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The Epigenome And Developmental Origins Of Health And Disease

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The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Book
Author : Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-10-10
ISBN : 0128016728
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease synthesizes the existing knowledge on how the in utero environment could be the most important environment in shaping later risk for various diseases or to conversely promote the health of the offspring. The book mines the existing literature from a variety of disciplines from toxicology to nutrition to epigenetics to reveal how contrasting maternal in utero environmental changes might be leading to epigenetic convergence and the resulting deleterious phenotypic and physiological effects in our offspring. It is increasingly becoming apparent that even subtle changes in the mother’s diet, stress, and exposure to low concentrations of toxic chemicals at levels deemed safe by the EPA and FDA, such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC), can dramatically impact the health of our children, possibly leading to metabolic, cardiovascular, immunological, neurobehavioral disorders, and increased risk for cancer to list but a few examples. Informs how everyday choices pregnant women make can impact child development Ties together how in utero environmental changes may be inducing epigenetic changes in the offspring leading to overlapping phenotypes regardless of the initial insult (toxic, nutrition, or stress) Includes a boxed-in area in each chapter for further references and resources to keep up with the field Features video interviews with the authors and other key leaders in the field

The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Book
Author : Cheryl Rosenfeld
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015-11-09
ISBN : 9781974804108
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease book written by Cheryl Rosenfeld, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Developmental Origins of Health and Disease DOHaD

Developmental Origins of Health and Disease  DOHaD  Book
Author : Takeo Kubota,Hideoki Fukuoka
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-06-28
ISBN : 9811055262
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book addresses the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD), a new medical concept that demonstrates that various adult diseases start in the fetal period. It discusses our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of DOHaD, including gene body epigenetics and non-coding RNA, and comprehensively examines diseases such type 2 diabetes, a well known as standard DOHaD-associated disease, as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertension and neurodevelopmental disorders. It argues that most adult diseases start at a very early stage, such as in the fetal and neonatal periods, and that earlier prevention and intervention would result in better outcomes for adult diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiac disorders, which are increasing in both developed and developing countries. The book appeals to obstetricians and pediatricians, as well as physicians who treat adult patients, wanting to understand the origins of diseases.

Pre emptive Medicine Public Health Aspects of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

Pre emptive Medicine  Public Health Aspects of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Book
Author : Fumihiro Sata,Hideoki Fukuoka,Mark Hanson
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-12-11
ISBN : 9811321949
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book reviews public health activities such as awareness campaigns, health education, and strategies for health policy based on recent epidemiological studies that provide insights into epigenetic processes caused by environmental factors and developmental plasticity. It provides the latest concepts and findings on the public health aspects of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) research regarding early prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Attention is especially paid to key issues, including strategies for the effective prevention of NCDs in developmental stages of life and younger generations rather than in adults and the elderly. Public Health Aspects in Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) is structured in two parts; the first focuses on general remarks reviewing specific recommendations, practical methods and protocols, and future goals regarding public health aspects, while the second presents brief profiles of individual cohorts and consortia studies. This collection will benefit both new and established researchers, as well as students in the fields of epidemiology, clinical medicine, nutrition, education, and public health who are seeking comprehensive information on DOHaD and preemptive medicine.

Investigating the Contribution of Imprinting and Epigenetic Inheritance to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

Investigating the Contribution of Imprinting and Epigenetic Inheritance to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Book
Author : Elizabeth Jane Radford
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Investigating the Contribution of Imprinting and Epigenetic Inheritance to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease book written by Elizabeth Jane Radford, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Early Life Origins of Human Health and Disease

Early Life Origins of Human Health and Disease Book
Author : John P. Newnham,Michael G. Ross
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release : 2009-01-01
ISBN : 380559139X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There is compelling evidence that many of the risks leading to the most frequent chronic diseases in adulthood originate in the earliest stages of life. Adverse environmental conditions in utero and during infancy can lead to negative health effects during the subsequent lifetime of the exposed individual.This book offers precious insights into the latest concepts and results from epidemiologic, clinical and basic studies in this burgeoning area of health care. The developmental origins of various diseases such as diabetes, obesity and cancer are examined, as well as the early programming of reproductive health and different organs. Attention is given to the impact of environmental factors such as nutrition and pollution, and the mediating genetic and epigenetic pathways are reviewed. A crucial point under discussion is the concept of environmental insults adversely affecting not only the exposed persons, but also their descendants. In addition, the economic consequences of a suboptimal start to life and the importance of preventive measures are stressed.This publication is of great value to anyone interested in health care, notably to specialists in obstetrics, pediatrics, internal medicine, obesity, diabetes and heart disease.

Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease

Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease Book
Author : Randy L Jirtle,Frederick L. Tyson
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-05-16
ISBN : 3642233805
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There are now compelling human epidemiological and animal experimental data that indicate the risk of developing adult-onset complex diseases and neurological disorders are influenced by persistent epigenetic adaptations in response to prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors. Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of the DNA. The main components of the epigenetic code are DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. The epigenetic programs are established as stem cell differentiate during embryogenesis, and they are normally faithfully reproduced during mitosis. Moreover, they can also be maintained during meiosis, resulting in epigenetic transgenerational disease inheritance, and also potentially introducing phenotypic variation that is selected for in the evolution of new species. The objective of this book is to provide evidence that environmental exposures during early development can alter the risk of developing medical conditions, such as asthma, autism, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and schizophrenia later in life by modifying the epigenome.

Epigenetic Epidemiology

Epigenetic Epidemiology Book
Author : Karin B. Michels
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-01-03
ISBN : 9400724942
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The exploding field of epigenetics is challenging the dogma of traditional Mendelian inheritance. Epigenetics plays an important role in shaping who we are and contributes to our prospects of health and disease. While early epigenetic research focused on plant and animal models and in vitro experiments, population-based epidemiologic studies increasingly incorporate epigenetic components. The relevance of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, genomic imprinting, and histone modification for disease causation has yet to be fully explored. This book covers the basic concepts of epigenetic epidemiology, discusses challenges in study design, analysis, and interpretation, epigenetic laboratory techniques, the influence of of age and environmental factors on shaping the epigenome, the role of epigenetics in the developmental origins hypothesis, and provides the state of the art on the epigenetic epidemiology of various health conditions including childhood syndromes, cancer, infectious diseases, inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders, psychiatric disorders, diabetes, obesity and metabolic disorders, and atherosclerosis. With contributions from: Peter Jones, Jean-Pierre Issa, Gavin Kelsey, Robert Waterland, and many other experts in epigenetics!

Preconception Health and Care A Life Course Approach

Preconception Health and Care  A Life Course Approach Book
Author : Jill Shawe,Eric A.P. Steegers,Sarah Verbiest
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-06-26
ISBN : 3030317536
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a practical, multidisciplinary approach to support a broad range of health professionals, social workers, public health workers and others tasked with providing health and care to young adults. The continuum of life begins with the health and wellness of parents prior to conception, followed by embryonic and fetal development, and continues throughout life. Each person’s life stages prepare them for the next and determine their health outcome and wellbeing over time. The text highlights the importance of promoting health throughout the lifespan, the influence of intergenerational health, and the concept of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease in epigenetic processes and embryology. Authors underscore the importance of advancing health equity and lift up some of the ethical considerations in this work. The authors explore specific interventions in four major categories: Lifestyle, Infections, Nutrition, and Contraception / Pregnancy Planning (LINC). Preconception care is defined by the World Health Organization as the provision of biomedical, behavioural and social health interventions to women and couples before conception. Preconception care includes evidence-based interventions to improve health status, to reduce behaviours, individual and environmental factors that contribute to poor health outcomes. This book offers readers evidence-based guidance regarding fertility awareness and sperm health, genetic counselling and lifestyle assessments, as well as mental wellbeing, alcohol, tobacco and pharmacotherapy, and specialist care for those with chronic conditions, including a review of medications. It also covers relevant infections, including HIV and the Zika virus, as well as different types of environmental and occupational exposure. The book employs a framework focusing on health promotion, the social determinants of health, and the science behind preconception care. Strategies for improving preconception and interconception health, including examples from around the globe, are described in detail.

Early Life Origins of Ageing and Longevity

Early Life Origins of Ageing and Longevity Book
Author : Alexander Vaiserman
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-29
ISBN : 3030249581
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the field of developmental programming of ageing phenotypes. Although gerontological research has traditionally focused on later stages of the life cycle, growing evidence indicates that both the rate of ageing-associated functional declines, and the risks of later-life chronic pathological conditions, can be traced to origins early in life. While other books in the field concentrate on the developmental origin of particular disorders, this volume offers a detailed guide to all important aspects of the role of early-life conditions in programming both chronic pathological conditions and the ageing process. Interest in the study of ageing and longevity had its beginnings in research on the fetal origins of adult disease. This has evolved into a hypothesis on the Developmental Origins of Adult Health and Disease (DOHaD), which postulates that adverse environmental exposures during critical in-utero and early postnatal stages of development may permanently change physiological responses and cause functional impairments and disorders in adult life. In this book, the contributing authors and leading experts from around the world, describe research on mechanisms underlying the developmental programming phenomenon, as well as interventional strategies aimed at restoring developmentally disrupted epigenetic patterns. Early Life Origins of Ageing and Longevity benefits a wide audience of working scientists, clinicians, and advanced students, and will also interest scientifically curious general readers who wish to know more about current research in this rapidly evolving field.

The Effects of Contemporary Political Economy on Laboratory Labor in the Production of Obesity Knowledge and Environmental Biomedical Subjecthood Within the Sciences of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and Epigenetics

The Effects of Contemporary Political Economy on Laboratory Labor in the Production of Obesity Knowledge and Environmental Biomedical Subjecthood Within the Sciences of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and Epigenetics Book
Author : Robbin Jeffries Hein
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Obesity rates have increased over the past few decades in the United States. In response, national research funding has increased, but the field of obesity research is competitive. Therefore, basic science researchers pursue novel explanations that now include environmental determinants of obesity. Those who produce raw experimental data, however, are not principal investigators; they are 'technicians' who are post-doctorates, international medical graduates, and recent immigrant scientists. This dissertation, therefore, analyzes how the political economy of laboratory fact making, in the context of a purported health crisis, shapes obesity knowledge and the biomedical workforce at my field site. I argue that research at my site is structured by political and economic forces that impact how investigators and technicians conduct scientific practice in a process I call "anticipatory caretaking practices." Drawing on scholarship in science, technology, medicine, and also gender and health, the notion of anticipatory caretaking practices reveals what kinds of obesity knowledge are produced and by whom. I show how political and economic precarity impacts anticipatory practices and how that, in turn, affects laboratory experimental systems. I also illustrate how environmental biomedical subjecthood is produced via model animal organisms of human health. In this context, I also demonstrate how the labor of animal biomass is productive of scientific capital in the form of valuable data. Finally, I describe how grant-based funding impacts investigators as they seek novel yet familiar experimental questions to help make them more competitive in the field of developmental environmental obesity research. Each of these findings reflects changes in laboratory labor and show how, as a consequence of the environmental turn in obesity, an environmental politics of reproduction is produced. This dissertation contributes to scholarship at the intersections of science and technology studies, sociology of health and medicine, gender, and work and occupations.

Hastings Law Journal

Hastings Law Journal Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Hastings Law Journal book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Hastings Law Journal

The Hastings Law Journal Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Hastings Law Journal book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Fat Fate and Disease

Fat  Fate  and Disease Book
Author : Peter Gluckman,Mark Hanson
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2012-01-26
ISBN : 0191632961
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

'Why are we losing the war against obesity and chronic disease?' This is the simple question Peter Gluckman and Mark Hanson ask, exploring the dominant myth that the exploding epidemic of obesity, heart disease, and diabetes can be tackled by focusing on adult life styles. Addressing the flawed approach of the weight-loss industry, they explain why a continued focus simply on diet and exercise will fail. Highlighting the implications of the growing burden of these problems in the developing world, they show that the scientific enterprise ignores the reality of the social, cultural, and biological determinants that make different populations and people respond differently to living in the modern nutritionally rich world. Gluckman and Hanson review the overwhelming scientific evidence that much of the problem emerges in early life and even before birth, identifying that to address these issues requires considering development in two dimensions - a life course approach and addressing the developmental challenges of countries emerging through the socioeconomic transition. Asking why the major global bodies and vested interests fail to consider these dimensions and continue with failed approaches, they conclude by discussing the complex interactions between health and the food industry, and suggest that the food industry must be co-opted as an ally in this battle, providing a clear pathway forward.

Human Growth and Development

Human Growth and Development Book
Author : Noel Professor Cameron,Barry Bogin
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-09-01
ISBN : 012384651X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Offering a study of biological, biomedical and biocultural approaches, the second edition of Human Growth and Development is a valued resource for researchers, professors and graduate students across the interdisciplinary area of human development. With timely chapters on obesity, diet / lifestyle, and genetics, this edition is the only publication offering a biological, biomedical and biocultural approach. The second edition of Human Growth and Development includes contributions from the well-known experts in the field and is the most reputable, comprehensive resource available. New chapters discussing genomics and epigenetics, developmental origins, body proportions and health and the brain and neurological development Presented in the form of lectures to facilitate student programming Updated content highlighting the latest research on the relationship between early growth and later (adult) outcomes: the developmental origins of health and disease

Epigenetic Programming of Cardiovascular Disease by Perinatal Hypoxia and Fetal Growth Restriction

Epigenetic Programming of Cardiovascular Disease by Perinatal Hypoxia and Fetal Growth Restriction Book
Author : Paola Casanello
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Most of the worldwide deaths in patients with non-communicable diseases are due to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, which are determined by a mix of environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors, and by their interactions. The aetiology of most cardiovascular diseases has been partially linked with in utero adverse conditions that may increase the risk of developing diseases later in life, known as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Perinatal hypoxia can program the fetal and postnatal developmental patterns, resulting in permanent modifications of cells, organs and systems function. In spite of the vast evidence obtained from human and animal studies linking development under adverse intrauterine conditions with increased cardiovascular risk, still few is known about the specific effects of intrauterine oxygen deficiency and the related pathogenic mechanisms. Currently, the most accepted processes that program cellular function are epigenetic mechanisms which determine gene expression in a cell-specific fashion. In this chapter we will review the current literature regarding the perinatal exposure to chronic hypoxia and Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR) in humans and animals and how this impinges the cardiovascular physiology through epigenetic, biochemical, morphologic and pathophysiologic modifications that translate into diseases blasting at postnatal life.

Parental Obesity Intergenerational Programming and Consequences

Parental Obesity  Intergenerational Programming and Consequences Book
Author : Lucy R. Green,Robert L. Hester
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-11-01
ISBN : 1493963864
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this book, leading figures in the field of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease provide up-to-date information from human clinical trials, cohorts, and animal physiology experiments to reveal the interdependence between parental obesity and health of the offspring. Obesity of the mother and father produces obesity in their offspring, so we are caught up in an intergenerational cycle, which means that even our children’s future health is in peril. This book gives a timely and much-needed synthesis of the mechanisms, potential targets of future interventions, and the challenges that need to be overcome in order to break the intergenerational cycle of obesity. This has profound implications for the way in which scientific, clinical and health policy activities are to be directed in order to combat the so-called epidemic of obesity, as well as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease. The book will be of interest to students, clinicians, researchers and health policy makers who are either seeking an introduction to the area of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease or have a specific interest in the pathogenesis of obesity.

Neuroendocrine Regulation of Animal Vocalization

Neuroendocrine Regulation of Animal Vocalization Book
Author : Cheryl S. Rosenfeld,Frauke Hoffmann
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-12-04
ISBN : 0128151617
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuroendocrine Regulation of Animal Vocalization: Mechanisms and Anthropogenic Factors in Animal Communication examines the underpinning neuroendocrine (NE) mechanisms that drive animal communication across taxa. Written by international subject experts, the book focuses on the importance of animal communication in survival and reproduction at an individual and species level, and the impact that increased production and accumulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can have on these regulatory processes. This book discusses sound production, perception, processing, and response across a range of animals. This includes insects, fish, bats, birds, nonhuman primates, infant humans, and many others. Some chapters analyze how neuroactive substances, endocrine control, and chemical pollution affect the physiology of the animal’s perceptive and sound-producing organs, as well as their auditory and vocal receptors and pathways. Other chapters address the recent approaches governments have taken to protect against the endocrine disruption of animal (vocal) behaviors. The book is a valuable resource for researchers and advanced students seeking first-rate material on neuroendocrinological effects on animal behavior and communication. Serves as the most comprehensive cross-taxa study of its kind, revolutionary in its focus on the impacts of EDCs on the processes guiding animal communication Emphasizes the importance of production, perception and processing of acoustic vocalization for survival Analyzes recent governmental policies and protections against the effects of EDCs on humans and wildlife

Early Life Origins of Health and Disease

Early Life Origins of Health and Disease Book
Author : E. Marelyn Wintour-Coghlan,Julie Owens
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-02-26
ISBN : 0387326324
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Early Life Origins of Health and Disease is a new book which presents and discusses the many factors that may have impact on normal development. In a concise and readable manner, the authors consider both the proven and suggestive evidence that the high prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, obesity and, in some populations, kidney disease, may not be all due to genetics or adult environment alone. There is good evidence that stress and more subtle dietary deficiencies, as well as placental malfunction, may increase the risk that the offspring will develop these problems in later life. Finally, new and emerging evidence for other areas of human health and disease such a motor control and mental health is critically reviewed for the first time. The book is a ‘must’ for all scientists interested in researching these areas, as there is a critical evaluation of the methodology used and suggestions for the ‘optimal’ way in which to investigate these phenomena.

Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics

Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics Book
Author : Shuai Li,John Hopper
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-10-15
ISBN : 9780128209516
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years, epigenetic modifications have been shown to play an important role in human development and disease progression, and results from ongoing epidemiological studies are already driving advances in medicine and public health. Twin and family studies in epigenetics, by design, offer a unique ability to assess disease risk factors and evaluate interventions across the human lifespan. With Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics, a new volume in the Translational Epigenetics series, Editors John Hopper and Shuai Li gather expert opinion on epigenetic twin and family study research methods, recent findings across various across disease areas, and future directions for research and clinical application. Here more than 15 leaders in the field provide in-depth coverage of epigenetics fundamentals, twin and family epigenetic study design, and the broader role of epigenetics in answering our questions on the developmental origins of health and disease. Throughout the volume, twin and family studies are employed to examine causes of epigenetic variation, the relationship between epigenetic modifications and mental illness, cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and high blood pressure, among other diseases and disorders. Emerging research methods applied in twin and family studies discussed include imaging epigenetics, exposure-specific DNA methylation changes, and unravelling time trends in epigenetic effects. Offers a practical, interdisciplinary approach across epigenetics, epidemiology, and various disease specialties Applies epigenetics twin and family studies to determine relationship between epigenetics and mental illness, cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and high blood pressure, among other diseases and disorders Features chapter contributions from a wide range of international researchers in the field