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The Complex Connection Between Cannabis And Schizophrenia

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The Complex Connection between Cannabis and Schizophrenia

The Complex Connection between Cannabis and Schizophrenia Book
Author : Michael T. Compton,Marc Manseau
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-08-25
ISBN : 0128051833
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Complex Connections between Cannabis and Schizophrenia provides an in-depth overview of the current state of research into the role that cannabis plays in schizophrenia, covering both the pathophysiological and the pharmacological implications. It addresses the epidemiology of cannabis use and the risks associated with its use, the biological aspects of the drug, its effects on the brain and the pharmacological possibilities of using cannabidiol to treat schizophrenia. It is the only book on the market devoted exclusively to examining the links between this very commonly used (and misused) drug and a specific set of devastating psychiatric illnesses, providing a comprehensive guide to our current understandings of this relationship. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug globally, and is becoming increasingly decriminalized and even legalized worldwide. Among the numerous mental-health concerns related to the drug, there is mounting evidence of an intricate link between cannabis use and schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. At the same time, there is promising evidence to suggest that cannabidiol, one of the many compounds found in cannabis that activates the brain’s cannabinoid receptors, could prove to be an effective antipsychotic to treat schizophrenia. Synthesizes existing knowledge about the confusing, but crucial, relationship between cannabis use and schizophrenia symptoms Provides a comprehensive overview of the neurobiological mechanisms of cannabis use and its effects on the brain, including an exploration of the endocannabinoid system Examines the promising evidence suggesting cannabidiol as an effective antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia Aids readers studying the neurobiological underpinning of cannabis addiction and psychosis in determining directions for their own future research

Marijuana and Mental Health

Marijuana and Mental Health Book
Author : Michael T. Compton, M.D., M.P.H.
Publisher : American Psychiatric Pub
Release : 2016-03-18
ISBN : 1615370080
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With relatable clinical vignettes that illustrate the applicability of each chapter’s content, as well as key chapter points that summarize major themes, Marijuana and Mental Health is the definitive, single source of comprehensive information on marijuana and mental health in modern American society. Balanced, focused, and highly readable, chapters address topics such as the effects of marijuana on the brain and mind, marijuana-related policy and legislation, the complex link between marijuana use and psychotic disorders, synthetic cannabinoids, and the treatment and prevention of marijuana misuse. Beyond offering clinical and research psychiatrists, psychiatric residents and fellows, clinical psychologists, and psychiatric nurses a comprehensive but concise compilation of research in this area, this reference informs clinical mental health practice as well as policy decisions by articulating the connection between marijuana and mental health, particularly in the United States.

Cannabis Use Disorders

Cannabis Use Disorders Book
Author : Ivan D. Montoya,Susan R. B. Weiss
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-11-24
ISBN : 3319903659
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is an unbiased scientific compendium documenting the state-of-the-art in the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of Cannabis Use Disorders (CUD). Unlike any other current medical text, this volume focuses on the scientific aspects of CUDs and provides a resource for researchers, physicians and other health care providers who treat patients suffering from the disorder or its consequences. It begins by establishing the landscape of the disorder, including its prevalence, association with disabilities and comorbidities, and frequency of patients seeking treatment. The text delves into the complexity of the disorder in today’s environment by including the discoveries on the nature and extent of the endocannabinoid system as well as potential breakthroughs in safe and effective pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments. Experts in the field contribute discussions on the most cutting-edge diagnostic and biological topics, including genetics, medical consequences, and clinical manifestations. The text also covers the challenges and risks presented by external factors, including social repercussions, protective factors, psychiatric comorbidities, withdrawal, and treatment services. Cannabis Use Disorders is a vital resource for researchers, psychiatrists, psychologists, addiction medicine specialists, toxicologists, hospital administrators, nurses, social workers, and all health care professionals working with patients who misuse cannabis.

Psychosis in Children and Adolescents A Guide for Clinicians An Issue of Child And Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America

Psychosis in Children and Adolescents  A Guide for Clinicians  An Issue of Child And Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America Book
Author : Ellen House,John Tyson
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2019-11-21
ISBN : 0323711200
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This issue of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics, guest edited by Drs. Ellen House and John Tyson, will cover key topics of importance surrounding Psychosis in Children and Adolescents. This issue is one of four selected each year by our series Consulting Editor, Dr. Harsh Trivedi. Topics discussed in this issue include but are not limited to: Prodrome, Autism, Trauma, Medical Etiologies, Mood/Anxiety, Childhood onset schizophrenia, Substance Induced, Genetics of childhood onset schizophrenia, Neurocognition in youth with psychosis, Psychopharmacologic approaches, Community Based interventions, Evidence-Based Therapies for psychosis, School based approach to yout

Purple Haze Issues on Cannabis Legalization

Purple Haze  Issues on Cannabis Legalization Book
Author : Stephane Potvin,Yasser Khazaal,Amine Benyamina,Marc N. Potenza
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2022-01-05
ISBN : 2889719626
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Purple Haze Issues on Cannabis Legalization book written by Stephane Potvin,Yasser Khazaal,Amine Benyamina,Marc N. Potenza, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Handbook of Novel Psychoactive Substances

Handbook of Novel Psychoactive Substances Book
Author : Ornella Corazza,Andres Roman-Urrestarazu
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-10-10
ISBN : 1351655523
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) provides a comprehensive overview of the challenges that clinicians face when dealing with NPS and discusses how the profile of patients and their socio-demographic characteristics frame the serious public health concern that NPS pose. It presents various clinical cases, as well as detailed accounts of symptoms, psychopathology, toxicity, and overall clinical management that NPS require. This handbook brings together a unique collection of chapters written by leading experts in the field, who have felt the need to share their knowledge and experience to improve the clinical practice on NPS and the wellbeing of their patients.

Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies

Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies Book
Author : Victor R. Preedy
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-12-31
ISBN : 012800827X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies: Biology, Pharmacology, Diagnosis, and Treatment is the first book to take an interdisciplinary approach to the understanding of cannabis use and misuse. Recent worldwide trends toward decriminalizing marijuana for medical use have increased legal use of the drug and recreational use remains high, making cannabis one of the most commonly used drugs. Cannabis has a wide range of adverse neurological effects, and use and abuse can lead to physical, social, and psychopathological issues that are multifarious and complex. Effective understanding and treatment requires knowledge of the drug’s effects from across scientific disciplines. This book provides an overview of the biological and pharmacological components of the cannabis plant, outlines its neurological, social, and psychopathological effects, assists in the diagnosis and screening for use and dependency, and aids researchers in developing effective treatments for cannabis-related issues and disorders. Fully illustrated, with contributions from internationally recognized experts, it is the go-to resource for neuroscientists, pharmacologists, pathologists, public-health workers, and any other researcher who needs an in-depth and cross-disciplinary understanding of cannabis and its effects. Comprehensive chapters include an abstract, key facts, mini dictionary of terms, and summary points Presents illustrations with at least six figures, tables, and diagrams per chapter Provides a one-stop-shopping synopsis of everything to do with cannabis and its related pathology, from chemicals and cells, individuals and communities, and diagnosis and treatment Offers an integrated and informed synopsis of the complex issues surrounding cannabis as a substance, its use, and its misuse

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia Book
Author : Daniel R. Weinberger,Paul Harrison
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-07-13
ISBN : 1444347748
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Schizophrenia is one of the most complex and disabling diseases to affect mankind. Relatively little is known about its nature and its origins, and available treatments are inadequate for most patients. As a result, there are inevitable controversies about what causes it, how to diagnose it, and how best to treat it. However, in the past decade, there has been an explosion of new research, with dramatic discoveries involving genetic etiology and epidemiological risk factors. There has also been a catalog of new drugs coming to market, and controversy about the relative advantages and disadvantages of newer compared with older therapies. In addition, developing technologies in genomics, molecular biology and neuroimaging provide streams of new information. This book represents a definitive, essential, and up-to-date reference text on schizophrenia. It extensively and critically digests and clarifies recent advances and places them within a clinical context. The Editors (one American and one British), highly respected clinical psychiatrists and researchers and acknowledged experts on schizophrenia, have again assembled an outstanding group of contributors from the USA, UK, Europe and Australia, It will be of value to practising psychiatrists and to trainees, as well as to clinical and neuroscience researchers interested in keeping up with this field or coming into it. The book consists of four sections: descriptive aspects, biological aspects, physical treatments, and psychological and social aspects. It reviews the theoretical controversies over symptomatology, classification and aetiology (particularly pertinent as DSM-V is being developed), the relationship of schizophrenia to the other psychoses, the significance of positive and negative symptoms and pre-morbid personality. It describes a variety of approaches to integrating the vast research data about schizophrenia, including neurodevelopmental, genetic, pharmacological, brain imaging and psychological findings. The biological treatment section reviews the comparative efficacy of various drugs, the management of drug-resistant patients and both neurological and metabolic complications. The final section looks at psychological therapies, social outcomes, and the economics of schizophrenia. Highly Commended in the Psychiatry section of the 2012 BMA Book Awards.

PSYCH

PSYCH Book
Author : Spencer A. Rathus
Publisher : Cengage Learning
Release : 2021-02-16
ISBN : 035737844X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Learn about psychology YOUR Way with Rathus' PSYCH, 7th edition! Reflecting the latest developments from the field, this easy-reference textbook presents key issues in psychology through visually engaging chapters. Throughout the new edition, inspiring quotes from psychologists, authors and celebrities motivate you to dive deeper, while Truth-or-Fiction questions enable you to check your progress and expand your understanding of important concepts. PSYCH engages students of all generations and learning styles -- helping you think critically about Introductory/General Psychology. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Handbook of Cannabis

Handbook of Cannabis Book
Author : Roger Pertwee
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2014-08-21
ISBN : 0191639702
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Truly global in scope and with contributions from leading researchers around the world, The Handbook of Cannabis is the definitive resource on this fascinating drug. Combining scientific perspectives and clinical applications, it covers a vast array of topics, from why over the centuries cannabis has been used as a medicine, through the regulations facing those wishing to self-administer cannabis or provide cannabis-based medicines, to the chemical structure of its many constituents and the rapidly growing group of synthetic cannabinoids that are currently being used for 'legal highs'. With each chapter written by a group of one or more internationally recognised subject experts, it provides academics and researchers with authoritative scientific material on the main pharmacological actions and their effects, as well as their pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and forensic detection. In addition it also examines the complex morphology, cultivation, harvesting, and processing of cannabis and the ways in which the plant's chemical composition can be controlled. As well as offering a raft of scientific information there is extensive coverage of cannabinoid-based medicines. Helping readers to identify and evaluate their benefits, chapters explore pharmacological actions and the effects that seem to underlie approved therapeutic uses, how they are currently used to treat certain disorders, and the ever-growing number of wide-ranging potential clinical applications. There is also coverage of both the legal and illegal sources of cannabis, including 'coffee shops' and 'cannabis dispensaries'. The complex issue of 'recreational cannabis' is also tackled. The sought-after and adverse psychological and non-psychological effects are described and discussions are included on how some adverse effects can be lessened by at least one constituent of cannabis, and that it might be possible to reduce the harm that cannabis does to some by changing current regulatory policies. The Handbook of Cannabis is a one-stop reference; essential reading for all clinicians, pharmacologists, psychologists, and psychiatrists interested in this drug, as well as those working in the field of public health.

Psychosis in Youth An Issue of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America

Psychosis in Youth  An Issue of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America  Book
Author : Jean Frazier,Yael Dvir
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2013-09-17
ISBN : 0323227139
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Because of the complex range of factors to be considered in pscyhosis –genetic, neurologic, biologic, environmental, family, culture - this issue of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics presents aspects that have the greatest relevance and impact in diagnosing and treating child and adolescent patients. Among some of the topics covered: Schizophrenia, Affective disorders and Psychosis, Comorbid diseases, Neurocognition, Genetics, Neuroimaging findings, and Treatment approaches of Psychopharmacology, Psychotherapy, and Community Rehabilitation. Jean Frazier, an expert in child and adolescent neuropsychiatry and in child psychopharmacology, leads this issue along with Yael Dvir, whose research and clinical interests include childhood psychosis and the associations between childhood psychosis and Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

The Search for Biomarkers in Psychiatry

The Search for Biomarkers in Psychiatry Book
Author : Jorge Manzanares,Maria S. Garcia-Gutierrez,Francisco Navarrete Rueda,Piotr Gałecki
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-09-14
ISBN : 2889713016
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Search for Biomarkers in Psychiatry book written by Jorge Manzanares,Maria S. Garcia-Gutierrez,Francisco Navarrete Rueda,Piotr Gałecki, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Medicinal Cannabis and CBD in Mental Healthcare

Medicinal Cannabis and CBD in Mental Healthcare Book
Author : Kylie O’Brien
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022-01-18
ISBN : 3030785599
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Medicinal Cannabis and CBD in Mental Healthcare book written by Kylie O’Brien, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Pot Book

The Pot Book Book
Author : Julie Holland
Publisher : Simon and Schuster
Release : 2010-09-23
ISBN : 1594778981
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Leading experts on the science, history, politics, medicine, and potential of America’s most popular recreational drug • With contributions by Andrew Weil, Michael Pollan, Lester Grinspoon, Allen St. Pierre (NORML), Tommy Chong, and others • Covers marijuana’s physiological and psychological effects, its medicinal uses, the complex politics of cannabis law, pot and parenting, its role in creativity, business, and spirituality, and much more Exploring the role of cannabis in medicine, politics, history, and society, The Pot Book offers a compendium of the most up-to-date information and scientific research on marijuana from leading experts, including Lester Grinspoon, M.D., Rick Doblin, Ph.D., Allen St. Pierre (NORML), and Raphael Mechoulam. Also included are interviews with Michael Pollan, Andrew Weil, M.D., and Tommy Chong as well as a pot dealer and a farmer who grows for the U.S. Government. Encompassing the broad spectrum of marijuana knowledge from stoner customs to scientific research, this book investigates the top ten myths of marijuana; its physiological and psychological effects; its risks; why joints are better than water pipes and other harm-reduction tips for users; how humanity and cannabis have co-evolved for millennia; the brain’s cannabis-based neurochemistry; the complex politics of cannabis law; its potential medicinal uses for cancer, AIDS, Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, and other illnesses; its role in creativity, business, and spirituality; and the complicated world of pot and parenting. As legalization becomes a reality, this book candidly offers necessary facts and authoritative opinions in a society full of marijuana myths, misconceptions, and stereotypes.

Biological Psychology

Biological Psychology Book
Author : Suzanne Higgs,Alison Cooper,Jonathan Lee
Publisher : SAGE
Release : 2019-10-07
ISBN : 1526482762
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The challenge of teaching bio-psychology is first getting students up to speed with the basic brain functions and terminology, before this can be applied to psychology, and then finally helping them develop critical thinking about the subject. This book uniquely addresses all three of these issues and provides a resource that supports students at each of these different levels of understanding. Key features include: • New video animations for the biology chapters and high-quality illustrations throughout, helping students grasp the basic neuroanatomy and microbiology. • 'Check your understanding' questions in the book and MCQs online help students test their understanding and prepare for assessments. • Chapters cover the need-to-know topics for psychology students with 'Insight' and 'Focus on Methods' boxes, highlighting these topics' relevance to the real-world. • Spotlights build on the chapters, delving deeper into contemporary debates, issues and controversies around topical areas such as post-traumatic stress disorder, obesity and pain.

Handbook of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Volume III

Handbook of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders  Volume III Book
Author : Michael S. Ritsner
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-04-13
ISBN : 9400708343
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A few disorders have some of the same symptoms as schizophrenia including schizoaffective disorders, schizophreniform disorder, schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders, delusional disorder, and autism (schizophrenia spectrum disorders). Since the 2000 there has been significant progress in our understanding of the early presentations, assessment, suspected neuropathology, and treatment of these disorders. Recent technological breakthroughs in basic sciences hold promise for advancing our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. This collective monograph reviewers recent researches regarding the origins, onset, course, and outcome of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In particular, this book will be illustrate new developments in terms of conceptual models, and research methodology, genetics and genomics, brain imaging and neurochemical studies, neurophysiology and information processing in schizophrenia spectrum disorders patients. Also will be highlighted new developments in our understanding of the childhood psychosis, prodromal and first-episode states, in treatment and rehabilitation. Thus, the purpose of this book is to provide up-to-date overview of the rapid advances made in the clinical and basic science studies supporting our understanding of the relationship between cerebral processes and clinical, cognitive and other presentations of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In addition, this book aims to monitor important research developments, which may be relevant to treatment, and rehabilitation of patients.

Clinical Manual of Youth Addictive Disorders

Clinical Manual of Youth Addictive Disorders Book
Author : Yifrah Kaminer,Ken C. Winters
Publisher : American Psychiatric Pub
Release : 2019-10-30
ISBN : 1615372814
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This long-awaited follow-up to the classic text Clinical Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment presents the latest research on substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescents 12--18 and emerging adults 18--25 years of age. This new manual offers a substantive update of the previous manual's 16 chapters, offering 7 additional chapters devoted to important new topics, such as pediatric primary care assessment and intervention, electronic tools, specific substances (e.g., cannabis, opioids, alcohol), and much more. Psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and substance abuse specialists, as well as applied researchers and public health professionals, will find this new manual a research-rich and clinically compelling resource for understanding disease course, prevention, diagnosis, substance-specific interventions, co-occurring disorders, and issues related to special populations. The strengths of this text, edited by two of the foremost experts on addiction among youth, are many: Because youth are not simply "miniature adults," the book uses a developmentally informed approach to understand the onset of substance use and the trajectory to SUD and behavioral addictive disorders. An extensive section of the book is devoted to epidemiology, diagnosis, and interventions for specific substances of abuse, including alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and opioids. The full range of interventions are described for each, including pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavior therapy, motivational enhancement, and psychosocial strategies. An introduction on the nature of the association between co-occurring disorders is followed by chapters on internalizing disorders (such as depression), suicidal behavior, psychotic disorders, externalizing disorders (such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity), and behavioral addictions Special chapters are devoted to the management of youth with SUDs in the juvenile justice system and the consequences, for the child, of maternal substance use during pregnancy. Advances in research and clinical strategies make both topics timely. Three appendixes complete the book. The first offers resources for screening and assessment tools, the second provides a select list of websites for parents who are seeking advice and resources about drug prevention and intervention, and the third lists websites containing general information about self-help, including how to find local AA or NA meetings. Emerging research on developmental psychopathology and adolescent development has implications for how we view current prevention, intervention, and treatment paradigms, and Clinical Manual of Youth Addictive Disorders is indispensable in helping the reader understand and implement effective strategies for these patients and their families.

Advances in Schizophrenia Research 2009

Advances in Schizophrenia Research 2009 Book
Author : Wagner F. Gattaz,Geraldo Busatto Filho
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-11-12
ISBN : 1441909133
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Schizophrenia remains an important challenge to psychiatry, with its causes and underlying brain mechanisms yet to be fully revealed. Currently available treatments are neither universally effective nor without unwanted effects. These aspects, together with the high prevalence of schizophrenia, its often debilitating nature, and the associated family and social burden, make this mental disorder one of the most complex public health issues of our times. The purpose of the Advances in Schizophrenia Research series is to provide comprehensive periodic reviews of the wide range of research studies carried out around the world, with the dual purpose of solving the schizophrenia puzzle, and providing clues to new forms of treatment and prevention for this disorder. A special feature of the series is its broad scope, virtually encompassing all fields of schizophrenia research: epidemiology and risk factors; psychopathology; diagnostic boundaries; cognition; outcome and prognosis; pathophysiology; genetics; pharmacological and psychological forms of treatment and rehabilitation; community care; and stigmatization.

Abnormal Psychology in Context

Abnormal Psychology in Context Book
Author : Nadine Pelling,Lorelle Burton
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2017-02-01
ISBN : 1108179568
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abnormal Psychology in Context is a practical and contemporary handbook for both students of abnormal psychology and allied mental health practitioners. This text is one of the first of its kind, providing a specific focus on abnormal psychology from Australian and New Zealand - rather than US - perspectives. Nadine Pelling and Lorelle Burton have crafted a highly relevant resource, showcasing the most recent Australasian research in a clear format designed for ease of use. Written by leading researchers from Australia and New Zealand, each chapter examines a particular psychological disorder, details symptoms and responses, and includes relevant statistics, case studies, further reading and links to community resources. The chapters give equal weight to Australian and New Zealand experiences in abnormal psychology matters. Succinctly written yet richly detailed, Abnormal Psychology in Context is an essential resource that students can carry from the classroom into the workplace.

Complete Healing from Cancer Diabetes Leukemia and Other Chronic Disorders

Complete Healing from Cancer Diabetes Leukemia and Other Chronic Disorders Book
Author : Csaba Laszlo
Publisher : Lulu Press, Inc
Release : 2014-09-25
ISBN : 1312542705
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This amazing book contains complete healing cures, treatments for nowdays world-wide spread mortal disorders such as acute gastritis, adenomyosis, alzheimer, amyloidosis, amyotrophic, anaphylactic, angelman syndrome, anorexia, arthitis, arthropathy, asperger disorder, asthma, ataxia, attention deficit, autism, bell palsy, bruxism, bulemia, cachexia, cancer, carpal tunnel syndrome, cerebral aneurysm, cfs, chronic pain, cluster headaches, cmt disease, colitis, colon diverticulitis, crohn, cure, depression, diabetes, diarrhea, disease, dravet, dupuytren contracture, dyspepsia, dystonia, e.t., ehlers danlos, emphysema, endometriosis, epilepsy, felty, fibromyalgia, friedreich, future, gastroesophgeal reflux, glaucoma, good, gout, happy, heal, help, hemophilia a, henoch-schonlein purpura, herpes, high blood pressure, hiv/aids, hydrocephalus, hypertension, hyperventilation, hypoglycemia, incontience, inflammatory bowel, insomnia, interstitial pneumonia, irritable bowel syndrome, limbic rage, liver disease and so on.