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The Auditory Brain And Age Related Hearing Impairment

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The Auditory Brain and Age Related Hearing Impairment

The Auditory Brain and Age Related Hearing Impairment Book
Author : Jos J. Eggermont
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-01-03
ISBN : 0128155450
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Auditory Brain and Age-Related Hearing Impairment provides an overview of the interaction between age-related hearing impairments and cognitive brain function. This monograph elucidates the techniques used in the connectome and other brain-network studies based on electrophysiological methods. Discussions of the manifestations of age-related hearing impairment, the causes of degradation of sound processing, compensatory changes in the human brain, and rehabilitation and intervention are included. There is currently a surge in content on aging and hearing loss, the benefits of hearing aids and implants, and the correlation between hearing loss, cognitive decline and early onset of dementia. Given the changing demographics, treatment of age-related hearing impairment need not just be bottom-up (i.e., by amplification and/or cochlear implantation), but also top-down by addressing the impact of the changing brain on communication. The role of age-related capacity for audio-visual integration and its role in assisting treatment have only recently been investigated, thus this area needs more attention. Relates the techniques used in the connectome and other brain-network studies to the human auditory-cortex and age-related hearing loss research findings Examines the side effects of age-related hearing impairment and their impact on the quality of life for the elderly Evaluates the importance of multi-modal means in the rehabilitation of the elderly with hearing aids and cochlear implants Discusses the role of neurostimulation and various training procedures to halt, or potentially reverse, cognitive decline in the elderly

Aging and Hearing

Aging and Hearing Book
Author : Karen S. Helfer
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-09-26
ISBN : 3030493679
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Aging and Hearing book written by Karen S. Helfer, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Aging and Hearing

Aging and Hearing Book
Author : Karen S. Helfer,Edward L. Bartlett,Arthur N. Popper,Richard R. Fay
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2020-10-29
ISBN : 9783030493660
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since the first edition of the Aging Auditory System volume (in 2009), there has been a tremendous amount of research in basic, translational, and clinical sciences related to age-related changes in auditory system structure and function. The new research has been driven by technical and conceptual advances in auditory neuroscience at multiple levels ranging from cells to cognition. The chapters in Aging and Hearing: Causes and Consequences span a broad range of topics and appeal to a relatively wide audience. Our goal in this volume is to put together state-of-the-art discussions about new developments in aging research that will appeal to a broad audience, serving as an important update on the current state of research on the aging auditory system. This update includes not only the recent research, but also consideration of how human and animal studies or translational and basic research are working in tandem to advance the field. This new edition is a natural complement to the previous SHAR volume on the aging auditory system edited by Gordon-Salant, Frisina, Popper, and Fay. The target audience for this volume will be graduate students, researchers, and academic faculty from a range of disciplines (psychology, hearing science/audiology, physiology, neuroscience, engineering). It also will appeal to clinical audiologists as well as to researchers working in the hearing device industry. Individuals who attend conferences sponsored by the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, Acoustical Society of America, Auditory Cognitive Neuroscience Society, American Auditory Society, Society for Neuroscience, American Speech, Language and Hearing Association, and the American Academy of Audiology (among others) are likely to find value in the volume.

The Oxford Handbook of the Auditory Brainstem

The Oxford Handbook of the Auditory Brainstem Book
Author : Karl Kandler PhD
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2019-08-22
ISBN : 0190849088
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Oxford Handbook of The Auditory Brainstem provides an introduction as well as an in-depth reference to the organization and function of ascending and descending auditory pathways in the mammalian brainstem. Individual chapters are organized along the auditory pathway beginning with the cochlea and ending with the auditory midbrain. Each chapter provides an introduction to the respective area, and summarizes our current knowledge before discussing disputes and challenges the field currently faces. A major emphasis throughout this book is on the numerous forms of plasticity that are increasingly observed in many areas of the auditory brainstem. Several chapters focus on neuronal modulation of function and synaptic, neuronal, and circuit plasticity, especially under circumstances when they occur most prominently: during development, aging, and following peripheral hearing loss. In addition, the book addresses the role of trauma-induced maladaptive plasticity with respect to its contribution in generating central hearing dysfunction such as hyperacusis and tinnitus. The book is intended for students and postdocs starting in the auditory field, and researchers of related fields who wish to get an authoritative and up-to-date summary of the current state of auditory brainstem research. For clinical practitioners in audiology, otolaryngology, and neurology, the book is a valuable resource of information about the neuronal mechanisms that are major candidates for the generation of central hearing dysfunction.

Noise and the Brain

Noise and the Brain Book
Author : Jos J. Eggermont
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-09-12
ISBN : 0123914310
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In our industrialized world, we are surrounded by occupational, recreational, and environmental noise. Very loud noise damages the inner-ear receptors and results in hearing loss, subsequent problems with communication in the presence of background noise, and, potentially, social isolation. There is much less public knowledge about the noise exposure that produces only temporary hearing loss but that in the long term results in hearing problems due to the damage of high-threshold auditory nerve fibers. Early exposures of this kind, such as in neonatal intensive care units, manifest themselves at a later age, sometimes as hearing loss but more often as an auditory processing disorder. There is even less awareness about changes in the auditory brain caused by repetitive daily exposure to the same type of low-level occupational or musical sound. This low-level, but continuous, environmental noise exposure is well known to affect speech understanding, produce non-auditory problems ranging from annoyance and depression to hypertension, and to cause cognitive difficulties. Additionally, internal noise, such as tinnitus, has effects on the brain similar to low-level external noise. Noise and the Brain discusses and provides a synthesis of hte underlying brain mechanisms as well as potential ways to prvent or alleviate these aberrant brain changes caused by noise exposure. Authored by one of the preeminent leaders in the field of hearing research Emphasizes direct and indirect changes in brain function as a result of noise exposure Provides a comprehensive and evidence-based approach Addresses both developmental and adult plasticity Includes coverage of epidemiology, etiology, and genetics of hearing problems; effects of non-damaging sound on both the developing and adult brain; non-auditory effects of noise; noise and the aging brain; and more

Hearing Loss

Hearing Loss Book
Author : Jos J. Eggermont
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-02-22
ISBN : 0128093498
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hearing Loss: Causes, Prevention, and Treatment covers hearing loss, causes and prevention, treatments, and future directions in the field, also looking at the cognitive problems that can develop. To avoid the “silent epidemic of hearing loss, it is necessary to promote early screening, use hearing protection, and change public attitudes toward noise. Successful treatments of hearing loss deal with restoring hearing sensitivity via hearing aids, including cochlear, brainstem, or midbrain implants. Both the technical aspects and effects on the quality of life of these devices are discussed. The integration of all aspects of hearing, hearing loss, prevention, and treatment make this a perfect one-volume course in audiology at the graduate student level. However, it is also a great reference for established audiologists, ear surgeons, neurologists, and pediatric and geriatric professionals. Presents an in-depth overview of hearing loss, causes and prevention, treatments, and future directions in the field Written for researchers and clinicians, such as auditory neuroscientists, audiologists, neurologists, speech pathologists, pediatricians, and geriatricians Presents the benefits and problems with hearing aids and cochlear implants Includes important quality of life issues

The Recalibrating Brain

The Recalibrating Brain Book
Author : James Ryan Engall
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9781267023407
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Age-related hearing loss is a complex auditory disorder that is associated with a gradual decline of auditory perceptions. Sound localization is one of many auditory perceptions that get impaired in the aged. While sound localization has been studied in great detail at the behavioral level in a variety of young and middle aged animals, little is known about how the neuronal processing breaks down in the aged to impair our perception acoustic space. The current set of studies presented in the forthcoming chapters is part of a series of experiments to develop a primate model of age-related hearing loss that are designed to further our understanding of both the structural and functional changes that accompany aging. In the present series of experiments, several anatomical and electrophysiological studies were designed to characterize and correlate age-related hearing loss in the rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta) to determine if the auditory system compensates for a reduction in drive from the periphery. A requisite was first to determine if rhesus monkeys experience age-related hearing loss. This was accomplished by linking changes in hearing level to distinct histopathologies in the cochlea. Age-related hearing loss was assessed by the auditory brainstem response (ABR) to clicks and pure tones across a population of rhesus macaque monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center at the University of California of Davis. Histological specimens were then randomly collected and examined for distinct histopathological changes in the cochlea. Multiple regression was used to tease apart the contributions of the observed histopathologies on ABR thresholds. Consistent with findings in humans, rhesus monkeys were found to experience progressive age-related hearing loss with a concomitant increase in the number of histopathologies in the cochlea. We found that spiral ganglion cell loss and outer hair cells loss made significant contributions to ABR threshold increases across the spectrum. At the level of the midbrain, the density of parvalbumin neurons in the inferior colliculus was found to increase with age. Interestingly, there was no direct relationship between the densities of parvalbumin cells in the inferior colliculus with the hearing ability of the monkeys. One explanation for this result is that the increase in the density of parvalbumin neurons produced a functional advantage in the processing of simple stimuli. Lastly, we collected and examined neuronal responses in A1 and CL of young and aged rhesus monkeys to investigate the role of age-related hearing loss on auditory cortical responses to spatial stimuli in azimuth. Interestingly, we found a differential increase in driven firing rates and a decrease in the efficacy of inhibition across defined periods of the neuronal response that contributed to broader spatial tuning properties in both A1 and CL of aged rhesus monkeys. These results suggest that spatial tuning may reflect a maladaptive compensatory mechanism within the central auditory system that overcompensation for changes in the periphery. Overall, the combined results of these studies suggest that the decline of auditory perceptions associated with age-related hearing loss maybe generated by the central nervous systems own mechanisms to adapt to changes in peripheral drive. It is proposed that this process is a major contributor to age-related cognitive decline.

Current Bibliographies in Medicine

Current Bibliographies in Medicine Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1992
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Current Bibliographies in Medicine book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Early Identification of Hearing Impairment in Infants and Young Children

Early Identification of Hearing Impairment in Infants and Young Children Book
Author : Lori Klein
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1992
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Early Identification of Hearing Impairment in Infants and Young Children book written by Lori Klein, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Noise Induced Hearing Loss

Noise Induced Hearing Loss Book
Author : Colleen G. Le Prell,Donald Henderson,Richard R. Fay,Arthur N. Popper
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-10-30
ISBN : 9781441995230
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Exposure to loud noise continues to be the largest cause of hearing loss in the adult population. The problem of NIHL impacts a number of disciplines. US standards for permissible noise exposure were originally published in 1968 and remain largely unchanged today. Indeed, permissible noise exposure for US personnel is significantly greater than that allowed in numerous other countries, including for example, Canada, China, Brazil, Mexico, and the European Union. However, there have been a number of discoveries and advances that have increased our understanding of the mechanisms of NIHL. These advances have the potential to impact how NIHL can be prevented and how our noise standards can be made more appropriate.

Hearing Loss New Insights for the Healthcare Professional 2012 Edition

Hearing Loss  New Insights for the Healthcare Professional  2012 Edition Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
Release : 2012-12-10
ISBN : 1464971668
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hearing Loss: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Hearing Loss. The editors have built Hearing Loss: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional / 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Hearing Loss in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Hearing Loss: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional / 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

New Therapies to Prevent or Cure Auditory Disorders

New Therapies to Prevent or Cure Auditory Disorders Book
Author : Sylvie Pucheu,Kelly E. Radziwon,Richard Salvi
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-03-25
ISBN : 3030404137
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hearing loss is the most common form of sensory impairment in humans, affecting 360 million persons worldwide. In parallel, tinnitus disorder, the perception of a phantom sound often described as a ringing or buzzing, affects around 10–15% of the general population and interferes with daily life. Hyperacusis, defined as a hypersensitivity to moderate-intensity sounds often co-occurs with tinnitus suggesting a common mechanism of dysfunction for these two perceptual disorders. Whereas some drug candidates are in the process of being developed, nowadays no effective treatment exists to cure hearing loss and tinnitus. The topic of this book was selected with the goal of emphasizing mechanisms that induce hearing loss and tinnitus which lead the selection of promising targets for hearing disorder treatment. Hair cells (HC) are the sensory cells of the inner ear required for both auditory and vestibular functions in all vertebrates. HC are progressively lost during ageing and they are in addition sensitive to physical and acoustic traumas, infectious diseases and chemicals present in commonly used treatments such as anticancer, antimalarial or antibiotics. As adult mammals--including humans--cannot regenerate dead HC, all the possible injury could result in irreversible and permanent hearing loss. It has been shown, however, that a limited capacity to regenerate HC exists in mouse at an early stage of development. The regenerative capacity of HC then appears simply “repressed” in adult mammals, and one could expect it will be possible to re-activate it with an appropriate therapeutic approach which is still to be defined. Immune-mediated inner ear disease has been introduced and accepted as one SNHL pathophysiology; it responds to immunosuppressive therapy and is one of the few reversible forms of bilateral SNHL. Macrophages are always present in the spiral ligament of the lateral wall and are activated in response to various types of stimuli, including noise exposure, ischemia, mitochondrial damage, and surgical stress. Recent studies have also revealed another type of immune cell, called perivascular melanocyte-like macrophages (PVM/Ms), in the stria vascularis. The book will include a review of inflammatory/immune cells in the cochlear lateral wall, the pathways involved in cochlear damage and their potential as therapeutic targets. The final chapter provides an overview of current animal model of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Nowadays no effective treatment exists to cure tinnitus and hyperacusis. One major obstacle to arises from the fact that tinnitus is a subjective phenomenon, the only possible diagnosis relies on self-reports of the subjects. The main constraint of the use of animal models is the subjective character of tinnitus. This chapter describe the advancement in animal models which play an important role in revealing the underlying mechanisms and treatment for tinnitus and hyperacusis.

The Auditory Brainstem Response

The Auditory Brainstem Response Book
Author : John T. Jacobson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1985
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Auditory Brainstem Response book written by John T. Jacobson, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Frequency Following Response

The Frequency Following Response Book
Author : Nina Kraus,Samira Anderson,Travis White-Schwoch,Richard R. Fay,Arthur N. Popper
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-01-09
ISBN : 331947944X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume will cover a variety of topics, including child language development; hearing loss; listening in noise; statistical learning; poverty; auditory processing disorder; cochlear neuropathy; attention; and aging. It will appeal broadly to auditory scientists—and in fact, any scientist interested in the biology of human communication and learning. The range of the book highlights the interdisciplinary series of questions that are pursued using the auditory frequency-following response and will accordingly attract a wide and diverse readership, while remaining a lasting resource for the field.

The Senses A Comprehensive Reference

The Senses  A Comprehensive Reference Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-09-30
ISBN : 0128054093
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Senses: A Comprehensive Reference, Second Edition, is a comprehensive reference work covering the range of topics that constitute current knowledge of the neural mechanisms underlying the different senses. This important work provides the most up-to-date, cutting-edge, comprehensive reference combining volumes on all major sensory modalities in one set. Offering 264 chapters from a distinguished team of international experts, The Senses lays out current knowledge on the anatomy, physiology, and molecular biology of sensory organs, in a collection of comprehensive chapters spanning 4 volumes. Topics covered include the perception, psychophysics, and higher order processing of sensory information, as well as disorders and new diagnostic and treatment methods. Written for a wide audience, this reference work provides students, scholars, medical doctors, as well as anyone interested in neuroscience, a comprehensive overview of the knowledge accumulated on the function of sense organs, sensory systems, and how the brain processes sensory input. As with the first edition, contributions from leading scholars from around the world will ensure The Senses offers a truly international portrait of sensory physiology. The set is the definitive reference on sensory neuroscience and provides the ultimate entry point into the review and original literature in Sensory Neuroscience enabling students and scientists to delve into the subject and deepen their knowledge. All-inclusive coverage of topics: updated edition offers readers the only current reference available covering neurobiology, physiology, anatomy, and molecular biology of sense organs and the processing of sensory information in the brain Authoritative content: world-leading contributors provide readers with a reputable, dynamic and authoritative account of the topics under discussion Comprehensive-style content: in-depth, complex coverage of topics offers students at upper undergraduate level and above full insight into topics under discussion

Development of Cochlear Neuropathy in Adenosine Receptor Knockout Mice

Development of Cochlear Neuropathy in Adenosine Receptor Knockout Mice Book
Author : Kaushi Ambepitiya
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Noise-induced-hearing loss (NIHL) is considered to be a significant cause of sensorineural hearing loss, accounting for approximately 16% of hearing impairment worldwide. NIHL is mainly associated with cochlear injury and particularly degeneration of sensory hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons. Rehabilitation of hearing loss via prosthetic devices (hearing aids and cochlear implants) is the only current management strategies for NIHL and other forms of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Hence, it is essential to develop pharmacological and molecular therapies that can ameliorate or repair injury to the delicate structures of the inner ear and thus reduce the impact of hearing loss. Our research group has identified the adenosine signalling system as one of the most promising targets for the therapeutic management of SNHL. Here, we investigate the broader role of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in the development of cochlear injury with acoustic trauma using genetically modified mice that lack genes for the two main types of adenosine receptors found in the inner ear (A1 and A2A receptors). These mice were exposed to a 8-16 kHz octave band noise at 100 dB sound pressure level (SPL) for a period of 2 hours to induce cochlear injury and permanent hearing loss. Auditory thresholds and suprathreshold responses were assessed using auditory brainstem responses (ABR) before and two weeks post-exposure and the loss of afferent synapses and spiral ganglion neurons were assessed histologically. Our study demonstrates a pre-exposure high frequency hearing loss in A1RKO mice similar to age related hearing loss in ageing C57BL/6 wildtype mice. In addition, suprathreshold responses (ABR wave II amplitudes) were severely reduced in A1RKO mice, reflecting poor functioning of auditory nerve fibres prior to noise exposure. This hearing loss was further aggravated by noise exposure. A1RKOs also experienced a significantly greater loss of SGNs than wildtype mice of the same background. In contrast, the genetic deletion of the A2A receptor resulted in a higher number of functional synapses per IHC and minimal loss of SGNs. Our results suggest that the A1 receptor deficiency likely results in increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity in the noise-exposed cochlea. In contrast, the A2A receptor deficiency appears to increase cochlear resistance to acoustic trauma. Distinct auditory phenotypes of A1RKO and A2ARKO mice suggest that the manipulation of the adenosine signalling system holds significant promise in the therapeutic management of NIHL and related pathologies. Our study thus provides a framework for further investigations of the otoprotective role of adenosine signalling in the inner ear, based on stimulation of A1 receptors and inhibition of A2A receptors.

The Oxford Handbook of Auditory Science The Auditory Brain

The Oxford Handbook of Auditory Science  The Auditory Brain Book
Author : Adrian Rees,Alan Palmer
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2010-01-21
ISBN : 0199233284
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Volume 1: The Ear (edited by Paul Fuchs) Volume 2: The Auditory Brain (edited by Alan Palmer and Adrian Rees) Volume 3: Hearing (edited by Chris Plack) Auditory science is one of the fastest growing areas of biomedical research. There are now around 10,000 researchers in auditory science, and ten times that number working in allied professions. This growth is attributable to several major developments: Research on the inner ear has shown that elaborate systems of mechanical, transduction and neural processes serve to improve sensitivity, sharpen frequency tuning, and modulate response of the ear to sound. Most recently, the molecular machinery underlying these phenomena has been explored and described in detail. The development, maintenance, and repair of the ear are also subjects of contemporary interest at the molecular level, as is the genetics of hearing disorders due to cochlear malfunctions.

Perception and Cognition Interactions in the Aging Brain

Perception and Cognition  Interactions in the Aging Brain Book
Author : Harriet A. Allen,Katherine L. Roberts
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-09-13
ISBN : 2889199371
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Healthy ageing can lead to declines in both perceptual and cognitive functions. Impaired perception, such as that resulting from hearing loss or reduced visual or tactile resolution, increases demands on ‘higher-level’ cognitive functions to cope or compensate. It is possible, for example, to use focused attention to overcome perceptual limitations. Unfortunately, cognitive functions also decline in old age. This can mean that perceptual impairments are exacerbated by cognitive decline, and vice versa, but also means that interventions aimed at one type of decline can lead to improvements in the other. Just as improved cognition can ameliorate perceptual deficits, improving the stimulus can help offset cognitive deficits. For example, making directions and routes easy to follow can help compensate for declines in navigation abilities. In this Topic, we bring together papers from both auditory and visual researchers that address the interaction between perception and cognition in the ageing brain. Many of the studies demonstrate that a broadening of representations or increased reliance on gist underlie perceptual and cognitive age-related declines. There is also clear evidence that impaired perception is associated with poor cognition although, encouragingly, it can also be seen that good perception is associated with better cognition. Compensatory cognitive strategies were less successful in improving perception than might be expected. We also present papers which highlight important methodological considerations that are required when studying the older brain.

Hearing Impairment An Educational Consideration

Hearing Impairment  An Educational Consideration Book
Author : G.Lokanadha Reddy
Publisher : Discovery Publishing House
Release : 2010
ISBN : 9788171418008
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Contents: The Ear and Hearing, Causes of Hearing Impairment, Assessment of Hearing and Hearing Loss, Hearing Impairment and Child Development, Hearing Aids and Other Devices, Lipreading and Auditory Training, Teaching Strategies, Grammar and Speech: Teaching and Training Techniques, Teaching Reading and Writing, Parent Guidance and Counselling.

Discovering Inner Ear and Central Auditory System Cellular Pathways that Might Contribute to Age related Hearing Loss

Discovering Inner Ear and Central Auditory System Cellular Pathways that Might Contribute to Age related Hearing Loss Book
Author : Xiaoxi Liu
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is a prevalent communication problem among senior citizens. Previous work has revealed genes which change their expression significantly with aging and hearing loss. However, this study is limited as it mainly focuses on apoptosis-related genes. Genes that regulate biological pathways other than apoptosis might also contribute to the development of age-related hearing loss, as suggested by some studies. In order to circumvent this limitation and to better understand the underlying mechanisms of this communication problem, a free computational tool called Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) is used to analyze the microarray data of aging cochlea and brain. Results show that most of the pathways which are up-regulated with aging/hearing loss in cochlea play a role in apoptosis and/or inflammation, suggesting that these two processes might be crucial for the development of ARHL. In contrast to the results from the cochlea, results for the aging brain indicate that cell cycle arrest is involved in deficits in the central auditory system with age."--Abstract.