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The Detection Of Biomarkers

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The Detection of Biomarkers

The Detection of Biomarkers Book
Author : Sibel A. Ozkan,Nurgul K. Bakirhan,Fariba Mollaraosouli
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-12-17
ISBN : 0128230754
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reliable, precise and accurate detection and analysis of biomarkers remains a significant challenge for clinical researchers. Methods for the detection of biomarkers are rather complex, requiring pre-treatment steps before analysis can take place. Moreover, comparing various biomarker assays and tracing research progress in this area systematically is a challenge for researchers. The Detection of Biomarkers presents developments in biomarker detection, including methods tools and strategies, biosensor design, materials, and applications. The book presents methods, materials and procedures that are simple, precise, sensitive, selective, fast and economical, and therefore highly practical for use in clinical research scenarios. This volume situates biomarker detection in its research context and sets out future prospects for the area. Its 20 chapters offer a comprehensive coverage of biomarkers, including progress on nanotechnology, biosensor types, synthesis, immobilization, and applications in various fields. The book also demonstrates, for students, how to synthesize and immobilize biosensors for biomarker assay. It offers researchers real alternative and innovative ways to think about the field of biomarker detection, increasing the reliability, precision and accuracy of biomarker detection. Locates biomarker detection in its research context, setting out present and future prospects Allows clinical researchers to compare various biomarker assays systematically Presents new methods, materials and procedures that are simple, precise, sensitive, selective, fast and economical Gives innovative biomarker assays that are viable alternatives to current complex methods Helps clinical researchers who need reliable, precise and accurate biomarker detection methods

Developing Affimers for the Detection of Biomarkers in Cancer

Developing Affimers for the Detection of Biomarkers in Cancer Book
Author : Danah A. A. A. Q. Al-Qallaf
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Developing Affimers for the Detection of Biomarkers in Cancer book written by Danah A. A. A. Q. Al-Qallaf, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Exploiting Resistive Pulse Sensing for the Detection of Biomarkers

Exploiting Resistive Pulse Sensing for the Detection of Biomarkers Book
Author : Matthew Healey
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Exploiting Resistive Pulse Sensing for the Detection of Biomarkers book written by Matthew Healey, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Early Detection of Cancer

Early Detection of Cancer Book
Author : Sudhir Srivastava
Publisher : IOS Press
Release : 2005
ISBN : 9781586035525
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Technological inventions allow us to identify molecular events that will effectively detect cancer earlier in biological specimens. This approach enables us to develop molecular biomarkers for detecting cancer early. It is believed that such a molecular marker approach enables the detection of the disease earlier.

Identification and Evaluation of Biomarkers for the Detection of Bladder Cancer

Identification and Evaluation of Biomarkers for the Detection of Bladder Cancer Book
Author : Hafsa Abbas
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Identification and Evaluation of Biomarkers for the Detection of Bladder Cancer book written by Hafsa Abbas, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Multichannel Waveguides for the Simultaneous Detection of Disease Biomarkers

Multichannel Waveguides for the Simultaneous Detection of Disease Biomarkers Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The sensor team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor that has previously been used for the detection of biomarkers associated with diseases such as tuberculosis, breast cancer, anthrax and influenza in complex biological samples (e.g., serum and urine). However, no single biomarker can accurately predict disease. To address this issue, we developed a multiplex assay for the detection of components of the Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin on single mode planar optical waveguides with tunable quantum dots as the fluorescence reporter. This limited ability to multiplex is still insufficient for accurate detection of disease or for monitoring prognosis. In this manuscript, we demonstrate for the first time, the design, fabrication and successful evaluation of a multichannel planar optical waveguide for the simultaneous detection of at least three unknown samples in quadruplicate. We demonstrate the simultaneous, rapid (30 min), quantitative (with internal standard) and sensitive (limit of detection of 1 pM) detection of protective antigen and lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis in complex biological samples (serum) using specific monoclonal antibodies labeled with quantum dots as the fluorescence reporter.

Proteomics driven Approach for the Detection of Breast Cancer Biomarkers

Proteomics driven Approach for the Detection of Breast Cancer Biomarkers Book
Author : Ksenia Keller
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Proteomics driven Approach for the Detection of Breast Cancer Biomarkers book written by Ksenia Keller, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Quantitative Multiplex Detection of Biomarkers on a Waveguide based Biosensor Using Quantum Dots

Quantitative Multiplex Detection of Biomarkers on a Waveguide based Biosensor Using Quantum Dots Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The quantitative, simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity is critical for biomedical diagnostics, drug discovery and biomarker characterization [Wilson 2006, Tok 2006, Straub 2005, Joos 2002, Jani 2000]. Detection systems relying on optical signal transduction are, in general, advantageous because they are fast, portable, inexpensive, sensitive, and have the potential for multiplex detection of analytes of interest. However, conventional immunoassays for the detection of biomarkers, such as the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assays (ELISAs) are semi-quantitative, time consuming and insensitive. ELISA assays are also limited by high non-specific binding, especially when used with complex biological samples such as serum and urine (REF). Organic fluorophores that are commonly used in such applications lack photostability and possess a narrow Stoke's shift that makes simultaneous detection of multiple fluorophores with a single excitation source difficult, thereby restricting their use in multiplex assays. The above limitations with traditional assay platforms have resulted in the increased use of nanotechnology-based tools and techniques in the fields of medical imaging [ref], targeted drug delivery [Caruthers 2007, Liu 2007], and sensing [ref]. One such area of increasing interest is the use of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) for biomedical research and diagnostics [Gao and Cui 2004, Voura 2004, Michalet 2005, Chan 2002, Jaiswal 2004, Gao 2005, Medintz 2005, So 2006 2006, Wu 2003]. Compared to organic dyes, QDs provide several advantages for use in immunoassay platforms, including broad absorption bands with high extinction coefficients, narrow and symmetric emission bands with high quantum yields, high photostablility, and a large Stokes shift [Michalet 2005, Gu 2002]. These features prompted the use of QDs as probes in biodetection [Michalet 2005, Medintz 2005]. For example, Jaiswal et al. reported long term multiple color imaging of live cells using QD-bioconjugates [Jaiswal 2003]. Gao [Gao 2004] and So [So 2006] have used QDs as probes for in-vivo cancer targeting and imaging. Medintz et al. reported self-assembled QD-based biosensors for detection of analytes based on energy transfer [Medintz 2003]. Others have developed an approach for multiplex optical encoding of biomolecules using QDs [Han 2001]. Immunoassays have also benefited from the advantages of QDs. Recently, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) capped-QDs have been attached to antibodies and used as fluorescence reporters in plate-based multiplex immunoassays [Goodman 2004]. However, DHLA-QDs are associated with low quantum efficiency and are unstable at neutral pH. These problems limit the application of this technology to the sensitive detection of biomolecules, especially in complex biological samples. Thus, the development of a rapid, sensitive, quantitative, and specific multiplex platform for the detection of biomarkers in difficult samples remains an elusive target. The goal stated above has applications in many fields including medical diagnostics, biological research, and threat reduction. The current decade alone has seen the development of a need to rapidly and accurately detect potential biological warfare agents. For example, current methods for the detection of anthrax are grossly inadequate for a variety of reasons including long incubation time (5 days from time of exposure to onset of symptoms) and non-specific ('flu-like') symptoms. When five employees of the United State Senate were exposed to B. anthracis in the mail (2001), only one patient had a confirmed diagnosis before death. Since then, sandwich immunoassays using both colorimetric and fluorescence detectors have been developed for key components of the anthrax lethal toxin, namely protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and the edema factor [Mourez 2001]. While these platforms were successful in assays against anthrax toxins, the sensitivity was poor. Furthermore, no single platform exists for the simultaneous and quantitative detection of multiple components of the B. anthracis toxin. Addressing multiple biomarkers at the same time will increase confidence in a positive result, and may lead to application in the simultaneous detection of anthrax and other biowarfare agents.

Thermal Detection of Biomarkers Using Phase Change Nanoparticles

Thermal Detection of Biomarkers Using Phase Change Nanoparticles Book
Author : Chaoming Wang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Most of existing techniques cannot be used to detect molecular biomarkers (i.e., protein and DNA) contained in complex body fluids due to issues such as enzyme inhibition or signal interference. This thesis describes a nanoparticle-based thermal detection method for the highly sensitive detections of multiple DNA biomarkers or proteins contained in different type of fluids such as buffer solution, cell lysate and milk by using solid-liquid phase change nanoparticles as thermal barcodes. Besides, this method has also been applied for thrombin detection by using RNA aptamer-functionalized phase change nanoparticles as thermal probes. Furthermore, using nanostructured Si surface that have higher specific area can enhance the detection sensitivity by four times compared to use flat aluminum surfaces. The detection is based on the principle that the temperature of solid will not rise above its melting temperature unless all solid is molten, thus nanoparticles will have sharp melting peak during a linear thermal scan process. A one-to-one correspondence can be created between one type of nanoparticles and one type of biomarker, and multiple biomarkers can be detected simultaneously using different type nanoparticles. The melting temperature and the heat flow reflect the type and the concentration of biomarker, respectively. The melting temperatures of nanoparticles are designed to be over 100°C to avoid interference from species contained in fluids. The use of thermal nanoparticles allows detection of multiple low concentration DNAs or proteins in a complex fluid such as cell lysate regardless of the color, salt concentration, and conductivity of the sample.

Enhancing the Limit of Detection of Biomarkers in Serum Using a SPRi Nano aptasensor

Enhancing the Limit of Detection of Biomarkers in Serum Using a SPRi Nano aptasensor Book
Author : Stephen Vance
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi) is a label-free, ultrasensitive detection method for monitoring biomolecular interactions in real-time with high throughput. Diagnostic biomarkers for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease are often in low abundance in serum, presenting many challenges for their detection. SPRi has great potential as a diagnostic tool because its limit of detection (LOD) for many biomarkers falls in the nanogram per milliliter range, but in order to further enhance its usefulness, its LOD must be reduced to even lower concentrations. We have developed a detection scheme that improves SPRi sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. This increase in sensitivity relies upon the integration of SPRi with nanomaterials and microwave-assisted surface functionalization. This approach makes it possible for the SPRi biosensor to detect C-reactive protein in spiked human serum at concentrations of 5 fg/ml or 45 zeptomole. This scheme was then compared to commercial ELISA kits for the detection of human Growth Hormone, which has a LOD of 1 ng/ml. In order to directly compare the two platforms the antibody sandwich assay was copied in the SPRi scheme and with nanomaterial enhancement, an LOD of 9.2 pg/ml was achieved."--Abstract from author supplied metadata.

Detection of Biomarkers for Lung Cancer and Leukemia Using SPR Nanohole Based Sensors

Detection of Biomarkers for Lung Cancer and Leukemia Using SPR Nanohole Based Sensors Book
Author : Ting Yu,University of Victoria (B.C.). Department of Chemistry
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cancer is a leading cause of death and some types of cancer are hard to diagnose at early stages. An accurate method for subtype classification of cancer types is also critical for patients to receive effective treatments. Many cancer biomarkers (e.g., EGFR for lung cancers and CD19/CD20 for leukemia) have been found with potential of being used for cancer diagnosis and subtype cancer classification. A biosensing technique being able to detect biomarkers with a miniaturized system, based on extraordinary light transmission (EOT) through nanohole arrays on metal films, is promising for cancer diagnosis and subtype classifications. In this research, the detection of different biomarkers (EGFR, CD19 and CD20) was demonstrated using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) setup with EOT. The concentration of EGFR from cell lysate solution was determined using the SPR setup and compared with a current analytical method (ELISA) ... .

Design and Prototyping of a Non faradaic Impedance Spectroscopy System for Clinical Diagnostics

Design and Prototyping of a Non faradaic Impedance Spectroscopy System for Clinical Diagnostics Book
Author : Anjan Panneer Selvam
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This dissertation presents the design of a label-free non-faradaic electrical impedance system for the detection of multiple types of biomarkers from physiological fluids at clinically relevant concentration for early disease diagnosis and prognosis. Biomarkers are important cues that reflect internal cellular and macromolecular states. Biomarkers can be both genetic and proteomic or other analyte types as well. While optical label-based sensors are ubiquitous in clinics and laboratories, they are not suited for portable and point-of-care environments. Traditional impedance biosensors are promising tools for many applications which demand low-cost investment and portability. Label-free impedance biosensors are the next generation of biosensors which add the ability of label-free operation and ultra-sensitivity and specificity to the class of impedance biosensors. We present a novel label-free non-faradaic impedance probing technique which uses tuned impedance spectroscopy for electrical double layer probing so as to detect biomarkers in complex biological media. The technique combines frequency based spectroscopy with biomimetic architectures to perform this detection while maintaining an enhanced signal strength useful for ultra-sensitive detection. Biomimicking is enabled by using nanoporous materials in integration with the sensor electrode system which results in the formation of nanowells or nanochannels. This helps in maintaining biomarker stability, efficiency as well as exclusion of non-specific molecules during in-vitro testing. Label-free operation is implemented by detecting binding events as a function of capacitance change in the electrical double layer regions on the electrode surfaces. This direct transduction of signal from the biomolecules without using a secondary label reduces assay steps, modifications to the target biomarker and also achieve ultra-sensitivity in the detection process. The technique presented is a rapid analysis method and is of clinical translational relevance due to its versatility in performing ultra-sensitive and ultra-specific detection of biomarkers in physiological fluids. This dissertation details the application of the designed technique and its prototype for detection of biomarkers relevant to cancer of the prostate, breast and lung. The lowest limits of protein biomarker detection that the system demonstrated was

Cancer Biomarkers

Cancer Biomarkers Book
Author : Institute of Medicine,Committee on Developing Biomarker-Based Tools for Cancer Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2007-03-27
ISBN : 0309133998
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Many cancer patients are diagnosed at a stage in which the cancer is too far advanced to be cured, and most cancer treatments are effective in only a minority of patients undergoing therapy. Thus, there is tremendous opportunity to improve the outcome for people with cancer by enhancing detection and treatment approaches. Biomarkers will be instrumental in making that transition. Advances in biotechnology and genomics have given scientists new hope that biomarkers can be used to improve cancer screening and detection, to improve the drug development process, and to enhance the effectiveness and safety of cancer care by allowing physicians to tailor treatment for individual patients—an approach known as personalized medicine. However, progress overall has been slow, despite considerable effort and investment, and there are still many challenges and obstacles to overcome before this paradigm shift in oncology can become a reality.

Toward Photostable Multiplex Analyte Detection on a Single Mode Planar Optical Waveguide

Toward Photostable Multiplex Analyte Detection on a Single Mode Planar Optical Waveguide Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

We have developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor for the sensitive and specific detection of biomarkers associated with disease. Our technology combines the superior optical properties of single-mode planar waveguides, the robust nature of functionalized self-assembled monolayer sensing films and the specificity of fluorescence sandwich immunoassays to detect biomarkers in complex biological samples such as serum, urine and sputum. We have previously reported the adaptation of our technology to the detection of biomarkers associated with breast cancer and anthrax. However, these approaches primarily used phospholipid bilayers as the functional film and organic dyes (ex: AlexaFluors) as the fluorescence reporter. Organic dyes are easily photodegraded and are not amenable to multiplexing because of their narrow Stokes' shift. Here we have developed strategies for conjugation of the detector antibodies with quantum dots for use in a multiplex detection platform. We have previously evaluated dihydroxylipoic acid quantum dots for the detection of a breast cancer biomarker. In this manuscript, we investigate the detection of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen using antibodies conjugated with polymer-coated quantum dots. Kinetics of binding on the waveguide-based biosensor is reported. We compare the sensitivity of quantum dot labeled antibodies to those labeled with AlexaFluor and demonstrate the photostability of the former in our assay platform. In addition, we compare sulfydryl labeling of the antibody in the hinge region to that of nonspecific amine labeling. This is but the first step in developing a multiplex assay for such biomarkers on our waveguide platform.

Biomarkers and Biosensors

Biomarkers and Biosensors Book
Author : Ajit Sadana,Neeti Sadana
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2014-12-08
ISBN : 0444537953
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomarkers and Biosensors offers thorough coverage of biomarker/biosensor interaction, current research trends, and future developments in applications of drug discovery. This book is useful to researchers in this field as well as clinicians interested in new developments in early detection and diagnosis of disease or the mode of operation of biomarkers. Biomarkers and Biosensors also emphasizes kinetics, and clearly delineates how this influences the biomarker market. Offers thorough coverage of the kinetics of biomarker interaction with the biosensor surface Provides evidence-based approach to evaluate effectiveness Provides pharmaceutical chemists the possibilities and methodology in assessing the effectiveness of new drugs Provides the information needed for the selection of the best biomarker for a specific application

Cancer Biomarkers

Cancer Biomarkers Book
Author : S. Srivastava
Publisher : IOS Press
Release : 2004
ISBN : 9781586034597
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This special book edition of the journal Disease Markers concentrates on molecular biomarkers in cancer research. The main subjects of this book are: Prognostic and predictive markers in cancer; Statistical considerations in combining biomarkers for disease classification; Blood and urine markers for ovarian cancer; Use of markers for the detection and treatment of lung cancer; The promise of biomarkers in colorectal cancer detection; Development tracks for cancer prevention markers; Molecular markers for early detection of cervical neoplasia and Markers of prostate cancer detection, diagnosis and prognosis. This book contains contributions by an international board of experts on the topic.