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The Claustrum

The Claustrum Book
Author : John R. Smythies,Lawrence Edelstein,Vilayanur S. Ramachandran
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-11-11
ISBN : 012404722X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The present day is witnessing an explosion of our understanding of how the brain works at all levels, in which complexity is piled on complexity, and mechanisms of astonishing elegance are being continually discovered. This process is most developed in the major areas of the brain, such as the cortex, thalamus, and striatum. The Claustrum instead focuses on a small, remote, and, until recently, relatively unknown area of the brain. In recent years, researchers have come to believe that the claustrum is concerned with consciousness, a bold hypothesis supported by the claustrum’s two-way connections with nearly every other region of the brain and its seeming involvement with multisensory integrations—the hallmark of consciousness. The claustrum, previously in a humble position at the back of the stage, might in fact be the conductor of the brain’s orchestra. The Claustrum brings together leading experts on the claustrum from the varied disciplines of neuroscience, providing a state-of-the-art presentation of what is currently known about the claustrum, promising lines of current research (including epigenetics), and projections of new lines of investigation on the horizon. Develops a unifying hypothesis about the claustrum’s role in consciousness, as well as the integration of sensory information and other higher brain functions. Discusses the involvement of the claustrum with autism, schizophrenia, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease Coverage of all aspects of the claustrum, from its evolution and development to promising new lines of research, including epigenetics, provides a platform and point of reference for future investigative efforts

The Claustrum charting a way forward for the brain s most mysterious nucleus

The Claustrum  charting a way forward for the brain   s most mysterious nucleus Book
Author : Ariel Y. Deutch, Brian N. Mathur
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-09-09
ISBN : 2889195422
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The claustrum is a long, band-like grey matter structure situated in the ventrolateral telencephalon of most, if not all, mammalian brains. Due to its shape and close proximity to white matter structures and insular cortex, the anatomy and behavioral relevance of the claustrum have proven difficult to study. As a result, disagreements in the literature exist over ontogeny, phylogeny, anatomical boundaries, and connectivity. Despite this, it is generally regarded that the claustrum contains excitatory projection neurons that reciprocally connect to most regions of the cerebral cortex, a feature that has fostered varying hypotheses as to its function. These hypotheses propose multisensory integration, coordination of cortical activity for the generation of conscious percepts, or saliency filtration. The articles of this e-book consider the historical and recent highlights in claustrum structure, hodology, and function and seek to provide a compelling way forward for this “hidden” nucleus.

The Claustrum

The Claustrum Book
Author : Donald Meltzer,Meg Harris Williams
Publisher : Harris Meltzer Trust
Release : 2018-07-31
ISBN : 1912567288
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Using the Kleinian concept of projective-identification, with special reference to intrusive identification with internal objects, this work examines claustrophobic phenomena and its relations to the treatment of borderline and adolescent patients.

Producing and Analyzing Macro Connectomes Current State and Challenges

Producing and Analyzing Macro Connectomes  Current State and Challenges Book
Author : Mihail Bota,Sharon Crook,Marcus Kaiser
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-10-20
ISBN : 2889199819
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Construction of comprehensive and detailed brain regions neuroanatomical connections matrices (macro-connectomes) is necessary to understand how the nervous system is organized and to elucidate how its different parts interact. Macro-connectomes also are the structural foundation of any finer granularity approaches at the neuron classes and types (meso-connectomes) or individual neuron (micro-connectomes) levels. The advent of novel neuroanatomical methods, as well as combinations of classic techniques, form the basis of several large scale projects with the ultimate goal of producing publicly available connectomes at different levels. A parallel approach, that of systematic and comprehensive collation of connectivity data from the published literature and from publicly accessible neuroinformatics platforms, has produced macro-connectomes of different parts of the central nervous system (CNS) in several mammalian species. The emergence of these public platforms that allow for the manipulation of rich connectivity data sets and enable the construction of CNS macro-connectomes in different species may have significant and long lasting implications. Moreover, when these efforts are leveraged by novel statistical methods, they may influence our way of thinking about the brain. Hence, the present brain region-centric paradigm may be challenged by a network-centric one. Ultimately, these projects will provide the information and knowledge for understanding how different neuronal parts communicate and function, developing novel approaches to diseases and disorders, and facilitating translational efforts in neurosciences. With this Research Topic we bring together the current state of macro-connectome related projects including the large scale production of thousands of publicly available neuronatomical experiments, databases with tens of thousands of connectivity records collated from the published literature, and the newest methods for displaying and analyzing this information. This topic also includes a wide range of challenges and how they are addressed - from platforms designed to integrate connectivity data across different sources, species and CNS levels of organization, to languages specifically designed to use these data in models at different scales of resolution, to efforts of 3D reconstruction and data integration, and to approaches for extraction and representation of this knowledge. Finally, we address the present state of different efforts of meso-connectomes construction, and of computational modeling in the context of the information provided by macro-connectomes.

Role of the Claustrum in Kindling of Generalized Seizures

Role of the Claustrum in Kindling of Generalized Seizures Book
Author : Paul Mohapel
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The precise neuroanatomical pathways underlying seizure genesis and propagation are largely unknown. Current evidence suggests that epileptiform activity may travel along preferred anatomical routes and that some structures may act as "gates" that funnel and spread seizure activity throughout the brain. Burchfiel and Applegate (1989a) have proposed a gating hypothesis to explain kindled seizure propagation. According to this hypothesis, kindling involves three distinct phases that are separated by two crucial gates. The first gate mediates the expression of partial seizures, and the second gate mediates the expression of fully generalized seizures. Little work has been done in determining which anatomical sites contain these gates, in particular the second gate. The following experiments set out to investigate the role that the claustrum may play in mediating the second gate, responsible for the expression of kindled generalized seizures. Experiments 1 and 2 utilized correlative strategies to address the claustrum's participation in kindling. In Experiment 1, kindling was evoked directly from claustrum and these properties were compared with the nearby structures of the amygdala, insular cortex, and perirhinal cortex. The claustrum generally exhibited much more potent epileptogenic attributes than the other structures, including quick progression to seizure generalization and more vigorous and sustained convulsions. However, the claustrum, shared many electrographic and convulsive properties with the insular and perirhinal cortices, including a two phase development of generalized seizures, rapid progression to seizure generalization, and quick onset to limb convulsions. In Experiment 2, further dissociations were detected between claustrum and amygdaloid kindling by changes in molecular products linked with neural plasticity. Claustrum kindling was associated with generally more intensive expression of claustrum in kindling. Experiments 3 and 4 used more direct approaches to address the role of the claustrum in kindling. In Experiment 3, alternating stimulation between the claustrum and amygdala demonstrated that the claustrum was capable of arresting amygdaloid kindling at the partial seizure stages. This kindling antagonism effect was not observed with stimulation of the superficial insular cortex, perirhinal cortex, or piriform cortex. In Experiment 4, lesions applied to the claustrum were effective in delaying, but not blocking amygdaloid kindling. These delays were in amygdaloid kindling were produced by small lesions restricted to the ipsilateral anterior claustrum. Taken together these data suggest that the claustrum may represent the crucial mediator of the second gate responsible for kindled seizure generalization.

Wiring Principles of Cerebral Cortex

Wiring Principles of Cerebral Cortex Book
Author : Julian Budd, Zoltán F. Kisvárday
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-11-17
ISBN : 2889196925
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cerebral cortex is probably the most complex biological network. Here many millions of individual neurons, the functional units of cortex, are interconnected through a massive yet highly organized pattern of axonal and dendritic wiring. This wiring enables both near and distant cells to coordinate their responses and generate a rich variety of cognitions and behaviours. When the wiring is damaged through disease or trauma it may reorganize but this may lead to characteristic pathological behaviours. While there have been significant advances in mapping cortical connectivity, the organizing principles and function of this connectivity are not well understood. On the one hand, there appears to be general design constraints governing cortical wiring, as first recognised by Rámon y Cajal's in his laws of conduction, material, and volume conservation. Yet on the other hand, particular patterns of cortical wiring exist to serve specific functions. There is a wide gap in understanding how the response and connectivity properties of a single neuron contribute to emergent network functions such as in detecting perceptually relevant features. Unravelling this intimate causal relationship represents one of the major challenges in neuroscience. This Research Topic will examine progress in understanding cortical wiring principles. This Research Topic aims to draw together recent advances in methods and understanding as well as recent challenges to existing ideas about how cerebral cortex is wired. This is particularly timely because new automated techniques may soon yield huge datasets in need of explanation. Recent studies have, for instance, empirically evaluated Rámon y Cajal's conservation laws for cerebral cortex, while others have shown some unexpected connectivity features that may refine the traditional view of how corticocortical connections are organised with regard to functional representations of auditory, somatosensory and visual cortices. Understanding these data will help improve the fidelity of neural models of cerebral cortical function and take into account the diversity of connections at both micro- and mesoscopic scales not seen at such a depth before.

Neurobiology of Monotremes

Neurobiology of Monotremes Book
Author : Ken Ashwell
Publisher : CSIRO PUBLISHING
Release : 2013-12
ISBN : 0643103155
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Details the development, structure, function and behavioural ecology of the monotremes.

The Human Central Nervous System

The Human Central Nervous System Book
Author : Rudolf Nieuwenhuys,Jan Voogd,Christiaan van Huijzen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-12-31
ISBN : 3540346864
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The present edition of The Human Central Nervous System differs considerably from its predecessors. In previous editions, the text was essentially confined to a section dealing with the various functional systems of the brain. This section, which has been rewritten and updated, is now preceded by 15 newly written chapters, which introduce the pictorial material of the gross anatomy, the blood vessels and meninges and the microstructure of its various parts and deal with the development, topography and functional anatomy of the spinal cord, the brain stem and the cerebellum, the diencephalon and the telencephalon. Great pains have been taken to cover the most recent concepts and data. As suggested by the front cover, there is a focus on the evolutionary development of the human brain. Throughout the text numerous correlations with neuropathology and clinical n- rology have been made. After much thought, we decided to replace the full Latin terminology, cherished in all previous editions, with English and Anglicized Latin terms. It has been an emotional farewell from beautiful terms such as decussatio hipposideriformis W- nekinkii and pontes grisei caudatolenticulares. Not only the text, but also the p- torial material has been extended and brought into harmony with the present state of knowledge. More than 230 new illustrations have been added and many others have been revised. The number of macroscopical sections through the brain has been extended considerably. Together, these illustrations now comprise a complete and convenient atlas for interpreting neuroimaging studies.

Brain Networks for Studying Healthy and Pathological Aging Mechanisms and Intervention Efficacy

Brain Networks for Studying Healthy and Pathological Aging Mechanisms and Intervention Efficacy Book
Author : Christos Frantzidis,Ana B. Vivas,Panagiotis D. Bamidis
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-11-18
ISBN : 2889661229
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Previous studies showed that both healthy and pathological aging are associated with changes in brain structure and function of the mature human brain. The most prominent anatomical alteration are changes in prefrontal cortex morphology, volume loss and reduced white-matter integrity and hippocampal atrophy. Cognitive decline affects mainly the performance of episodic memory, speed of sensory information processing, working memory, inhibitory function and long-term memory. It has been also proposed that due to the aforementioned changes the aging brain engages in compensatory brain mechanism such as a broader activation of cortical regions (mainly frontal) rather than specialized activation. Evidence suggests that similar changes occur with pathological aging but to a greater extent. In this case information flow is disrupted due to neurodegeneration, functional activation of posterior (occipito-temporal) regions is decreased and as a consequence the brain fails to process sensorial input in the ventral pathway and cognitive deficits appear. In the last years, functional alterations associated with aging have been studied using the mathematical notion of graph theory that offers an integrative approach since it examines different properties of the brain network: 1) Organization level 2) amount of local information processing, 3) information flow 4) cortical community structure and 5) identification of functional / anatomical hubs. So, graph theory offers an attractive way to model brain networks organization and to quantify their pathological deviations. Previous studies have already employed this mathematical notion and demonstrated that age-related neurodegeneration is often accompanied by loss of optimal network organization either due to diminished local information processing or due to progressive isolation of distant brain regions. They have also found that changes in network properties may be present even in the preclinical phase, which could be taken as a biological marker of disease.

Textbook on MRI Mapping of the Human Deep Brain

Textbook on MRI Mapping of the Human Deep Brain Book
Author : Jean-Jacques LEMAIRE
Publisher : EDP Sciences
Release : 2021-06-10T00:00:00+02:00
ISBN : 2759825760
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The full access to the 3D volumetric description of the human deep brain greatly eases the mastering of this complex region. For the first time, the reader has a unique description of numerous structures extracted from high resolution MRI ground-truth, belonging to the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the subthalamus and the telencephalon including the amygdalo-hippocampal complex. The real rendition will matter particularly for all those dealing with the volumetric architecture. A triplanar MRI atlas is included. Several international terminologies allow to seek highly specialized data, making the link between pioneering and seminal works, and current modern usages. The textbook addresses basically the students in neuroscience, whether in biology, medicine, psychology, and in biomedical sciences. Faculties and tenured persons, as well as staffs of industry sectors, should find useful reminders and insights. Those who would like to individualize the analysis of the deep brain will find key elements. Definitively, the textbook is intended to share the knowledge toward inter and trans disciplinary approaches.

Plasticity and Reconstruction of Neural Network in Brain Injury

Plasticity and Reconstruction of Neural Network in Brain Injury Book
Author : Zhang Pengyue,Yuchuan Ding,Yulong Bai,Xiangjian Zhang,Yunping Deng
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-08-24
ISBN : 2889712206
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Plasticity and Reconstruction of Neural Network in Brain Injury book written by Zhang Pengyue,Yuchuan Ding,Yulong Bai,Xiangjian Zhang,Yunping Deng, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Issues in Brain and Cognition Research 2011 Edition

Issues in Brain and Cognition Research  2011 Edition Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
Release : 2012-01-09
ISBN : 1464964491
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Issues in Brain and Cognition Research / 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Brain and Cognition Research. The editors have built Issues in Brain and Cognition Research: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Brain and Cognition Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Brain and Cognition Research: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

At The Top of the Interneuronal Pyramid Calretinin Expressing Cortical Interneurons

At The Top of the Interneuronal Pyramid     Calretinin Expressing Cortical Interneurons Book
Author : Nada Zecevic,Zsófia Maglóczky,Filip Barinka
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-01-12
ISBN : 2889197085
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It is in general well appreciated that the cortical interneurons play various important roles in cortical neuronal networks both in normal and pathological states. Based on connectivity pattern, developmental, morphological and electrophysiological properties, distinct subgroups of GABAergic interneurons can be differentiated in the neocortex as well as in the hippocampal formation. In this E-Book, we are focusing our attention on inhibitory interneurons expressing calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR). The aim of the E-Book is to consolidate the knowledge about this interneuronal population and to inspire further research on the function and malfunction of these neurons, which – functionally – seem to stand "at the top of the pyramid" of cortical interneuronal types.

Psychogeotherapy

Psychogeotherapy Book
Author : Martyna Chrześcijańska
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2020-12-30
ISBN : 1000343022
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Psychogeotherapy offers a critical exploration of the roles played by ideas of space and containment in psychotherapy. Employing approaches from psychogeography with a focus on the praxis of ‘aimless walking’, it explores alternate models of therapeutic space and what the author terms ‘psychogeotherapy’. The book gives a fresh and creative perspective on therapeutic work and its relationship to space, drawing on a range of existing approaches including Freudian, post-Freudian, Jungian and post-Jungian perspectives. With perspectives from various disciplines such as art, social studies, cultural studies and philosophy, the book interrogates the dominant models of containment in psychotherapy and discusses these models from different perspectives to shed new light on classical concepts of therapeutic space and containment in depth psychology and psychotherapy. This book will be of great interest for academics, researchers and post-graduate students in the fields of analytical psychology, psychotherapy, psychogeography and mental health.

Sensory Motor Areas and Aspects of Cortical Connectivity

Sensory Motor Areas and Aspects of Cortical Connectivity Book
Author : Edward G. Jones,Alan Peters
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461321492
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Volume 5 of Cerebral Cortex completes the sequence of three volumes on the individual functional areas of the cerebral cortex by covering the somatosensory and motor areas. However, the chapters on these areas lead naturally to a series of others on patterns of connectivity in the cortex, intracortical and subcortical, so that the volume as a whole achieves a much broader viewpoint. The individual chapters on the sensory-motor areas reflect the considerable diversity of interest within the field, for each of the authors has given his or her chapter a different emphasis, reflecting in part topical interest and in part the body of data resulting from work in a particular species. In considering the functional organization of the somatosensory cortex, Robert Dykes and Andre Ruest have chosen to concentrate on the nature of the mapping process and its significance. Harold Burton, in his chapter on the somatosensory fields buried in the sylvian fissure, shows how critical is an understanding of this mapping process in the functional subdivision of the cortex. A frequently overlooked subdivision of the cortex, the vestibular region, is given the emphasis it deserves in a chapter by John Fredrickson and Allan Rubin. The further functional subdivisions that occur within the first somatosensory area are given an anatom ical basis in the review by Edward Jones of connectivity in the primate sensory motor cortex.

Proceedings of the XV Symposium Neuroradiologicum

Proceedings of the XV Symposium Neuroradiologicum Book
Author : Mutsumasa Takahashi,Yukunori Korogi,Ivan Moseley
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 3642794343
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since 1939, the Symposium Neuroradiologicum has been held every 4 years in various cities throughout the world. Great neuroradiologists such as Taveras, Du Boulay, Greitz, Lindgren, and DiChiro have been among the presidents of the previous symposia. The XV Symposium Neuroradiologicum was held in Kumamoto from 25 September through 1 October 1994. More than 1,200 participants gathered to discuss the most recent developments, including interventional neuroradiology, functional imaging, MRI contrast media, new techniques in MRI, iodinated contrast media and other advances. The communications are presented in this book. Special lectures held by Drs. Dillon, Harwood-Nash, and Picard are included. This book covers the most recent advances in neuroradiology.

Neurobiology of Cingulate Cortex and Limbic Thalamus

Neurobiology of Cingulate Cortex and Limbic Thalamus Book
Author : VOGT,GABRIEL
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-27
ISBN : 1489967044
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Neurobiology of Cingulate Cortex and Limbic Thalamus book written by VOGT,GABRIEL, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Schizophrenia Bulletin

Schizophrenia Bulletin Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Schizophrenia Bulletin book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Brain Landscape The Coexistence of Neuroscience and Architecture

Brain Landscape The Coexistence of Neuroscience and Architecture Book
Author : John P. Eberhard
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2008-12-16
ISBN : 9780199715848
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain Landscape: The Coexistence of Neuroscience and Architecture is the first book to serve as an intellectual bridge between architectural practice and neuroscience research. John P. Eberhard, founding President of the non-profit Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture, argues that increased funding, and the ability to think beyond the norm, will lead to a better understanding of how scientific research can change how we design, illuminate, and build spaces. Inversely, he posits that by better understanding the effects that buildings and places have on us, and our mental state, the better we may be able to understand how the human brain works. This book is devoted to describing architectural design criteria for schools, offices, laboratories, memorials, churches, and facilities for the aging, and then posing hypotheses about human experiences in such settings.

Kindling 6

Kindling 6 Book
Author : Michael E. Corcoran,Solomon L. Moshé
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-12-05
ISBN : 0387261443
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Kindling, featuring valuable summaries of the participants’ current cutting-edge research on the kindling of seizures and related phenomena in epilepsy.