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The Art Of Cryogenics

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The Art of Cryogenics

The Art of Cryogenics Book
Author : Guglielmo Ventura,Lara Risegari
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2010-07-07
ISBN : 0080554369
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cryogenics is the study of low temperature interactions - temperatures well below those existing in the natural universe. The book covers a large spectrum of experimental cases, including basic vacuum techniques, indispensable in cryogenics. Guidance in solving experimental problems and numerous numerical examples are given, as are examples of the applications of cryogenics in such areas as underground detectors and space applications. Updated tables of low-temperature data on materials are also presented, and the book is supplemented with a rich bibliography. Researchers (graduate and above) in the fields of physics, engineering and chemistry with an interest in the technology and applications of low-temperature measurements, will find this book invaluable. Experiments described in technical detail Description of newest cryogenic apparatus Applications in multidisciplinary areas Data on cryogenic properties of new materials Current reference review

Cryogenic Safety

Cryogenic Safety Book
Author : Thomas J. Peterson,J. G. Weisend II
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-04-26
ISBN : 3030165086
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes the current state of the art in cryogenic safety best practice, helping the reader to work with cryogenic systems and materials safely. It brings together information from previous texts, industrial and laboratory safety polices, and recent research papers. Case studies, example problems, and an extensive list of references are included to add to the utility of the text. It describes the unique safety hazards posed by cryogenics in all its guises, including issues associated with the extreme cold of cryogenics, the flammability of some cryogenic fluids, the displacement of oxygen by inert gases boiling off from cryogenic fluids, and the high pressures that can be formed during the volume expansion that occurs when a cryogenic fluid becomes a room temperature gas. A further chapter considers the challenges arising from the behavior of materials at cryogenic temperatures. Many materials are inappropriate for use in cryogenics and can fail, resulting in hazardous conditions. Despite these hazards, work at cryogenic temperatures can be performed safely. The book also discusses broader safety issues such as hazard analysis, establishment of a safe work culture and lessons learned from cryogenic safety in accelerator labs. This book is designed to be useful to everyone affected by cryogenic hazards regardless of their expertise in cryogenics.

Polymers at Cryogenic Temperatures

Polymers at Cryogenic Temperatures Book
Author : Susheel Kalia,Shao-Yun Fu
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-26
ISBN : 3642353355
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Kalia and Fu's novel monograph covers cryogenic treatment, properties and applications of cryo-treated polymer materials. Written by numerous international experts, the twelve chapters in this book offer the reader a comprehensive picture of the latest findings and developments, as well as an outlook on the field. Cryogenic technology has seen remarkable progress in the past few years and especially cryogenic properties of polymers are attracting attention through new breakthroughs in space, superconducting, magnetic and electronic techniques. This book is a valuable resource for researchers, educators, engineers and graduate students in the field and at technical institutions.

Cryogenic Recycling and Processing

Cryogenic Recycling and Processing Book
Author : Norman. R Braton
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-06-14
ISBN : 1351088157
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The purpose of this book is to promote useful knowledge in the field of cryogenics. To accomplish this, the manuscript presents a composite of the state-of-the-art knowledge, research, and application of cryogenic processes.

Cryogenic Particle Detection

Cryogenic Particle Detection Book
Author : Hans-Christian Stahl
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2005-06-22
ISBN : 9783540201137
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The development of cryogenic devices for particle detection has reached a stage at which many interesting applications are conceivable and already have been demonstrated. The book provides a comprehensive review of the field of cryogenic particle detection. It introduces the different detection techniques and gives an overview of the important areas in which these detectors are successfully applied.

Low Temperature and Cryogenic Refrigeration

Low Temperature and Cryogenic Refrigeration Book
Author : Sadik Kakaç,M.R. Avelino,H.F. Smirnov
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2003-05-31
ISBN : 9781402012730
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Refrigeration plays a prominent role in our everyday lives, and cryogenics plays a major role in medical science, space technology and the cooling of low-temperature electronics. This volume contains chapters on basic refrigeration systems, non-compression refrigeration and cooling, and topics related to global environmental issues, alternative refrigerants, optimum refrigerant selection, cost-quality optimization of refrigerants, advanced thermodynamics of reverse-cycle machines, applications in medicine, cryogenics, heat pipes, gas-solid absorption refrigeration, multisalt resorption heat pumps, cryocoolers, thermoacoustic refrigeration, cryogenic heat transfer and enhancement and other topics covering theory, design, and applications, such as pulse tube refrigeration, which is the most efficient of all cryocoolers and can be used in space missions.

Cryogenic Engineering

Cryogenic Engineering Book
Author : Klaus D. Timmerhaus,Richard P. Reed
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-11-12
ISBN : 038746896X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is a benchmark reference work on Cryogenic Engineering which chronicles the major developments in the field. Starting with an historical background, this book reviews the development of data resources now available for cryogenic fields and properties of materials. It presents the latest changes in cryopreservation and the advances over the past 50 years. The book also highlights an exceptional reference listing to provide referral to more details.

Device and Circuit Cryogenic Operation for Low Temperature Electronics

Device and Circuit Cryogenic Operation for Low Temperature Electronics Book
Author : Francis Balestra,Gerard Ghibaudo,G. Ghibaudo
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2001-05-31
ISBN : 9780792373773
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Device and Circuit Cryogenic Operation for Low Temperature Electronics is a first in reviewing the performance and physical mechanisms of advanced devices and circuits at cryogenic temperatures that can be used for many applications. The first two chapters cover bulk silicon and SOI MOSFETs. The electronic transport in the inversion layer, the influence of impurity freeze-out, the special electrical properties of SOI structures, the device reliability and the interest of a low temperature operation for the ultimate integration of silicon down to nanometer dimensions are described. The next two chapters deal with Silicon-Germanium and III-V Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors, as well as III-V High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT). The basic physics of the SiGe HBT and its unique cryogenic capabilities, the optimization of such bipolar devices, and the performance of SiGe HBT BiCMOS technology at liquid nitrogen temperature are examined. The physical effects in III-V semiconductors at low temperature, the HEMT and HBT static, high frequency and noise properties, and the comparison of various cooled III-V devices are also addressed. The next chapter treats quantum effect devices made of silicon materials. The major quantum effects at low temperature, quantum wires, quantum dots as well as single electron devices and applications are investigated. The last chapter overviews the performances of cryogenic circuits and their applications. The low temperature properties and performance of inverters, multipliers, adders, operational amplifiers, memories, microprocessors, imaging devices, circuits and systems, sensors and read-out circuits are analyzed. Device and Circuit Cryogenic Operation for Low Temperature Electronics is useful for researchers, engineers, Ph.D. and M.S. students working in the field of advanced electron devices and circuits, new semiconductor materials, and low temperature electronics and physics.

State of the art Laser Gas Sensing Technologies

State of the art Laser Gas Sensing Technologies Book
Author : Yufei Ma,Aurore Vicet,Karol Krzempek
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-03-05
ISBN : 3039283987
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Trace gas sensing technologies are widely used in many applications, such as environmental monitoring, life science, medical diagnostics, and planetary exploration. On the one hand, laser sources have developed greatly due to the rapid development of laser media and laser techniques in recent years. Some novel lasers such as solid-state, diode, and quantum cascade lasers have experienced significant progress. At present, laser wavelengths can cover the range from ultraviolet to terahertz, which could promote the development of laser gas sensing technologies significantly. On the other hand, some new gas sensing methods have appeared, such as photothermal spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy. Laser spectroscopy-based gas sensing techniques have the advantages of high sensitivity, non-invasiveness, and allowing in situ, real-time observation. Due to the rapid and recent developments in laser source as well as the great merits of laser spectroscopy-based gas sensing techniques, this book aims to provide an updated overview of the state-of-the-art laser gas sensing technologies.

Cryogenic Technology and Applications

Cryogenic Technology and Applications Book
Author : A.R. Jha
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-04-01
ISBN : 0080457975
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cryogenic Technology and Applications describes the need for smaller cryo-coolers as a result of the advances in the miniaturization of electrical and optical devices and the need for cooling and conducting efficiency. Cryogenic technology deals with materials at low temperatures and the physics of their behavior at these temps. The book demonstrates the ongoing new applications being discovered for cryo-cooled electrical and optical sensors and devices, with particular emphasis on high-end commercial applications in medical and scientific fields as well as in the aerospace and military industries. This book summarizes the important aspects of cryogenic technology critical to the design and development of refrigerators, cryo-coolers, and micro-coolers needed by various commercial, industrial, space and military systems. Cryogenic cooling plays an important role in unmanned aerial vehicle systems, infrared search and track sensors, missile warning receivers, satellite tracking systems, and a host of other commercial and military systems. * Provides an overview of the history of the development of cryogenic technology * Includes the latest information on micro-coolers for military and space applications * Offers detailed information on high-capacity cryogenic refrigerator systems used in applications such as food storage, high-power microwave and laser sensors, medical diagnostics, and infrared detectors

The Art of Modeling in Science and Engineering with Mathematica Second Edition

The Art of Modeling in Science and Engineering with Mathematica  Second Edition Book
Author : Diran Basmadjian,Ramin Farnood
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2006-08-18
ISBN : 9781584884606
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thoroughly revised and updated, The Art of Modeling in Science and Engineering with Mathematica®, Second Edition explores the mathematical tools and procedures used in modeling based on the laws of conservation of mass, energy, momentum, and electrical charge. The authors have culled and consolidated the best from the first edition and expanded the range of applied examples to reach a wider audience. The text proceeds, in measured steps, from simple models of real-world problems at the algebraic and ordinary differential equations (ODE) levels to more sophisticated models requiring partial differential equations. The traditional solution methods are supplemented with Mathematica , which is used throughout the text to arrive at solutions for many of the problems presented. The text is enlivened with a host of illustrations and practice problems drawn from classical and contemporary sources. They range from Thomson’s famous experiment to determine e/m and Euler’s model for the buckling of a strut to an analysis of the propagation of emissions and the performance of wind turbines. The mathematical tools required are first explained in separate chapters and then carried along throughout the text to solve and analyze the models. Commentaries at the end of each illustration draw attention to the pitfalls to be avoided and, perhaps most important, alert the reader to unexpected results that defy conventional wisdom. These features and more make the book the perfect tool for resolving three common difficulties: the proper choice of model, the absence of precise solutions, and the need to make suitable simplifying assumptions and approximations. The book covers a wide range of physical processes and phenomena drawn from various disciplines and clearly illuminates the link between the physical system being modeled and the mathematical expression that results.