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The Cerebral Cortex In Neurodegenerative And Neuropsychiatric Disorders

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The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders Book
Author : David F. Cechetto,Nina Weishaupt
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-02-24
ISBN : 0128019565
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Experimental Approaches to Clinical Issues focuses on how pre-clinical investigations are addressing the clinical issues surrounding the involvement of the cerebral cortex in selected conditions of the nervous system, including Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s, addiction, and cardiovascular dysregulation. Each chapter is written by an expert in his/her field who provides a comprehensive review of the clinical manifestations of cortical involvement and experimental techniques currently available to tackle cortical issues in disease. Thus, this present title provides a link between cortical clinical problems and investigational approaches to help foster future research with high translational value. Offers a comprehensive overview on the best available in vivo and in vitro models to study cortical involvement Presents models and specific techniques that help to guide investigators in their choices on how to address research questions experimentally Provides expert commentary and a perspective on future trends at the end of each chapter Addresses translational advances and promising therapeutic options Includes references to key articles for additional detailed study

Investigating the Effect of Scyllo Inositol Treatment on the Brain in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer s Disease

Investigating the Effect of Scyllo Inositol Treatment on the Brain in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer s Disease Book
Author : Qingda Hu
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Scyllo-Inositol is a potential therapeutic for the treatment of agitation and aggression in patients with Alzheimer's disease. scyllo-Inositol reduces aggregation of beta-amyloid peptide, reduces amyloid plaques, and reduces myo-inositol concentration in the brain. The change in gene expression in the brain of TgCRND8 mice after scyllo-inositol treatment has not been previously investigated. I hypothesized that scyllo-inositol treatment would cause changes in expression of genes involved in neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. Affymetrix gene expression microarrays were used to analyze changes in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of TgCRND8 mice as well as in non-transgenic littermates after 30 days of scyllo-inositol treatment. Analysis of the data with the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis program showed gene expression changes in synaptic function, calcium, dopamine receptor, glutamate receptor, and myo-inositol signalling pathways. In light of these results, I concluded that my hypothesis was correct.

Molecular Aspects of Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection

Molecular Aspects of Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection Book
Author : Tahira Farooqui,Akhlaq Farooqui
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018-02-15
ISBN : 9781608053766
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Neurodegenerative diseases are a complex heterogeneous group of diseases associated with site-specific premature and slow death of certain neuronal populations in brain and spinal cord tissues. For example, in Alzheimer disease, neuronal degeneration occu"

Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Neuropsychiatric Disorders Book
Author : Manfred Gerlach,Jürgen Deckert,Kay Double,Eleni Koutsilieri
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-12-28
ISBN : 3211735747
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This multidisciplinary book includes current research papers and reviews in the areas of basic neuroscience, neural mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders. It further includes new approaches for neuroprotective treatments, clinical, neurobiological and treatment aspects of psychiatric disorders. The book was conceived as a celebration of the professional life and work of Peter Riederer to mark the occasion of his retirement.

Glial Man

Glial Man Book
Author : Yves Agid,Pierre Magistretti
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2020-11-26
ISBN : 0192587005
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Glial cells play an essential role in initiating and controlling our behaviours, playing a major role in communication between brain cells. They share certain properties with neurons, including the ability to use information from the environment to formulate behaviors. Understanding these cells is key to explaining human movement, emotion, and thoughts. Moreover, glial cells provide a panoply of new therapeutic targets for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. This book is the 'brain' child of two scientist physicians: Pierre Magistretti, a leading expert in cerebral metabolism and glial cell biology, and Yves Agid, an expert in the treatment of nervous system diseases and a researcher in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. This book provides many examples of the decisive role glial cells play in the functioning of the human brain, as well as in neurological and psychiatric pathologies. The result is a revolution in our understanding of the brain and a beacon of hope in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders Convergence of preclinical and clinical evidence

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders  Convergence of preclinical and clinical evidence Book
Author : Ales Stuchlik,Tomiki Sumiyoshi
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-10-23
ISBN : 2889196798
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and etc., represent a serious medical and socioeconomic problems. These diseases are often accompanied by impairments of cognitive function, e.g., abstract thinking, decision-making, attention, and several types of memory. Such deficits significantly disrupt quality of life and daily functioning of patients. Cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric diseases are associated with alterations of brain morphology and function, and are often resistant to therapeutic interventions. In schizophrenia and related disorders, cognitive deficits are also defined as endophenotypes, i.e. measurable phenotypes linking these disaeses with discrete heritable and reproducible traits. This points to the importance of elucidating these endophenotypes in translational studies. Animal models may not mimic the full spectrum of clinical symptoms, but may act as analogies of particular behaviors or other pathological outcomes. They are useful to search for the etiology of particular psychiatric illnesses and novel therapeutics. Moreover, several behavioral tests to measure cognitive performance in rodents and other species have been implemented. The primary focus of the present topic is to provide up-to-date information on cognitive deficits of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. This Research Topic also delineates future directions for translational studies aimed at developing novel treatments/interventions of cognitive disturbances.

Make Life Visible

Make Life Visible Book
Author : Yoshiaki Toyama,Atsushi Miyawaki,Masaya Nakamura,Masahiro Jinzaki
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-10-02
ISBN : 9811379084
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This open access book describes marked advances in imaging technology that have enabled the visualization of phenomena in ways formerly believed to be completelyimpossible. These technologies have made major contributions to the elucidation of the pathology of diseases as well as to their diagnosis and therapy. The volume presents various studies from molecular imaging to clinical imaging. It also focuses on innovative, creative, advanced research that gives full play to imaging technology inthe broad sense, while exploring cross-disciplinary areas in which individual research fields interact and pursuing the development of new techniques where they fuse together. The book is separated into three parts, the first of which addresses the topic of visualizing and controlling molecules for life. Th e second part is devoted to imaging of disease mechanisms, while the final part comprises studies on the application of imaging technologies to diagnosis and therapy. Th e book contains the proceedings of the 12th Uehara International Symposium 2017, “Make Life Visible” sponsored by the Uehara Memorial Foundation and held from June 12 to 14, 2017. It is written by leading scientists in the field and is an open access publication under a CC BY 4.0 license.

Neurodegenerative Disorders as Systemic Diseases

Neurodegenerative Disorders as Systemic Diseases Book
Author : Keiji Wada
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-10-21
ISBN : 4431545417
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book sheds new light on neurodegenerative disorders as systemic diseases. Classically, neuronal cell death was a hallmark of such disorders. However, it has become evident that neural dysfunction is more important in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. More recently, the prionoid-spreading hypothesis of disease-causing molecules has attracted a great deal of attention. Therapeutic strategies thus must be reconsidered in the light that neurodegenerative disorders are indeed systemic diseases. The first part of this book introduces the concept of neurodegeneration in biology and pathophysiology. The second part focuses on clinical evaluation and biomarkers from the perspective of this new concept, while the third summarizes the risk factors of neurodegeneration. The fourth part of this work indicates future directions of treatment, and the final part discusses health promotion for prevention and quality of life. This book will be of interest to both researchers and medical personnel, and provides a fresh approach to neurodegenerative diseases, paving the way to new research and improved quality of health care for patients.

                        Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1955
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Molecular Aspects of Neurodegeneration Neuroprotection and Regeneration in Neurological Disorders

Molecular Aspects of Neurodegeneration  Neuroprotection  and Regeneration in Neurological Disorders Book
Author : Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-09-07
ISBN : 0128217014
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Molecular Aspects of Neurodegeneration, Neuroprotection, and Regeneration in Neurological Disorders presents readers with comprehensive and cutting-edge information on the neurochemical mechanisms of various types of neurological disorders. The book covers information on signal transduction processes associated with neurochemistry of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative, neurotraumatic, and neuropsychiatric disorders. The book also discusses risk factors, symptoms, pathogenesis, biomarkers, and the potential treatments of neurological disorders. The comprehensive information in this monograph may not only help in early detection of various neurological disorders, but will also promote the discovery of new drugs. Provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular aspects of neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, and neuro-regeneration, along with therapeutic strategies for various types of neurological disorders Provides cutting-edge research information on the signal transduction processes associated with the neurochemistry of neurological disorders Discusses risk factors, symptoms, pathogenesis, biomarkers, and the potential for treatments of neurological disorders

Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Neurological Disorders

Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Neurological Disorders Book
Author : Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2014-01-27
ISBN : 3319041118
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Unless new discoveries are made in the prevention or treatment of stroke, Alzheimer's Disease and depression, the number of patients with these diseases is sure to increase dramatically by the year 2050. Thus, developing strategies to retard or delay the onset of stroke, AD and depression these neurological disorders is of critical important. The present monograph will provide current and comprehensive information on the relationship between neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in age-related neurological disorders at the molecular level. The information described in this monograph on lifestyle (diet and exercise), genes and age is intended to facilitate and promote new discoveries for the treatment of age-related neurological disorders.

Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease

Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease Book
Author : Philip Seeman,Bertha Madras
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-11-15
ISBN : 012418684X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain imaging technology remains at the forefront of advances in both our understanding of the brain and our ability to diagnose and treat brain disease and disorders. Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease examines the localization of neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system of normal, healthy humans and compares that with humans who are suffering from various neurologic diseases. Opening chapters introduce the basic science of imaging neurotransmitters, including sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors. Imaging the healthy and diseased brain includes brain imaging of anger, pain, autism, the release of dopamine, the impact of cannabinoids, and Alzheimer's disease. This book is a valuable companion to a wide range of scholars, students, and researchers in neuroscience, clinical neurology, and psychiatry, and provides a detailed introduction to the application of advanced imaging to the treatment of brain disorders and disease. A focused introduction to imaging healthy and diseased brains Focuses on the primary neurotransmitter release Includes sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors Presents the imaging of healthy and diseased brains via anger, pain, autism, and Alzheimer's disease

Neurochemical Aspects of Neurotraumatic and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neurochemical Aspects of Neurotraumatic and Neurodegenerative Diseases Book
Author : Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-09-02
ISBN : 1441966528
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Collectively, neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by chronic and progressive loss of neurons in discrete areas of the brain, producing debilitating symptoms such as dementia, loss of memory, loss of sensory or motor capability, decreased overall quality of life eventually leading to premature death. Two types of cell death are known to occur during neurodegeneration: (a) apoptosis and (b) necrosis. The necrosis is characterized by the passive cell swelling, intense mitochondrial damage with rapid loss of ATP, alterations in neural membrane permeability, high calcium influx, and disruption of ion homeostasis. This type of cell death leads to membrane lysis and release of intracellular components that induce inflammatory reactions. Necrotic cell death normally occurs at the core of injury site. In contrast, apoptosis is an active process in which caspases (a group of endoproteases with specificity for aspartate residues in protein) are stimulated. Apoptotic cell death is accompanied by cell shrinkage, dynamic membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, DNA laddering, loss of phospholipids asymmetry, low ATP levels, and mild calcium overload. This type of cell death normally occurs in penumbral region at the ischemic injury site and in different regions in various neurodegenerative diseases.

Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain II

Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain II Book
Author : Tatsunori Seki,Kazunobu Sawamoto,Jack M. Parent,Arturo Alvarez-Buylla
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-06-15
ISBN : 443153945X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The discovery of adult neurogenesis caused a paradigm shift in the neurosciences. For more than 100 years, it was believed that adult neurons do not regenerate. Joseph Altman and Fernando Nottebohm found proof to the contrary and changed the course of history. Their research, included here, provides the foundations of the field. Today, adult neurogenesis is a rapidly expanding discipline applicable to the study of brain development and diseases, learning and memory, aging, and neuropsychiatric disorders. With multiple authors, the 27 chapters of this book contain the latest work in two volumes. The first presents the basic biology of adult neurogenesis in non-mammalian vertebrates and in the mammalian hippocampus and olfactory bulb, and the second discusses clinical implications and delves into adult neurogenesis and brain injury as well as neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric pathologies. With details of the anatomy, physiology, and molecular biology of the two neurogenic brain regions, this book provides indispensable knowledge for many areas of neuroscience and for experimental and clinical applications of adult neurogenesis to brain therapy.

Endophenotypes Of Psychiatric And Neurodegenerative Disorders In Rodent Models

Endophenotypes Of Psychiatric And Neurodegenerative Disorders In Rodent Models Book
Author : Sylvie Granon
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009-01-01
ISBN : 9788178954028
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Psychiatric disorders are uniquely human. Yet we need animal models to test hypotheses about biological mechanisms. Treatment development relies on model systems to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutics. How can such a profound paradox be resolved? Dr. Sylvie Granon of the Institute Pasteur in Paris has successfully assembled a collection of fifteen review chapters that address multiple aspects of rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Outstanding experts describe paradigms relevant to Alzheimer s disease, mental retardation, schizophrenia, autism, attentional deficit hyperactivity disorder, impulsivity, drug addiction, post-traumatic stress disorder, multiple sclerosis, and sudden infant death syndrome. Traditional lesioning and pharmacological methods are contrasted with newer targeted gene mutation strategies for generating rodent models. Strengths and limitations of transgenic and knockout mouse models are discussed by many of the insightful authors. In Alice in Wonderland, the Cheshire Cat speaks English and tell us We re all mad here. Unfortunately, real animals do not talk, and cannot tell us about their abnormal internal emotional or mental states, if any. It is essential to recognize that researchers will never be able to replicate schizophrenia or autism or depression in a mouse. Many psychiatric dysfunctions appear to originate primarily in the human frontal cerebral cortex, a highly developed structure that dramatically eclipses the modest frontal cortex of rodents. Numbers of synapses and available pathways for making neural connections that permit higher executive functions are enormously greater in humans as compared to other species. Expansion of the human prefrontal cortex is an evolutionary recent phenomenon. There has not been enough time for thorough trouble-shooting and beta-testing of its neural circuitry. No wonder so much can go so wrong. Endophenotypes offer a neat solution to our conundrum. Rather than trying to replicate the full human syndrome, specific components of behavioral symptoms and neuroanatomical abnormalities can be modeled in rodents. While mental illnesses that are primarily caused by incorrect developmental neuroanatomy or aberrant neurotransmitter pharmacology in the prefrontal cortex may be difficult to model in mice, whose prefrontal cortex is minimal, connections between frontal cortex and other brain regions such as thalamus are similar across species. Homologies between rodents and primates in frontal cortex connections and specific behavioral functions have been extensively described by Bryan Kolb. The inability of Alzheimer s patients to store new memories represents a discrete characteristic that can be paralleled in rats and mice, who store new memories using similar neurophysiological mechanisms. Schizophrenic patients display deficits in sensorimotor gating and errors in working memory. Very similar procedures and equipment are available to assay prepulse inhibition and working memory in humans, monkeys, rats, and mice. Neuropharmacological pathways mediating the biological actions of abused drugs are similar in humans and rats. Drug addicts show poor impulse control and poor decision making in tasks that are analogous to some forms of errors in the five choice serial reaction time task for rats and mice. Genetic mutations that produce synaptic dysfunctions or amyloid plaques in the human brain are inserted into the mouse genome to create mouse models of mental retardation, which are then evaluated on learning and memory tasks. Thus, a simpler focus on individual endophenotype components of a human disease permits reasonable analogies to be generated in model organisms. The ideal animal model of a human syndrome is quantitative, readily replicated across laboratories, and incorporates three types of validity. Face validity is the conceptual analogy to a human symptom or endophenotype. Some unusual social behaviors in mice offer a conceptual analogy to the first diagnostic symptom of autism, abnormal reciprocal social interactions. Construct validity employs the same cause or precipitating event in the animal model and the human disease. Inflammatory demyelination presents construct validity for a rodent model of multiple sclerosis. Predictive validity confirms the specific therapeutic response. Treatments that work in the human disease also work in the animal model. For example, antidepressants that are effective in treating post-traumatic stress disorder should effectively reverse the behavioral traits of a rat model of this syndrome. Very few animal models of neuropsychiatric diseases incorporate all three types of validity. The authors contributing to this volume explain the challenges, failures and successes of an impressively wide range of model organisms. As the true causes of mental illnesses are identified, neuroscientists and pharmaceutical researchers will design more targeted model systems with true construct validity to the etiologies of neuropsychiatric syndromes. Behavioral assays will continue to be invented and refined to optimize face validity to the endophenotypes of the human disease. Ultimately these endeavors will result in model organisms with high predictive validity and translational value, to enhance the discovery of effective cures for debilitating major mental illnesses.

Drug Repurposing in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Drug Repurposing in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders Book
Author : Anna R. Carta,Nigel H. Greig,Cesar V. Borlongan
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2022-01-25
ISBN : 2889741680
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Drug Repurposing in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders book written by Anna R. Carta,Nigel H. Greig,Cesar V. Borlongan, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Human Hypothalamus

The Human Hypothalamus Book
Author : Dick F. Swaab,Ruud M. Buijs,Felix Kreier,Paul J. Lucassen,Ahmad Salehi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-07-07
ISBN : 0128199741
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Human Hypothalamus: Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Volume 181 in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, provides comprehensive summaries of recent research on the brain and nervous system as they relate to clinical neurology. This volume identifies the neurobiology and neurophysiology of disorders relating to the hypothalamus and provides treatment information for these disorders. Disorders covered include neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative, periodic, and autoimmune disorders. Coverage includes Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, epilepsy, sleep, pain, depression, anxiety, OCD, PTSD, schizophrenia, autism, aggressions, addiction, and more. Summarizes research on how the hypothalamus relates to neurological disorders Contains neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative, periodic and autonomic disorders Includes the neurobiology of, and treatment for, each disorder Covers depression, anxiety, OCD, PTSD, schizophrenia, autism, aggression, addiction, and more Provides coverage of sleep and pain

Cerebral Cortex

Cerebral Cortex Book
Author : Alan Peters,John H. Morrison
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461548853
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume of Cerebral Cortex is dedicated to Sir John Eccles, who was an active member of the advisory board for the series until his death in May 1997. His input as to what topics should be covered in future volumes of this series will be sorely missed. The present volume is concerned with neurodegenerative disorders and age related changes in the structure and function of the cerebral cortex, a topic that has attracted increasing interest as longevity and the number of aged individuals in the population increase. Although much of the research on the neurodegenerative effects of aging has been centered on Alzheimer's disease, most of the aging popu lation will not be afflicted by this disease. They will, however, be affected by the consequences of normal aging, so the first few chapters of this volume are con cerned with that topic. Chapter 1, by Marilyn S. Albert and Mark B. Moss, gives an account of the cognitive changes that accompany normal human aging. Chapter 2, by Mark B.

Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders

Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders Book
Author : Tahira Farooqui,Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-07-12
ISBN : 0128036168
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders: Potential Mechanisms and Risk Factors explores trace amines which, under normal conditions, are present in the mammalian brain and peripheral nervous tissues at very low (nanomolar) concentrations. However, in a diverse array of human pathologies ranging from substance abuse, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and other neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, the levels of trace amines are unusually high with an imbalance in their functions. Furthermore, the rapid turnover of trace amines is evidenced by their dramatic increases following treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) or deletion of the MAO genes. This suggests that the concentration of trace amines may be considerably higher at neuronal synapses than predicted by steady-state measures, implicating some pathophysiological role. Therefore, understanding molecular mechanisms and developing selective agonists and antagonists for trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) has become a good approach for treating these diseases. Although the effects of trace amines at low physiological concentrations in mammalian species have been difficult to demonstrate, they may serve to maintain the neuronal activity of other monoamine neurotransmitters by possessing postsynaptic modulatory effects, particularly dopamine and serotonin, within defined physiological limits. Such an effect of trace amines makes them ideal candidates for the development of novel therapeutics for a wide range of human disorders. This book presents up-to-date, cutting-edge, and comprehensive information on the link between trace amines and neurological disorders. Focuses on recent findings on trace amines, providing insights into the functional significance, molecular mechanisms, and biological relevance of TAARS in neurological disorders Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field from around the globe, the broadest, most expert coverage available Provides cutting-edge research on trace amines-mediated signaling in vertebrate model systems

High Calorie Diet and the Human Brain

High Calorie Diet and the Human Brain Book
Author : Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-03-25
ISBN : 3319152548
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The purpose of this monograph is to present readers with a comprehensive and cutting edge description of neurochemical effects of diet (beneficial and harmful effects) in normal human brain and to discuss how present day diet promotes pathogenesis of stroke, AD, PD, and depression in a manner that is useful not only to students and teachers but also to researchers, dietitians, nutritionists and physicians. A diet in sufficient amount and appropriate macronutrients is essential for optimal health of human body tissues. In brain, over-nutrition, particularly with high-calorie diet, not only alters cellular homeostasis, but also results in changes in the intensity of signal transduction processes in reward centers of the brain resulting in food addiction. Over-nutrition produces detrimental effects on human health in general and brain health in particular because it chronically increases the systemic and brain inflammation and oxidative stress along with induction of insulin resistance and leptin resistance in the brain as well as visceral organs. Onset of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress not only leads to obesity and heart disease, but also promotes type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome, which are risk factors for both acute neural trauma (stroke) and chronic age-related neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD) and depression.