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The Economics Of Primary Health Care

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OECD Health Policy Studies Realising the Potential of Primary Health Care

OECD Health Policy Studies Realising the Potential of Primary Health Care Book
Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2020-05-30
ISBN : 9264561625
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report examines primary health care across OECD countries before the COVID-19 pandemic, and draws attention to how primary health care is not living up to its full potential. Doing things differently – through new models of organising services, better co-ordination among providers, better use of digital technology, and better use of resources and incentives – helps to improve care, reduce the need for hospitalisations, and mitigate health inequalities.

Tracking Resources For Primary Health Care A Framework And Practices In Low And Middle income Countries

Tracking Resources For Primary Health Care  A Framework And Practices In Low  And Middle income Countries Book
Author : Hong Wang,Peter Berman
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2020-06-03
ISBN : 9811212422
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The global health community is broadly in agreement that achievement of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) hinges upon both an escalation of the financial resources dedicated to primary health care (PHC) and a more effective use of those resources: more money, better spent. This book introduces and explicates the end-to-end resource tracking and management (RTM) framework, which includes five components that determine effective and efficient financing for PHC: resource mobilization, allocation, utilization, productivity, and targeting.In addition, this book compiles detailed results from the most recent RTM-based resource tracking efforts for PHC in selected countries. This is to demonstrate how the RTM framework can be used to bring a set of separate resource tracking efforts at different stages of flow of funds into a comprehensive process with an end-to-end 'storyline'. In order to build a functional PHC system that addresses access, quality, and equity issues, this book highlights the key (public) financing issues that researchers, technical advisors, and policy makers would need to address in addition to more resources.

Health Care Economics

Health Care Economics Book
Author : John B. Davis,Robert McMaster
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release : 2017-06-01
ISBN : 1317294017
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The analytical approach of standard health economics has so far failed to sufficiently account for the nature of care. This has important ramifications for the analysis and valuation of care, and therefore for the pattern of health and medical care provision. This book sets out an alternative approach, which places care at the center of an economics of health, showing how essential it is that care is appropriately recognized in policy as a means of enhancing the dignity of the individual. Whereas traditional health economics has tended to eschew value issues, this book embraces them, introducing care as a normative element at the center of theoretical analysis. Drawing upon care theory from feminist works, philosophy, nursing and medicine, and political economy, the authors develop a health care economics with a moral basis in health care systems. In providing deeper insights into the nature of care and caring, this book seeks to redress the shortcomings of the standard approach and contribute to the development of a more person-based approach to health and medical care in economics. Health Care Economics will be of interest to researchers and postgraduate students in health economics, heterodox economists, and those interested in health and medical care.

The Economics of Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequalities

The Economics of Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequalities Book
Author : World Health Organization
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release : 2013
ISBN : 9241548622
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"This resource book discusses the economic arguments that could (and could not) be put forth to support the case for investing in the social determinants of health on average and in the reduction in socially determined health inequalities. It provides an overview and introduction into how economists would approach the assessment of the economic motivation to invest in the social determinants of health and socially determined health inequities, including what the major challenges are in this assessment. It illustrates the extent to which an economic argument can be made in favour of investment in 3 major social determinants of health areas: education, social protection, and urban development and infrastructure. It describes whether education policy, social protection, and urban development, housing and transport policy can act as health policy"--

An Introduction to Community and Primary Health Care

An Introduction to Community and Primary Health Care Book
Author : Diana Guzys,Eileen Petrie
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 1107513529
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Community nursing is the fastest growing area of nursing practice in Australia. This book offers an engaging introduction to the theory, skills and application of community and primary health care. Based on the 'Social Model of Health', An Introduction to Community and Primary Health Care explores how social and environmental factors impact healthcare in Australian communities. It discusses the principles of health and mental health promotion, the importance of cultural competence and the practice of community needs assessment. The book is divided into three parts - theory, skills and health professionals in practice. This latter section is unique to this book and encourages students to consider how various nursing roles address issues of social justice, equality and access. Readable and highly practical, An Introduction to Community and Primary Health Care equips students with the theory, skills and understanding they will need as community and primary healthcare professionals working across Australia.

The Economics of Public Health Care Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Economics of Public Health Care Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies Book
Author : David Coady,Mr. Benedict J. Clements,Mr. Sanjeev Gupta
Publisher : International Monetary Fund
Release : 2012-04-13
ISBN : 1475583788
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Health care reform will be a key fiscal policy challenge in both advanced and emerging economies in coming years. In the advanced economies, the health sector has been one of the main drivers of government expenditure, accounting for about half of the rise in total spending over the past forty years. These spending pressures are expected to intensify over the next two decades, reflecting the aging of the population, income growth, and continued technological innovations in health care. These spending increases will come at a time when countries need to undertake fiscal consolidation to reduce public debt ratios in the wake of the global financial crisis. In the emerging economies, health care reform is also a key issue, given substantial lags in health indicators and limited fiscal resources. For these economies, the challenge will be to expand public coverage without undermining fiscal sustainability. This book provides new insights into these challenges and potential policy responses, with cross-country analysis and case studies.

Health Care Economics

Health Care Economics Book
Author : John B. Davis,Robert McMaster
Publisher : Routledge Advances in Social Economics
Release : 2017
ISBN : 9781138183049
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The analytical approach of standard health economics has so far failed to sufficiently account for the nature of care. This has important ramifications for the analysis and valuation of care, and therefore for the pattern of health and medical care provision. This book sets out an alternative approach, which places care at the center of an economics of health, showing how essential it is that care is appropriately recognized in policy as a means of enhancing the dignity of the individual. Whereas traditional health economics has tended to eschew value issues, this book embraces them, introducing care as a normative element at the center of theoretical analysis. Drawing upon care theory from feminist works, philosophy, nursing and medicine, and political economy, the authors develop a health care economics with a moral basis in health care systems. In providing deeper insights into the nature of care and caring, this book seeks to redress the shortcomings of the standard approach and contribute to the development of a more person-based approach to health and medical care in economics. Health Care Economics will be of interest to researchers and postgraduate students in health economics, heterodox economists, and those interested in health and medical care.

Building Primary Care in a Changing Europe

Building Primary Care in a Changing Europe Book
Author : Who Regional Office for Europe
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015-08-31
ISBN : 9789289050319
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

For many citizens primary health care is the first point of contact with their health care system, where most of their health needs are satisfied but also acting as the gate to the rest of the system. In that respect primary care plays a crucial role in how patients value health systems as responsive to their needs and expectations. This volume analyses the way how primary are is organized and delivered across European countries, looking at governance, financing and workforce aspects and the breadth of the service profiles. It describes wide national variations in terms of accessibility, continuity and coordination. Relating these differences to health system outcomes the authors suggest some priority areas for reducing the gap between the ideal and current realities.

Principles in Health Economics and Policy

Principles in Health Economics and Policy Book
Author : Jan Abel Olsen
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2017-08-24
ISBN : 0192513745
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Principles in Health Economics and Policy, second edition, is a concise introduction to health economics and its application to health policy. It introduces the subject of economics, explains the fundamental failures in the market for healthcare, and discusses the concepts of equity and fairness when applied to health and healthcare. This new edition presents a globally-relevant, policy-oriented approach, that emphasizes the application of economic analysis to universal health policy issues in an accessible manner. It explores four key questions currently facing health policy-makers across the globe: How should society intervene in the determinants that affect health? How should healthcare be financed? How should healthcare providers be paid? And, how should alternative healthcare programmes be evaluated when setting priorities? The book is an ideal guide to everyone interested in how the tools of health economics can be applied when shaping health policy.

The Economics of Health Care in Asia Pacific Countries

The Economics of Health Care in Asia Pacific Countries Book
Author : Teh-wei Hu,Chee-Ruey Hsieh
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2002-01-01
ISBN : 9781782542728
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In order to control ever-increasing health care expenditure, Western and Asian countries are seeking to develop more efficient health care models. Studies on health care that focus specifically on Asian countries are rare, rendering this a unique and welcome addition to the literature. This book presents quantitative research on various aspects of health care reform and health policy in Asia-Pacific countries such as China, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and the US - nations diverse in their economic development, social demographic structure and health care expenditures.

Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes

Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes Book
Author : M. F. Drummond
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 1997
ISBN : 9780192627742
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since its publication in 1987, Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes has become the standard textbook in this field world-wide. Over the past ten years, the field of economic evaluation in health care has expanded considerably, with a rapid rise in the number of published studies, and wider recognition of their use in health care decision-making. Developments in economic evaluation have also led to the publication of several guidelines for study methodology, most recently those proposed by the United States Public Health Services Panel. The new edition of Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes follows the same basic structure as the first edition. The key methodological principles are outlined using a critical appraisal checklist that can be applied to any published study. The methodological features of the basic forms of analysis (cost analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-benefit analysis) are then explained in more detail. The book has been greatly revised and enlarged, especially with respect to cost-utility and cost- benefit analysis, where major methodological developments have taken place. New to this edition are chapters on collecting and analysing data, and presenting and using economic evaluation results. The new edition will be required reading for anyone commissioning, undertaking, or using economic evaluations in health care, and will be popular with health service professionals, health economists, and health-care decision makers. Reviews of the first edition: 'An important contribution to studies on the economic evaluation of medical care...' (British Medical Journal) 'This is essential reading. Only if all managers are aware of the powers of economic techniques will they be used sensibly' (The Health Service Journal (UK) 'The methodological chapters on cost analysis and cost utility analysis are gems... should become the standard text on the subject at the intermediate level at which it is aimed.' (Medical Decision Making) 'It leaves nothing important in economic evaluation analysis untouched.' (Health Policy and Planning)

Health Economics and Healthcare Reform Breakthroughs in Research and Practice

Health Economics and Healthcare Reform  Breakthroughs in Research and Practice Book
Author : Management Association, Information Resources
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2017-07-12
ISBN : 1522531696
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The effective delivery of healthcare services is vital to the general welfare and well-being of a country’s citizens. Financial infrastructure and policy reform can play a significant role in optimizing existing healthcare programs. Health Economics and Healthcare Reform: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice is a comprehensive source of academic material on the importance of economic structures and policy reform initiatives in modern healthcare systems. Highlighting a range of pertinent topics such as clinical costing, patient engagement, and e-health, this book is ideally designed for medical practitioners, researchers, professionals, and students interested in the optimization of healthcare delivery.

The Oxford Handbook of Health Economics

The Oxford Handbook of Health Economics Book
Author : Sherry Glied,Peter C. Smith
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2013-05-23
ISBN : 0191667161
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Oxford Handbook of Health Economics provides an accessible and authoritative guide to health economics, intended for scholars and students in the field, as well as those in adjacent disciplines including health policy and clinical medicine. The chapters stress the direct impact of health economics reasoning on policy and practice, offering readers an introduction to the potential reach of the discipline. Contributions come from internationally-recognized leaders in health economics and reflect the worldwide reach of the discipline. Authoritative, but non-technical, the chapters place great emphasis on the connections between theory and policy-making, and develop the contributions of health economics to problems arising in a variety of institutional contexts, from primary care to the operations of health insurers. The volume addresses policy concerns relevant to health systems in both developed and developing countries. It takes a broad perspective, with relevance to systems with single or multi-payer health insurance arrangements, and to those relying predominantly on user charges; contributions are also included that focus both on medical care and on non-medical factors that affect health. Each chapter provides a succinct summary of the current state of economic thinking in a given area, as well as the author's unique perspective on issues that remain open to debate. The volume presents a view of health economics as a vibrant and continually advancing field, highlighting ongoing challenges and pointing to new directions for further progress.

Applied Health Economics for Public Health Practice and Research

Applied Health Economics for Public Health Practice and Research Book
Author : Rhiannon Tudor Edwards,Emma McIntosh
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2019-03-14
ISBN : 0191057231
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In today's world of scare resources, determining the optimal allocation of funds to preventive health care interventions (PHIs) is a challenge. The upfront investments needed must be viewed as long term projects, the benefits of which we will experience in the future. The long term positive change to PHIs from economic investment can be seen across multiple sectors such as health care, education, employment and beyond. Applied Health Economics for Public Health Practice and Research is the fifth in the series of Handbooks in Health Economic Evaluation. It presents new research on health economics methodology and application to the evaluation of public health interventions. Looking at traditional as well as novel methods of economic evaluation, the book covers the history of economics of public health and the economic rationale for government investment in prevention. In addition, it looks at principles of health economics, evidence synthesis, key methods of economic evaluation with accompanying case studies, and much more. Looking to the future, Applied Health Economics for Public Health Practice and Research presents priorities for research in the field of public health economics. It acknowledges the role played by natural environment in promoting better health, and the place of genetics, environment and socioeconomic status in determining population health. Ideal for health economists, public health researchers, local government workers, health care professionals, and those responsible for health policy development. Applied Health Economics for Public Health Practice and Research is an important contribution to the economic discussion of public health and resource allocation.

A System of Health Accounts

A System of Health Accounts Book
Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2000-05-15
ISBN : 9264181806
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This manual provides a set of comprehensive, consistent and flexible accounts to meet the needs of government and private-sector analysts and policy-makers. These accounts constitute a common framework for enhancing the comparability of data over time and across countries.

Health Care Finance Economics and Policy for Nurses

Health Care Finance  Economics  and Policy for Nurses Book
Author : Betty Rambur
Publisher : Springer Publishing Company
Release : 2015-04-16
ISBN : 0826123228
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Distills complex principles essential to nursing practice today into a concise, easy-to-read format The complexities of health care finance, economics, and policy are today inextricably intertwined with traditional nursing practice. This undergraduate nursing text distills these challenging topics into an engaging, easy-to-read format that facilitates ready application into any practice setting. Written specifically for RN to BSN and second degree nursing programs, the book is the only such text grounded in nurses' understanding and experience. Concise and practical, it supports foundational concepts with real-life case studies and clinical applications and reinforces information with interactive quizzes and multimedia materials. The book's content fulfills one of the AACN's key Essentials of Baccalaureate Education. Written by a health economics and policy expert, former dean, and award-winning teacher, the text synthesizes the vast scope of health economics to create an easily understandable guide for nursing action from bedside to boardroom. The text describes the relationship between nursing and health care economics, and traces the history of our health care system from the early 1900s. It contrasts the economics of health care with that of classic free markets, and discusses the intersection of ethics and economics-providing nurses with the ethical tools to thoughtfully consider dilemmas wrought by today's focus on the bottom line. The book describes how to use economic principles to shape organizations and public policy, and includes a step-by-step, skill-building guide to enhancing professional influence through participation on governing boards. Complex ideas are synthesized to create easy understanding and relevance to nursing practice, especially challenging financial principles for nurses having no prior knowledge of this discipline. The book also includes relevant information on the Affordable Care Act and is compatible with online teaching and coursework. Faculty resources include PowerPoint slides, a test bank, comprehensive review questions, and sample syllabi. Key Features: Fulfills one of the key Essentials of Baccalaureate Education Addresses the specific needs of RN to BSN courses with a concise, easy-to-read format Illuminates complex principles with specific, engaging case examples relevant to nursing practice Authored by leading nurse expert, health policy leader, former dean, and award-winning teacher Guides readers in using economic principles to shape organizations and public policy

Health System Efficiency

Health System Efficiency Book
Author : Jonathan Cylus,Irene Papanicolas,Peter C. Smith
Publisher : Health Policy
Release : 2016-12-15
ISBN : 9789289050418
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this book the authors explore the state of the art on efficiency measurement in health systems and international experts offer insights into the pitfalls and potential associated with various measurement techniques. The authors show that: - The core idea of efficiency is easy to understand in principle - maximizing valued outputs relative to inputs, but is often difficult to make operational in real-life situations - There have been numerous advances in data collection and availability, as well as innovative methodological approaches that give valuable insights into how efficiently health care is delivered - Our simple analytical framework can facilitate the development and interpretation of efficiency indicators.

Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries

Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries Book
Author : Dean T. Jamison,Joel G. Breman,Anthony R. Measham,George Alleyne,Mariam Claeson,David B. Evans,Prabhat Jha,Anne Mills,Philip Musgrove
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2006-04-02
ISBN : 0821361805
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Based on careful analysis of burden of disease and the costs ofinterventions, this second edition of 'Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd edition' highlights achievable priorities; measures progresstoward providing efficient, equitable care; promotes cost-effectiveinterventions to targeted populations; and encourages integrated effortsto optimize health. Nearly 500 experts - scientists, epidemiologists, health economists,academicians, and public health practitioners - from around the worldcontributed to the data sources and methodologies, and identifiedchallenges and priorities, resulting in this integrated, comprehensivereference volume on the state of health in developing countries.

Price Setting and Price Regulation in Health Care

Price Setting and Price Regulation in Health Care Book
Author : OECD,World Health Organization,Barber Sarah L,Lorenzoni Luca,Ong Paul
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2019-06-26
ISBN : 9264508864
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The objectives of this study are to describe experiences in price setting and how pricing has been used to attain better coverage, quality, financial protection, and health outcomes. It builds on newly commissioned case studies and lessons learned in calculating prices, negotiating with providers, and monitoring changes. Recognising that no single model is applicable to all settings, the study aimed to generate best practices and identify areas for future research, particularly in low- and middle-income settings. The report and the case studies were jointly developed by the OECD and the WHO Centre for Health Development in Kobe (Japan).

Walking the Talk

Walking the Talk Book
Author : The World Bank
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2022-02-28
ISBN : 9781464817687
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The world has waited long enough for high-performing primary health care (PHC). It's time to deliver. Forty years ago, leaders embraced the promise of health for all through PHC. That vision has inspired generations. But for nearly half a century, countries have struggled to walk the talk on PHC. We have not built health systems anchored in strong PHC where they were needed most. Today, COVID-19 (coronavirus) has brought the reckoning for that shared failure-but also the chance to do the job right at last. The pandemic has shown policy makers and ordinary citizens why health systems matter and what happens when they fail. By doing so, it has also created a once- in-a-generation chance for structural health-system change. Bold reforms now can prepare health systems for future crises and bring goals like universal health coverage (UHC) within reach. PHC holds the key to these transformations. But to fulfill that promise, the walk has to finally match the talk. This report charts an agenda toward reimagined, fit-for-purpose PHC. It asks three questions about health-systems reform built around PHC: "Why?", "What?", and "How?" Since PHC has been around for decades, why write a thick report about it now? The answer is that the characteristics of high-performing PHC are exactly those that are most critical for managing the pressures coming to bear on health systems in the post-COVID world. The challenges include future infectious outbreaks and other emergent threats, but also long-term structural trends that are reshaping the environments in which systems operate in non-crisis times. This report highlights three sets of megatrends that will increasingly affect health systems in the decades ahead: demographic and epidemiological shifts; changes in technology; and citizens' evolving expectations for health care.