied exclusively upon the fossil record to infer an evolutionary timescale. However, recent revolutionary advances in molecular biology have made it possible to not only estimate the relationships of many groups of organisms, but also to estimate their times of divergence with molecular clocks. The routineestimation and utilization of these so-called 'time-trees' could add exciting new dimensions to biology including enhanced opportunities to integrate large molecular data sets with fossil and biogeographic evidence (and thereby foster greater communication between molecular and traditional systematists). Theycould help estimate not only ancestral character states but also evolutionary rates in numerous categories of organismal phenotype; establish more reliable associations between causal historical processes and biological outcomes; develop a universally standardized scheme for biological classifications; and generally promote novel avenues of thought in many arenas of comparative evolutionary biology.This authoritative reference work brings together, for the first time, experts on all major groups of organisms to assemble a timetree of life. The result is a comprehensive resource on evolutionary history which will be an indispensable reference for scientists, educators, and students in the life sciences, earth sciences, and molecular biology. For each major group of organism, a representative is illustrated and a timetree of families and higher taxonomic groups is shown. Basic aspects ofthe evolutionary history of the group, the fossil record, and competing hypotheses of relationships are discussed. Details of the divergence times are presented for each node in the timetree, and primary literature references are included. The book is complemented by an online database(www.timetree.net) which allows researchers to both deposit and retrieve data.

Macroevolution in Deep Time

Macroevolution in Deep Time Book
Author : Rituparna Bose,Alexander J. Bartholomew
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-01-25
ISBN : 9781461464754
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The prerequisite to investigating the underlying causes behind mass extinction is a profound understanding of the evolutionary history of both living and dead species. It is especially important to appreciate the significance of such studies in extinct organisms; especially in organisms that were abundant in a certain geologic era, but have subsequently dwindled or become extinct. Such studies should help to accurately evaluate patterns of evolution in extinct species lineages and help predict the same in its modern analogs. The book includes cutting edge research in evolutionary biology that should serve as a starting point for conservation. ​

Extinction and Phylogeny

Extinction and Phylogeny Book
Author : Michael J. Novacek
Publisher : Columbia University Press
Release : 1992
ISBN : 9780231074384
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

More than 99 percent of all life that has ever existed on this planet is extinct. Moreover, human acceleration of the extinction of species has created a crisis in biodiversity. How can the history of past life be retrieved? How does this history bear on our understanding of the organization and evolution of present-day species? These questions are addressed in Extinction and Phylogeny. This book offers new and original research by leading authorities on evolutionary and systematic biology, who rank among the best of the dynamic investigators of botany, zoology, and paleontology. This exciting book includes chapters about the recovery of information from living biota, taking into account the limitations of sampling and the steady rate of contemporary extinction of taxa. Complementary discussions elucidate problems involving the analysis of data sets of variable completeness--for example, partially preserved fossils or patchy samples of extant taxa. Extinction and Phylogeny balances empirical issues with the theoretical and applies cladistic methodology. This detailed text will prove to be a leading-edge book for professional and student biologists alike and for those in related disciplines. The relationship between extinction and phylogenetic theory must be understood if we are to explain existing biological diversity and effectively assess the declining biodiversity of our planet in the decades to come.

Time Traveler

Time Traveler Book
Author : Michael Novacek
Publisher : Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Release : 2003-03-15
ISBN : 1429935731
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hunting for fossils with a preeminent guide and teacher Michael Novacek, a world-renowned paleontologist who has discovered important fossils on virtually every continent, is an authority on patterns of evolution and on the relationships among extinct and extant organisms. Time Traveler is his captivating account of how his boyhood enthusiasm for dinosaurs became a lifelong commitment to vanguard science. He takes us with him as he discovers fossils in his own backyard in Los Angeles, then goes looking for them in the high Andes, the black volcanic mountains of Yemen, and the incredibly rich fossil badlands of the Gobi desert. Wherever Novacek goes he searches for still undiscovered evidence of what life was like on Earth millions of years ago. Along the way he has almost drowned, been stung by deadly scorpions, been held at gunpoint by a renegade army, and nearly choked in raging dust storms. Fieldwork is very demanding in a host of unusual, dramatic, sometimes hilarious ways, and Novacek writes of its alluring perils with affection and discernment. But Time Traveler also makes sense of many complex themes - about dinosaur evolution, continental drift, mass extinctions, new methods for understanding ancient environments, and the evolutionary secrets of DNA in fossil organisms. It is also an enthralling adventure story.

Opportunities in Biology

Opportunities in Biology Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Board on Biology,Committee on Research Opportunities in Biology
Publisher : National Academies
Release : 1989-01-01
ISBN : 0309039274
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biology has entered an era in which interdisciplinary cooperation is at an all-time high, practical applications follow basic discoveries more quickly than ever before, and new technologiesâ€"recombinant DNA, scanning tunneling microscopes, and moreâ€"are revolutionizing the way science is conducted. The potential for scientific breakthroughs with significant implications for society has never been greater. Opportunities in Biology reports on the state of the new biology, taking a detailed look at the disciplines of biology; examining the advances made in medicine, agriculture, and other fields; and pointing out promising research opportunities. Authored by an expert panel representing a variety of viewpoints, this volume also offers recommendations on how to meet the infrastructure needsâ€"for funding, effective information systems, and other supportâ€"of future biology research. Exploring what has been accomplished and what is on the horizon, Opportunities in Biology is an indispensable resource for students, teachers, and researchers in all subdisciplines of biology as well as for research administrators and those in funding agencies.

Darwin s Fossils

Darwin s Fossils Book
Author : Adrian Lister
Publisher : Smithsonian Institution
Release : 2018-04-24
ISBN : 158834617X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reveals how Darwin's study of fossils shaped his scientific thinking and led to his development of the theory of evolution. Darwin's Fossils is an accessible account of Darwin's pioneering work on fossils, his adventures in South America, and his relationship with the scientific establishment. While Darwin's research on Galápagos finches is celebrated, his work on fossils is less well known. Yet he was the first to collect the remains of giant extinct South American mammals; he worked out how coral reefs and atolls formed; he excavated and explained marine fossils high in the Andes; and he discovered a fossil forest that now bears his name. All of this research was fundamental in leading Darwin to develop his revolutionary theory of evolution. This richly illustrated book brings Darwin's fossils, many of which survive in museums and institutions around the world, together for the first time. Including new photography of many of the fossils--which in recent years have enjoyed a surge of scientific interest--as well as superb line drawings produced in the nineteenth century and newly commissioned artists' reconstructions of the extinct animals as they are understood today, Darwin's Fossils reveals how Darwin's discoveries played a crucial role in the development of his groundbreaking ideas.

Dominance and Aggression in Humans and Other Animals

Dominance and Aggression in Humans and Other Animals Book
Author : Henry R. Hermann
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-01-05
ISBN : 0128092955
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Dominance and Aggression in Humans and Other Animals: The Great Game of Life examines human nature and the influence of evolution, genetics, chemistry, nurture, and the sociopolitical environment as a way of understanding how and why humans behave in aggressive and dominant ways. The book walks us through aggression in other social species, compares and contrasts human behavior to other animals, and then explores specific human behaviors like bullying, abuse, territoriality murder, and war. The book examines both individual and group aggression in different environments including work, school, and the home. It explores common stressors triggering aggressive behaviors, and how individual personalities can be vulnerable to, or resistant to, these stressors. The book closes with an exploration of the cumulative impact of human aggression and dominance on the natural world. Reviews the influence of evolution, genetics, biochemistry, and nurture on aggression Explores aggression in multiple species, including insects, fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals Compares human and animal aggressive and dominant behavior Examines bullying, abuse, territoriality, murder, and war Includes nonaggressive behavior in displays of respect and tolerance Highlights aggression triggers from drugs to stress Discusses individual and group behavior, including organizations and nations Probes dominance and aggression in religion and politics Translates the impact of human behavior over time on the natural world

Strickberger s Evolution

Strickberger s Evolution Book
Author : Brian Hall,Monroe W. Strickberger,Benedikt Hallgr?msson
Publisher : Jones & Bartlett Learning
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0763700665
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thoroughly updated and reorganized, Strickberger's Evolution, Fourth Edition, presents biology students with a basic introduction to prevailing knowledge and ideas about evolution, discussing how, why, and where the world and its organisms changed throughout history. Keeping consistent with Strickberger's engaging writing style, the authors carefully unfold a broad range of philosophical and historical topics that frame the theories of today including cosmological and geological evolution and its impact on life, the origins of life on earth, the development of molecular pathways from genetic systems to organismic morphology and function, the evolutionary history of organisms from microbes to animals, and the numerous molecular and populational concepts thatexplain the earth's dynamic evolution.

Dogs

Dogs Book
Author : Xiaoming Wang,Richard H. Tedford
Publisher : Columbia University Press
Release : 2008-07-03
ISBN : 023150943X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Two noted paleontologists present a detailed portrait of the family Canidae across 40 million years of evolution in this illustrated volume. After decades of research and analysis, paleontologists Xiaoming Wang and Richard H. Tedford established the modern framework for understanding the evolutionary relationship of canids. Combining their work with Mauricio Antón's reconstructions of both extinct and extant species, Wang and Tedford now present a nuanced and visually stunning portrait of the origin and evolution of canids. The fossil record of the Canidae, particularly those from their birthplace in North America, are the strongest of their kind among known groups of carnivorans. Such a wonderfully detailed evolutionary history makes the canid an ideal model organism for the mapping of predator behavior and morphological specializations. With its innovative illustrated approach to this important branch of animal and fossil study, Dogs provides an unprecedented reference for anyone interested in the evolution of these fascinating animals.

Predation in Organisms

Predation in Organisms Book
Author : Ashraf M.T. Elewa
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-01-10
ISBN : 3540460462
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Predation is considered one of the distinct phenomena related to the interrelationships between species on the Earth. In general, predation is widespread not only in wildlife but also in marine environments where big fishes eat small fishes and other organisms of the sea. This book considers predation in organisms and is aimed at the prevention of predation in wildlife and marine environments.

Assembling the Tree of Life

Assembling the Tree of Life Book
Author : Joel Cracraft,Michael J. Donoghue,Curator the Herbarium Peabody Museum of Natural History Michael J Donoghue
Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
Release : 2004-07-22
ISBN : 0195172345
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides a synthesis of knowledge about the history of life. This work treats the major groups of organisms. It is useful for evolutionary biologists, taxonomists, ecologists interested in biodiversity, and for organismic biologists, botanists, and microbiologists.

Adaptation and Natural Selection

Adaptation and Natural Selection Book
Author : George Christopher Williams
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2018-10-30
ISBN : 0691185506
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biological evolution is a fact—but the many conflicting theories of evolution remain controversial even today. When Adaptation and Natural Selection was first published in 1966, it struck a powerful blow against those who argued for the concept of group selection—the idea that evolution acts to select entire species rather than individuals. Williams’s famous work in favor of simple Darwinism over group selection has become a classic of science literature, valued for its thorough and convincing argument and its relevance to many fields outside of biology. Now with a new foreword by Richard Dawkins, Adaptation and Natural Selection is an essential text for understanding the nature of scientific debate.