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The Developing Microbiome

The Developing Microbiome Book
Author : Erika Chiong Claud
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-05-23
ISBN : 0128206179
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Developing Microbiome: Lessons from Early Life focuses on the establishment of the microbiome in early life, exposing it as a key mediator of diseases and health throughout the lifecycle. The content presents a comprehensive view of the status of the field and draws real-world correlations to health and disease states. It collates the significant research being done in the pediatric microbiome research space and bridges the knowledge gap showing the factors that impact health and disease states throughout the lifecycle. Finally, it offers knowledge on how the microbiome is and can be manipulated to promote change. This is a perfect reference for both researchers and clinical scientists who are interested in the role of the infant microbiome in health and disease, as well as gastroenterologists and pediatricians looking to affect change in their patients. Provides comprehensive coverage of the factors that influence microbiome development Links research in pediatric patients to later life stages Examines increasing evidence on the impact of the microbiome beyond the gut

Development of the Preterm Infant Gut Microbiome

Development of the Preterm Infant Gut Microbiome Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The very low birth weight (VLBW) infant is at great risk for marked dysbiosis of the gut microbiome due to multiple factors, including physiological immaturity and prenatal/postnatal influences that disrupt the development of a normal gut flora. However, little is known about the developmental succession of the microbiota in preterm infants as they grow and mature. This review provides a synthesis of our understanding of the normal development of the infant gut microbiome and contrasts this with dysbiotic development in the VLBW infant. The role of human milk in normal gut microbial development is emphasized, along with the role of the gut microbiome in immune development and gastroenteric health. Current research provides evidence that the gut microbiome interacts extensively with many physiological systems and metabolic processes in the developing infant. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are currently no studies prospectively mapping the gut microbiome of VLBW infants through early childhood. This knowledge gap must be filled to inform a healthcare system that can provide for the growth, health, and development of VLBW infants. In conclusion, the study speculates about how the VLBW infants' gut microbiome might function through host-microbe interactions to contribute to the sequelae of preterm birth, including its influence on growth, development, and general health of the infant host.

The Role of the Developing Microbiome in Mucosal Defense of the Neonatal Gut

The Role of the Developing Microbiome in Mucosal Defense of the Neonatal Gut Book
Author : Emily G. Blosser
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neonatal late-onset sepsis is invasive infection occurring after the first 48 hours of life, and one of the leading causes of death among preterm infants in the United States and abroad. Infections with Gram-negative bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, occurring when bacteria translocate across premature gut epithelium into the bloodstream, can be particularly severe. Preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit undergo intense antibiotic regimens due to high risk of infection. Paradoxically, prolonged exposure of preterm infants to empiric antibiotic therapy early in the hospital stay is associated with increased risk of intestinal infection and death after adjustment for covariates. Bacterial translocation rates across mature gut epithelium are determined by complex interactions between the host’s commensal microbiota and immune system, and pathogens. Commensal microbes are believed to confer protection from bacterial translocation by competing with pathogens for space and resources, and by inducing gut immune system development directly. This study explores the role of gut microbial colonization early in life in protecting neonates from invading pathogens and in inducing gut maturation. The execution of these studies relies heavily on a mouse model of lateonset sepsis we developed in which an engineered bioluminescent strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae can be imaged in real-time within live animals. MiSeq high-throughput sequencing for bacterial 16S was used to elucidate the kinetics of colonization in pups from birth to weaning age. Sequencing revealed an important trend in colonization that early colony founders are hearty, ubiquitous species that may help prime the gut environment for colonization by microbes with stricter environmental or nutritional limitations, such as anaerobes. Importantly, our analyses demonstrate that although the maternal-derived colonization plays a critical role in early colonization of her pups, exposure to vaginal flora is not necessary for successful early colonization. Further, maternal antibiotics were found to drastically change the microbial landscape in young pups with downstream detrimental effects on resistance to Klebsiella challenge depending on the type of antibiotic administered. This novel mouse model affords us the opportunity to examine gut and colony maturation more closely. Data acquired from these studies provides new insights into the etiology of neonatal late-onset sepsis that may become important for treatment and prevention of the human disease.

The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life

The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life Book
Author : Josef Neu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-01-18
ISBN : 0128206098
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life clarifies that the microbiome in the maternal fetal unit and immediate changes that occur as new microbes are acquired postnatally play major roles in subsequent health and disease. Rapidly developing technologies for multi-omic analyses and systems biology are shifting paradigms in both scientific knowledge and clinical care with regard to this topic. In essence, we are changing the idea that newborns emerge from sterile environments. As such, in-utero colonization may have impacts on the development of immunity and metabolism that, with epigenetic modifications, will lead to diseases in later life. In addition, the microbial profile that develops during and after birth depends on mode of delivery, type of feeding (human milk versus formula), and various other environmental factors to which the newborn is exposed. Discusses the critical nonredundant timeframe in a newborn's life during which many factors drive immune and tissue maturation and influence the susceptibility to immune-mediated and other diseases in adult life Proves that the fetus and uterine membranes are exposed to not only microbes in close proximity but also to microbial products from metabolism of microbes in the mother Shows that since early life periods are a critical window for development, epigenetic and/or immunologic alterations may occur that can affect not only the infant during his/her lifetime but also subsequent generations Gives insight into factors that may affect the newborn microbiome and subsequent development

Microbiota in health and disease from pregnancy to childhood

Microbiota in health and disease  from pregnancy to childhood Book
Author : Pamela D. Browne,Eric Claassen,Michael D. Cabana
Publisher : Wageningen Academic Publishers
Release : 2017-07-20
ISBN : 9086868398
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of the vital relationship between human microbiota and infant and child health. Renowned clinical-experimental experts in this field discuss the development of microbiota during early life and review the environmental inputs that affect the developing infant’s gut microbiota, such as early diet and (postnatal) medical interventions. They further describe the interplay between gut microbiota and functional systems of the body, from the immune system to the central nervous system. The book discusses a range of infant and childhood diseases that are associated with microbial changes or dysbiosis, such as gastrointestinal disorders, allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and respiratory disorders. Additionally mechanisms by which microbial dysbiosis may influence behaviour in infants are discussed. Other topics include the use of current tools in molecular microbiology for microbiota-related research and clinical practice. In the management of particular paediatric disorders, the potential of microbial manipulation with pre- and probiotics during infancy and childhood is increasingly being investigated. This book presents the evidence supporting their use in practice and reviews safety aspects. Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood has the ambition to provide the reader with an overview of the most recent and stunning advances in the field of infant and child microbiota and their role in health, disease and prevention. As such, it is an excellent resource for health care professionals, students and researchers in the field of life sciences.

The Microbiome in Health and Disease

The Microbiome in Health and Disease Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-05-29
ISBN : 0128200014
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Microbiome in Health and Disease, Volume 171 in the Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science series, provides the most topical, informative and exciting monographs available on a wide variety of research topics. The series includes in-depth knowledge on the molecular biological aspects of organismal physiology, with this release including chapters on Microbiome in health and disease, CNS development and microbiome in infants, A gut feeling in ALS, Microbiome (Virome) and virus infection, Bugs and Drugs: microbiome in medicine metabolism, Immunity, T cells, and microbiome, Salmonella (Bacterial) infection and cancer: of mice and men, and many other highly researched topics. Provides a novel theme and multiple disciplinary topics of microbiome research in basic and translational studies Presents an updated collection on bacteria, virus, fungi and their interactions in microbiome Includes a timely discussion on the tools and methods used for modeling and analysis of microbiome data

Your Baby s Microbiome

Your Baby s Microbiome Book
Author : Toni Harman,Alex Wakeford
Publisher : Chelsea Green Publishing
Release : 2017-02-23
ISBN : 1603586962
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

From the Directors of the Award-Winning Documentary Microbirth At least two amazing events happen during childbirth. There’s the obvious main event, which is the emergence of a new human into the world. But there’s another event taking place simultaneously, a crucial event that is not visible to the naked eye, an event that could determine the lifelong health of the baby. This is the seeding of the baby’s microbiome, the community of “good” bacteria that we carry with us throughout our lives. The seeding of the microbiome, along with breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact, kick-starts the baby’s immune system and helps protect the infant from disease across a lifetime. Researchers are discovering, however, that interventions such as the use of synthetic oxytocin, antibiotics, C-sections, and formula feeding interfere with, or bypass completely, the microbial transfer from mother to baby. These bacteria are vital for human health, and science has linked an imbalance in the human microbiome with multiple chronic diseases. Drawing on the extensive research they carried out for their documentary film Microbirth, authors Toni Harman and Alex Wakeford reveal a fascinating new view of birth and how microscopic happenings can have lifelong consequences, for ourselves, our children—and our species as a whole.

Dirt Is Good

Dirt Is Good Book
Author : Jack Gilbert,Rob Knight
Publisher : St. Martin's Press
Release : 2017-06-06
ISBN : 1250132622
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

From two of the world’s top scientists and one of the world’s top science writers (all parents), Dirt Is Good is a q&a-based guide to everything you need to know about kids & germs. “Is it OK for my child to eat dirt?” That’s just one of the many questions authors Jack Gilbert and Rob Knight are bombarded with every week from parents all over the world. They've heard everything from “My two-year-old gets constant ear infections. Should I give her antibiotics? Or probiotics?” to “I heard that my son’s asthma was caused by a lack of microbial exposure. Is this true, and if so what can I do about it now?” Google these questions, and you’ll be overwhelmed with answers. The internet is rife with speculation and misinformation about the risks and benefits of what most parents think of as simply germs, but which scientists now call the microbiome: the combined activity of all the tiny organisms inside our bodies and the surrounding environment that have an enormous impact on our health and well-being. Who better to turn to for answers than Drs. Gilbert and Knight, two of the top scientists leading the investigation into the microbiome—an investigation that is producing fascinating discoveries and bringing answers to parents who want to do the best for their young children. Dirt Is Good is a comprehensive, authoritative, accessible guide you've been searching for.

Prenatal Stress and Child Development

Prenatal Stress and Child Development Book
Author : Ashley Wazana
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020
ISBN : 3030601595
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book examines the complex impact of prenatal stress and the mechanism of its transmission on children's development and well-being, including prenatal programming, epigenetics, inflammatory processes and the brain-gut microbiome. It analyzes current findings on prenatal stressors affecting pregnancy, including preconception stress, prenatal maternal depression, anxiety and pregnancy specific anxieties. Chapters explore how prenatal stress affects cognitive, affective, behavioral, and neurobiological development in children while pinpointing core processes of adaptation, resilience, and interventions that may reduce negative behaviors and promote optimal outcomes in children. This complex perspective on mechanisms by which early environmental influences interact with prenatal programming of susceptibility aims to inform clinical strategies and future research targeting prenatal stress and its cyclical impact on subsequent generations. Key areas of coverage include: Epigenetic effects of prenatal stress. Intergenerational transmission of parental early life stress. The microbiome-gut-brain axis and the effects of prenatal stress on early neurodevelopment. Gestational stress and resilience. Prenatal stress and children's sleeping behavior. Prenatal Stress and Child Development is an essential resource for researchers, professors, and graduate students as well as clinicians, therapists, and related professionals in infancy and early childhood development, maternal and child health, developmental psychology, pediatrics, social work, child and adolescent psychiatry, developmental neuroscience, and related behavioral and social sciences and medical disciplines. Excerpt from the foreword: "I would make the plea that in addition to anyone with an interest in child development, this book should be essential reading for researchers pursuing "pre-clinical, basic science models of neurodevelopment and brain health".... This book provides what in my mind is the most advanced compilation of existing knowledge and state-of-the-art science in the field of prenatal psychiatry/psychology (and perhaps in the entire field of prenatal medicine). This volume can brilliantly serve to focus future directions in our understanding of the perinatal determinants of brain health." Michael J Meaney James McGill Professor of Medicine Translational Neuroscience Programme Adjunct Professor of Paediatrics.

COPD

COPD Book
Author : Cormac McCarthy
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-02-21
ISBN : 9535137824
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and is estimated to become the third most common cause of death over the next decade. The knowledge of COPD pathogenesis and the disease course has greatly improved this progression in understanding and continues to have significant implications in the management of this condition. Novel areas of interest in COPD pathogenesis include further development of animal models, a better understanding of the genetics and epigenetics, the role of the microbiome, and an increasing appreciation of the associated comorbidities. This book intends to provide the reader with a brief overview of these topics and also provide an in-depth review of the current nonpharmacological clinical approaches to managing patients with COPD.

The Lung Microbiome

The Lung Microbiome Book
Author : Michael J. Cox,Markus J. Ege,Erika von Mutius
Publisher : European Respiratory Society
Release : 2019-03-01
ISBN : 1849841020
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Studying the lung microbiome requires a specialist approach to sampling, laboratory techniques and statistical analysis. This Monograph introduces the techniques used and discusses how respiratory sampling, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomics and the application of ecological theory can be used to examine the respiratory microbiome. It examines the different components of the respiratory microbiome: viruses and fungi in addition to the more frequently studied bacteria. It also considers a range of contexts from the paediatric microbiome and how this develops to disease of all ages including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic suppurative lung diseases, interstitial lung diseases, acquired pneumonias, transplantation, cancer and HIV, and the interaction of the respiratory microbiome and the environment.

Gastroenterology and Nutrition

Gastroenterology and Nutrition Book
Author : Josef Neu
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2018-07-06
ISBN : 0323568459
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Dr. Richard Polin’s Neonatology Questions and Controversies series highlights the most challenging aspects of neonatal care, offering trustworthy guidance on up-to-date diagnostic and treatment options in the field. In each volume, renowned experts address the clinical problems of greatest concern to today’s practitioners, helping you handle difficult practice issues and provide optimal, evidence-based care to every patient. Stay fully up to date in this fast-changing field with Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 3rd Edition. Emerging knowledge about the basic developmental physiology of upper intestinal motility as it relates to reflux and feeding tolerance, and immaturities in motility by altering composition of feedings and pharmacologic means. New content on genetics and pharmacology, the role of inflammation in systemic diseases in other organs as well as necrotizing enterocolitis, optimizing administration of lipids to preterm infants, and administering lipids to infants who are at high risk for complications secondary to suboptimal lipid therapies. Current coverage of the composition of human milk and clinical trials that address the efficacy of donor milk in comparison to formula and own mother’s milk. Consistent chapter organization to help you find information quickly and easily. The most authoritative advice available from world-class neonatologists who share their knowledge of new trends and developments in neonatal care. Purchase each volume individually, or get the entire 7-volume set! Gastroenterology and Nutrition Hematology, Immunology and Genetics Hemodynamics and Cardiology Infectious Disease and Pharmacology New Volume! Nephrology and Fluid/Electrolyte Physiology Neurology The Newborn Lung

The Human Microbiome Diet and Health

The Human Microbiome  Diet  and Health Book
Author : Institute of Medicine,Food and Nutrition Board,Food Forum
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2013-03-13
ISBN : 0309265851
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Food Forum convened a public workshop on February 22-23, 2012, to explore current and emerging knowledge of the human microbiome, its role in human health, its interaction with the diet, and the translation of new research findings into tools and products that improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop. Over the two day workshop, several themes covered included: The microbiome is integral to human physiology, health, and disease. The microbiome is arguably the most intimate connection that humans have with their external environment, mostly through diet. Given the emerging nature of research on the microbiome, some important methodology issues might still have to be resolved with respect to undersampling and a lack of causal and mechanistic studies. Dietary interventions intended to have an impact on host biology via their impact on the microbiome are being developed, and the market for these products is seeing tremendous success. However, the current regulatory framework poses challenges to industry interest and investment.

Genomics Applications for the Developing World

Genomics Applications for the Developing World Book
Author : Karen E. Nelson,Barbara Jones-Nelson
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-05-10
ISBN : 1461421829
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book evolved from the editors strong belief that the information and new developments that were evolving from the rapidly growing field of genomics and that are happening primarily in the developed world have not happened at a parallel rate in the developing world. One would have hoped that by now the technologies and approaches would have been adapted on a far greater scale. In addition to this, the associated information is not always easily accessible, and is not disseminated in a format that can become a useful reference for scientists, students and others who reside in developing countries.

The Microbiome and the Brain

The Microbiome and the Brain Book
Author : David Perlmutter
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-12-06
ISBN : 1351235680
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain related disorders are among the most challenging health issues of our time. The development of effective therapeutic and preventive strategies for these disorders relies on a comprehensive understanding of the underlying causative mechanisms. And, until recently, these mechanisms have remained somewhat elusive. The newly discovered pivotal role of the intestinal microbiome in brain health, functionality, and resistance to disease is revolutionizing neuroscience. The Microbiome and the Brain, through the contributions of some of the most forward thinking researchers and clinicians in the field, comprehensively reveals the leading edge of our understanding of the fundamental role of gut microbes and their metabolites in a wide array of seemingly diverse brain issues including Alzheimer’s disease, autism, multiple sclerosis, and mood disorders. In addition, mechanisms defining these relationships are explored along with a presentation of the state-of-the-art as it relates to interpretation of relevant laboratory assessments. Finally, novel therapeutic opportunities, derived from this exciting science are presented. Readers will learn: The highly validated relationship between alterations of gut microbes and their metabolites, and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. The important link between autism and intestinal dysbiosis. Appropriate interpretation of available laboratory assessments of the intestinal microbiome. The potential role of fecal microbial transplant in neurological diseases. The influence of diet and other lifestyle choices on the microbiome as it relates to brain health and functionality.

Microbial Endocrinology The Microbiota Gut Brain Axis in Health and Disease

Microbial Endocrinology  The Microbiota Gut Brain Axis in Health and Disease Book
Author : Mark Lyte,John F. Cryan
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-07-05
ISBN : 1493908979
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The field of microbial endocrinology is expressly devoted to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota (bacteria within the microbiome) interact with the host (“us”). This interaction is a two-way street and the driving force that governs these interactions are the neuroendocrine products of both the host and the microbiota. Chapters include neuroendocrine hormone-induced changes in gene expression and microbial endocrinology and probiotics. This is the first in a series of books dedicated to understanding how bi-directional communication between host and bacteria represents the cutting edge of translational medical research, and hopefully identifies new ways to understand the mechanisms that determine health and disease.​

Immune maturation and modulation in childhood allergies

Immune maturation and modulation in childhood allergies Book
Author : Johanna Huoman
Publisher : Linköping University Electronic Press
Release : 2020-10-15
ISBN : 9179297870
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The prevalence of allergic diseases has in the past century increased among children in affluent societies. Underlying causes are incompletely disentangled, but decreased diversity in environmental and microbial exposures could drive allergy development. Allergic individuals possess imbalanced immune responses, skewed in favour of Th2 cells along with lesser Th1 and Treg responses. As allergy development early in life increases the risk of developing further allergic manifestations later, early prevention is key. Thus, interventions in pregnancy, early life and childhood may modulate immunity towards tolerance, although underpinnings of immune maturation and modulation in allergy prevention throughout childhood are not entirely understood. In this thesis, these questions are addressed in children with a high propensity of developing allergic disease or who already have manifested allergies. Chemokines are crucial for immune cell recruitment to the allergic reaction site, and associate with allergy development in childhood. In Paper I, circulating levels of the allergy-related chemokines CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, CXCL10 and CXCL11 were studied in the natural course of allergic disease. Elevated levels of the Th2/Treg-regulated chemokine CCL18 in infancy and childhood associated with development of asthma and/or sensitisation. Moreover, this finding conferred higher odds of developing asthma and sensitisation from early school age until adolescence. Additionally, increased levels of the Th1-associated chemokines CXCL10 after birth, and decreased levels of CXCL11 at birth, preceded asthma development later in life. Hence, Paper I showed that circulating chemokine levels in different ways precede allergy development. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, comprise a link between the genetic setup and environmental exposures, and regulate processes such as Th cell differentiation. Perinatal treatment with Lactobacillus reuteri and ?-3 fatty acids prevent development of some IgE-mediated manifestations. However, the drivers of the immunostimulating and pro-resolving effects of these treatments are sparsely examined. In Papers II and III, epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns in CD4+ cells upon pre-and postnatal L. reuteri supplementation alone or in combination with ?-3 fatty acids were studied. In Paper II, the greatest epigenome wide differential methylation was evident at birth, mainly directed towards hypomethylation, indicating transcriptional availability of affected genes. Network analyses revealed several immune related pathways, and a relationship of differentially methylated genes to allergy development. Thus, prenatal L. reuteri treatment seemingly poises Th cells towards immune activation at birth, possibly influencing immune maturation as well as allergy development in the child. In Paper III, epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns were surveyed at birth. In this on-going trial, mothers are treated during the latter half of pregnancy with a combination of L. reuteri and ?-3 fatty acids. Four different treatment groups were studied, and the largest differential methylation was seen in the double active treatment group. In contrast to Paper II, most CpGs and genes were hypermethylated, indicating repressed gene transcription. In line with Paper II, network analyses showed that T cell and immune mediated pathways were affected by treatment, and synergistic effects of the double treatment were indicated. Taken together, prenatal treatment with L. reuteri and/or ?-3 fatty acids altered the epigenome to different extents at birth, mainly towards hypermethylation, and often affected immune related pathways. Immunomodulatory effects of sublingual immunotherapy in children and adolescents are scarcely investigated. In Paper IV, circulating and salivary immune mediators were investigated in timothy grass-pollen allergic children treated with sublingual immunotherapy. Actively treated children had elevated levels of timothy grass pollen-specific IgA antibodies in saliva, along with increased circulating levels of the Th1-associated chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL11, both after treatment ending and two years later. Taken together, sublingual immunotherapy modulates local and peripheral immune responses in children with timothy grass pollen-induced allergy, by augmenting Th1-responses, lessening Th2-responses and inducing immunomodulatory responses, suggesting induction of tolerance, also partly in the long-term. Altogether, the studies in this thesis have shown altered immune regulation in children developing allergies. Moreover, immunomodulatory effects of prenatal treatment with probiotics and ?-3 fatty acids, and sublingual immunotherapy in children with grass pollen-induced allergic disease, were revealed. DNA methylation patterns and immunologic mediators in blood and saliva could potentially serve as appropriate biomarkers for allergic disease. Long term health benefits can be reached by intervening early in life, and further knowledge about the mechanisms behind this could promote the prevention of allergic diseases and hence improve the quality of life for children and adolescents. Förekomsten av allergiska sjukdomar, som böjveckseksem, hösnuva och astma, har under det senaste århundradet ökat markant bland barn i industrialiserade samhällen. De bakomliggande orsakerna är inte helt klarlagda, men samhälleliga förändringar har minskat vår mångfaldiga exponering för bakterier, virus och parasiter. Detta skulle kunna ligga till grund för immunförsvarets felaktiga reaktion mot egentligen ofarliga ämnen som ses vid allergier. Hos allergiska individer är immunförsvaret obalanserat, med en relativ övervikt av det så kallade Thjälpar- 2 (Th2)-svaret gentemot Th1- och det regulatoriska T-cells (Treg)-svaret. Allergiska sjukdomar utvecklas ofta tidigt i livet, vilket ökar risken för att utveckla vidare allergier senare i livet. Därför är det viktigt att motverka den allergiska marschens framfart tidigt genom förebyggande behandlingar. Ett tillvägagångsätt är att påbörja behandling under graviditeten och tidiga barndomen hos barn med hög risk för att bli allergiska, då grunden för immunsystemet läggs redan under fosterlivet. För redan utvecklade allergier är det tänkbart att omforma dessa immunsvar med immunterapi, som kan minska symptom av befintliga allergier samtidigt som det är möjligt att motverka utvecklingen av senare allergier. Det är dock inte helt klarlagt hur immunutmognaden under barndomen är reglerad, eller hur dessa typer av behandlingar skulle kunna påverka allergiutveckling under den perioden. I denna avhandling undersöks immunutmognad vid allergiutveckling hos barn, och möjliga immunmodulerande förebyggande behandlingar hos barn med genetisk benägenhet att bli allergiska eller som redan utvecklat allergisk sjukdom. För att celler ska rekryteras till platsen för en allergisk reaktion krävs bland annat s.k. kemokiner. I det fö

The Human Microbiome in Early Life

The Human Microbiome in Early Life Book
Author : Omry Koren,Samuli Rautava
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-09-18
ISBN : 0128180986
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Human Microbiome in Early Life: Implications to Health and Disease presents recent research advances that have highlighted the significance of early life, possibly beginning before birth, in the establishment of both the microbiome and its role in health and disease. The book reviews current knowledge on the origins of the human microbiota in early life, presents exposures which may disturb normal microbial colonization, and covers their implications to the risk of disease. Finally, emerging means to modify the early human microbiome to improve health are discussed. Examines the timeline of the human microbiome, from before conception to infancy, with an emphasis on clinical implications Evaluates the effort to understand not only the composition but also the origin of the microbiome Proves the emerging means to modify the human microbiome and particularly ‘the first 1000 days of life’ improve human health and prevent disease Generates resources to facilitate characterization of the human microbiota to further our understanding of how the microbiome impacts human health and disease

The Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease

The Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease Book
Author : Nathan W. Schmidt,Venkatakrishna Rao Jala,Michele Marie Kosiewicz,Pascale Alard
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-12-24
ISBN : 288963003X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease book written by Nathan W. Schmidt,Venkatakrishna Rao Jala,Michele Marie Kosiewicz,Pascale Alard, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease

The Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease Book
Author : Dirk Haller
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-07-27
ISBN : 3319905457
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book provides an overview on how the gut microbiome contributes to human health. The readers will get profound knowledge on the connection between intestinal microbiota and immune defense systems. The tools of choice to study the ecology of these highly-specialized microorganism communities such as high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic mining will be presented. In addition the most common diseases associated to the composition of the gut flora are discussed in detail. The book will address researchers, clinicians and advanced students working in biomedicine, microbiology and immunology.