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Systems Biomedicine

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Systems Biomedicine

Systems Biomedicine Book
Author : Edison T. Liu,Douglas A. Lauffenburger
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-09-17
ISBN : 9780080919836
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Systems biology is a critical emerging field that quantifies and annotates the complexity of biological systems in order to construct algorithmic models to predict outcomes from component input. Applications in medicine are revolutionizing our understanding of biological processes and systems. Systems Biomedicine is organized around foundations, computational modeling, network biology, and integrative biology, with the extension of examples from human biology and pharmacology, to focus on the applications of systems approaches to medical problems. An integrative approach to the underlying genomic, proteomic, and computational biology principles provides researchers with guidance in the use of qualitative systems and hypothesis generators. To reflect the highly interdisciplinary nature of the field, careful detail has been extended to ensure explanations of complex mathematical and biological principles are clear with minimum technical jargon. Organized to reflect the important distinguishing characteristics of systems strategies in experimental biology and medicine Provides precise and comprehensive measurement tools for constructing a model of the system and tools for defining complexity as an experimental dependent variable Includes a thorough discussion of the applications of quantitative principles to biomedical problems

Comprehensive Systems Biomedicine

Comprehensive Systems Biomedicine Book
Author : Pietro Lio,Enrico Capobianco
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2014-12-03
ISBN : 2889193748
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Systems Biomedicine is a field in perpetual development. By definition a translational discipline, it emphasizes the role of quantitative systems approaches in biomedicine and aims to offer solutions to many emerging problems characterized by levels and types of complexity and uncertainty unmet before. Many factors, including technological and societal ones, need to be considered. In particular, new technologies are providing researchers with the data deluge whose management and exploitation requires a reinvention of cross-disciplinary team efforts. The advent of “omics” and high-content imaging are examples of advances de facto establishing the necessity of systems approaches. Hypothesis-driven models and in silico validation tools in support to all the varieties of experimental applications call for a profound revision. The focus on phases like mining and assimilating the data has substantially increased so to allow for interpretable knowledge to be inferred. Notably, to be able to tackle the newly generated data dimensionality, heterogeneity and complexity, model-free and data-driven intensive applications are increasingly shaping the computational pipelines and architectures that quant specialists set aside of the high-throughput genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics platforms. As for the societal aspects, in many advanced societies health care needs now more than in the past to address the problem of managing ageing populations and their complex morbidity patterns. In parallel, there is a growing research interest on the impact that cross-disciplinary clinical, epidemiological and quantitative modelling studies can have in relation to outcomes potentially affecting the quality of life of many people. Complex systems, including those characterizing biomedicine, are assessed in both their functionality and stability, and also relatively to the capacity of generating information from diversity, variation, and complexity. Due to the combined interactions and effects, such systems embed prediction power available for instance in both target identification or marker discovery, or more generally for conducting inference about patients’ pathological states, i.e. normal versus disease, diagnostic or prognostic analysis, and preventive assessment (e.g., risk evaluation). The ultimate goal, personalized medicine, will be achieved based on the confluence of the system’s predictive power to patient-specific profiling.

New Challenges for Cancer Systems Biomedicine

New Challenges for Cancer Systems Biomedicine Book
Author : Alberto D'Onofrio,Paola Cerrai,Alberto Gandolfi
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-01-25
ISBN : 8847025710
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The future of oncology seems to lie in Molecular Medicine (MM). MM is a new science based on three pillars. Two of them are evident in its very name and are well known: medical science and molecular biology. However, there is a general unawareness that MM is firmly based on a third, and equally important, pillar: Systems Biomedicine. Currently, this term denotes multilevel, hierarchical models integrating key factors at the molecular, cellular, tissue, through phenotype levels, analyzed to reveal the global behavior of the biological process under consideration. It becomes increasingly evident that the tools to construct such complex models include, not only bioinformatics and modern applied statistics, as is unanimously agreed, but also other interdisciplinary fields of science, notably, Mathematical Oncology, Systems Biology and Theoretical Biophysics.

Systems Biomedicine Approaches in Cancer Research

Systems Biomedicine Approaches in Cancer Research Book
Author : Shailza Singh
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022-09-11
ISBN : 9811919534
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the applications of systems biology and synthetic biology in cancer medicine. It highlights the use of computational and mathematical models to decipher the complexity of cancer heterogeneity. The book emphasizes the modeling approaches for predicting behavior of cancer cells, tissues in context of drug response, and angiogenesis. It introduces cell-based therapies for the treatment of various cancers and reviews the role of neural networks for drug response prediction. Further, it examines the system biology approaches for the identification of medicinal plants in cancer drug discovery. It explores the opportunities for metabolic engineering in the realm of cancer research towards development of new cancer therapies based on metabolically derived targets. Lastly, it discusses the applications of data mining techniques in cancer research. This book is an excellent guide for oncologists and researchers who are involved in the latest cancer research.

Biomedicine and Alternative Healing Systems in America

Biomedicine and Alternative Healing Systems in America Book
Author : Hans A. Baer
Publisher : Univ of Wisconsin Press
Release : 2001
ISBN : 9780299166946
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Examining medical pluralism in the United States from the Revolutionary War period through the end of the twentieth century, Hans Baer brings together in one convenient reference a vast array of information on healing systems as diverse as Christian Science, osteopathy, acupuncture, evangelical faith healing, Santeria, southern Appalachian herbalism, and Navajo healing. In a country where the dominant paradigm of biomedicine (medical schools, research hospitals, clinics staffed by M.D.s and R.N.s) has been long established and supported by laws and regulations, the continuing appeal of other medical systems and subsystems bears careful consideration. Distinctions of class, Baer emphasizes, as well as differences in race, ethnicity, and gender, are fundamental to the diversity of beliefs, techniques, and social organizations represented in the phenomenon of medical pluralism. Baer traces the simultaneous emergence in the nineteenth century of formalized biomedicine and of homeopathy, botanic medicine, hydropathy, Christian Science, osteopathy, and chiropractic. He examines present-day osteopathic medicine as a system parallel to biomedicine; chiropractic, naturopathy, and acupunctur

Single Cell Biomedicine

Single Cell Biomedicine Book
Author : Jianqin Gu,Xiangdong Wang
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-06-25
ISBN : 9811305021
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book focuses on various detection targets applied in single cell studies, including tumor tissue cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), disseminated tumor cells (DTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and cancer stem cells (CSCs). It also discusses and compares detection methods using these detection targets in different fields to reveal single cell biomedical functions. The volume focuses not only on the methods already been established and validated, and also the methods newly developed. The book also highlights the importance and potential of single cell biomedicine in the development and validation of precision medicine strategies. It is useful for researchers and students in the field of cell biology, molecular medicine and precision medicine etc.

Super Resolution Imaging in Biomedicine

Super Resolution Imaging in Biomedicine Book
Author : Alberto Diaspro,Marc A. M. J. van Zandvoort
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-11-03
ISBN : 1315355566
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book encompasses the full breadth of the super-resolution imaging field, representing modern techniques that exceed the traditional diffraction limit, thereby opening up new applications in biomedicine. It shows readers how to use the new tools to increase resolution in sub-nanometer-scale images of living cells and tissue, which leads to new information about molecules, pathways and dynamics. The book highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques, and gives state-of-the-art examples of applications using microscopes currently available on the market. It covers key techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM). It will be a useful reference for biomedical researchers who want to work with super-resolution imaging, learn the proper technique for their application, and simultaneously obtain a solid footing in other techniques.

Complex Systems Science in Biomedicine

Complex Systems Science in Biomedicine Book
Author : Thomas Deisboeck,J. Yasha Kresh
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-06-13
ISBN : 0387335323
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Complex Systems Science in Biomedicine Thomas S. Deisboeck and J. Yasha Kresh Complex Systems Science in Biomedicine covers the emerging field of systems science involving the application of physics, mathematics, engineering and computational methods and techniques to the study of biomedicine including nonlinear dynamics at the molecular, cellular, multi-cellular tissue, and organismic level. With all chapters helmed by leading scientists in the field, Complex Systems Science in Biomedicine's goal is to offer its audience a timely compendium of the ongoing research directed to the understanding of biological processes as whole systems instead of as isolated component parts. In Parts I & II, Complex Systems Science in Biomedicine provides a general systems thinking perspective and presents some of the fundamental theoretical underpinnings of this rapidly emerging field. Part III then follows with a multi-scaled approach, spanning from the molecular to macroscopic level, exemplified by studying such diverse areas as molecular networks and developmental processes, the immune and nervous systems, the heart, cancer and multi-organ failure. The volume concludes with Part IV that addresses methods and techniques driven in design and development by this new understanding of biomedical science. Key Topics Include: • Historic Perspectives of General Systems Thinking • Fundamental Methods and Techniques for Studying Complex Dynamical Systems • Applications from Molecular Networks to Disease Processes • Enabling Technologies for Exploration of Systems in the Life Sciences Complex Systems Science in Biomedicine is essential reading for experimental, theoretical, and interdisciplinary scientists working in the biomedical research field interested in a comprehensive overview of this rapidly emerging field. About the Editors: Thomas S. Deisboeck is currently Assistant Professor of Radiology at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston. An expert in interdisciplinary cancer modeling, Dr. Deisboeck is Director of the Complex Biosystems Modeling Laboratory which is part of the Harvard-MIT Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging. J. Yasha Kresh is currently Professor of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Research Director, Professor of Medicine and Director of Cardiovascular Biophysics at the Drexel University College of Medicine. An expert in dynamical systems, he holds appointments in the School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Molecular Pathobiology Program. Prof. Kresh is Fellow of the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, Biomedical Engineering Society, American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering.

Information Retrieval in Bioinformatics

Information Retrieval in Bioinformatics Book
Author : Soumi Dutta
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022
ISBN : 9811965064
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book presents the results of studies on selected problems (such as predictive model of transcription initiation and termination, protein recognition codes, protein structure prediction, feature selection for disease prediction, information retrieval from medical imaging) of Bioinformatics and Information Retrieval. Information Retrieval is one of the contemporary answers to new challenges in threat evaluation of composite systems. This book provides a practical course in computational data analysis suitable for students or researchers with no previous exposure to computer programming. It describes in detail the theoretical basis for statistical analysis techniques used throughout the textbook, from basic principles. It presents walk-throughs of data analysis tasks using different tools to help in taking decisions in healthcare management.

The African Transformation of Western Medicine and the Dynamics of Global Cultural Exchange

The African Transformation of Western Medicine and the Dynamics of Global Cultural Exchange Book
Author : David Baronov
Publisher : Temple University Press
Release : 2010-05-14
ISBN : 1592139167
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Beginning with the colonial era, Western biomedicine has radically transformed African medical beliefs and practices. Conversely, in using Western biomedicine, Africans have also transformed it. The African Transformation of Western Medicine and the Dynamics of Global Cultural Exchange contends that contemporary African medical systems—no less “biomedical” than Western medicine—in fact greatly enrich and expand the notion of biomedicine, reframing it as a global cultural form deployed across global networks of cultural exchange. The book analyzes biomedicine as a complex and dynamic sociocultural form, the conceptual premises of which make it necessarily subject to ongoing change and development as it travels the globe. David Baronov captures the complexities of this cultural exchange by using world-systems analysis in a way that places global cultural processes on equal footing with political and economic processes. In doing so, he both allows the story of Africa’s transformation of “Western” biomedicine to be told and offers new insights into the capitalist world system.

Computational Methods in Systems Biology

Computational Methods in Systems Biology Book
Author : Olivier Roux,Jérémie Bourdon
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-09-01
ISBN : 3319234013
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computational Methods in Systems Biology, CMSB 2015, held in Nantes, France, in September 2015. The 20 full papers and 2 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 full and 4 short paper submissions. The papers cover a wide range of topics in the analysis of biological systems, networks and data such as model checking, stochastic analysis, hybrid systems, circadian clock, time series data, logic programming, and constraints solving ranging from intercellular to multiscale.

Identification Of Novel Biomarkers In Ovarian Cancer Systems Biology Approaches

Identification Of Novel Biomarkers In Ovarian Cancer  Systems Biology Approaches Book
Author : Esra GÖV
Publisher : Akademisyen Kitabevi
Release : 2020-02-20
ISBN : 6052588314
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Identification Of Novel Biomarkers In Ovarian Cancer Systems Biology Approaches book written by Esra GÖV, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Highly Mutable Animal RNA Viruses Adaptation and Evolution

Highly Mutable Animal RNA Viruses  Adaptation and Evolution Book
Author : Akio Adachi,Masako Nomaguchi
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2017-11-30
ISBN : 2889453480
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Viruses are widely present in nature, and numerous viral species with a variety of unique characteristics have been identified so far. Even now, new emerging or re-emerging viruses are being found or re-found as novel viral classes or as quasi-species. Indeed, viruses are everywhere. Of note, viruses are pivotal as targets and tools of basic and applied sciences. On one hand, portions of the viruses are infectious for animals including humans, and cause various diseases in infected hosts by distinct mechanisms and at a different level of severity. While many of viruses are known to co-exist quietly with their hosts, pathogenic viruses certainly affect and threaten our society as well as individuals to provoke serious medical or economic attention. We should act against certain dreadful and highly infectious viruses as a global problem. Animal RNA viruses can readily mutate to adapt themselves in their hostile environments for their survival. Resultant viruses may sometimes show essentially altered phenotypes from the original parental strains. This fundamental and general property of animal RNA viruses represents major extensive issues of scientific, medical, and/or economic importance. In this Research Topic, we have focused on the high mutability of animal RNA viruses, and selected relevant articles on animal viruses of broad-ranges such as primate lentiviruses, influenza viruses, paramyxoviruses, flaviviruses, rabies virus, norovirus, picornaviruses, and picobirnavirus. Each article has taken up intriguing aspects of the subject viruses. We are sure that readers acquire important information on virus mutation, adaptation, diversification, and evolution, and hope that researchers in the field related to virology gain some solid hints from the reported articles for further virological and /or medical studies. Finally, we thank all the contributing researchers in this Research Topic, entitled “Highly Mutable Animal RNA Viruses: Adaptation and Evolution”, for their elegant and interesting works.

Patterns of Dynamics

Patterns of Dynamics Book
Author : Pavel Gurevich,Juliette Hell,Björn Sandstede,Arnd Scheel
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-02-07
ISBN : 3319641735
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Theoretical advances in dynamical-systems theory and their applications to pattern-forming processes in the sciences and engineering are discussed in this volume that resulted from the conference Patterns in Dynamics held in honor of Bernold Fiedler, in Berlin, July 25-29, 2016.The contributions build and develop mathematical techniques, and use mathematical approaches for prediction and control of complex systems. The underlying mathematical theories help extract structures from experimental observations and, conversely, shed light on the formation, dynamics, and control of spatio-temporal patterns in applications. Theoretical areas covered include geometric analysis, spatial dynamics, spectral theory, traveling-wave theory, and topological data analysis; also discussed are their applications to chemotaxis, self-organization at interfaces, neuroscience, and transport processes.

The Anthropology of Latin America and the Caribbean

The Anthropology of Latin America and the Caribbean Book
Author : Harry Sanabria
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2015-09-16
ISBN : 1317350243
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The first single-authored comprehensive introduction to major contemporary research trends, issues, and debates on the anthropology of Latin America and the Caribbean. The text provides wide and historically informed coverage of key facets of Latin American and Caribbean societies and their cultural and historical development as well as the roles of power and inequality. Cymeme Howe, Visiting Assistant Professor of Cornell University writes, “The text moves well and builds over time, paying close attention to balancing both the Caribbean and Latin America as geographic regions, Spanish and non-Spanish speaking countries, and historical and contemporary issues in the field. I found the geographic breadth to be especially impressive.” Jeffrey W. Mantz of California State University, Stanislaus, notes that the contents “reflect the insights of an anthropologist who knows Latin America intimately and extensively.”

The New Blackwell Companion to Medical Sociology

The New Blackwell Companion to Medical Sociology Book
Author : William C. Cockerham
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2010-01-29
ISBN : 1444314793
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An authoritative, topical, and comprehensive reference to the keyconcepts and most important traditional and contemporary issues inmedical sociology. Contains 35 chapters by recognized experts in the field, bothestablished and rising young scholars Covers standard topics in the field as well as new and engagingissues such as bioterrorism, bioethics, and infectious disease Chapters are thematically arranged to cover the major issues ofthe sub-discipline Global range of contributors and an internationalperspective

Routledge Handbook of Contemporary India

Routledge Handbook of Contemporary India Book
Author : Knut A. Jacobsen
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2015-08-11
ISBN : 1317403576
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

India is the second largest country in the world with regard to population, the world’s largest democracy and by far the largest country in South Asia, and one of the most diverse and pluralistic nations in the world in terms of official languages, cultures, religions and social identities. Indians have for centuries exchanged ideas with other cultures globally and some traditions have been transformed in those transnational and transcultural encounters and become successful innovations with an extraordinary global popularity. India is an emerging global power in terms of economy, but in spite of India’s impressive economic growth over the last decades, some of the most serious problems of Indian society such as poverty, repression of women, inequality both in terms of living conditions and of opportunities such as access to education, employment, and the economic resources of the state persist and do not seem to go away. This Handbook contains chapters by the field’s foremost scholars dealing with fundamental issues in India’s current cultural and social transformation and concentrates on India as it emerged after the economic reforms and the new economic policy of the 1980s and 1990s and as it develops in the twenty-first century. Following an introduction by the editor, the book is divided into five parts: Part I: Foundation Part II: India and the world Part III: Society, class, caste and gender Part IV: Religion and diversity Part V: Cultural change and innovations Exploring the cultural changes and innovations relating a number of contexts in contemporary India, this Handbook is essential reading for students and scholars interested in Indian and South Asian culture, politics and society.

Fundamentals of Complementary Alternative and Integrative Medicine E Book

Fundamentals of Complementary  Alternative  and Integrative Medicine   E Book Book
Author : Marc S. Micozzi
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2018-10-08
ISBN : 0323510825
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Get a solid, global foundation of the therapies and evidence-based clinical applications of CAI. Fundamentals of Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Medicine, 6th Edition is filled with the most up-to-date information on scientific theory and research of holistic medicine from experts around the world. The 6th edition of this acclaimed text includes all new content on quantum biology and biofields in health and nursing, integrative mental health care, and homeopathic medicine. Its wide range of topics explores therapies most commonly seen in the U.S., such as energy medicine, mind-body therapies, and reflexology along with traditional medicine and practices from around the world. With detailed coverage of historic and contemporary applications, this text is a solid resource for all practitioners in the medical, health, and science fields! Coverage of CAI therapies and systems includes those most commonly encountered or growing in popularity, so you can carefully evaluate each treatment. An evidence-based approach focuses on treatments best supported by clinical trials and scientific evidence. Observations from mechanisms of action to evidence of clinical efficacy answers questions of how, why, and when CAM therapies work. A unique synthesis of information, including historical usage, cultural and social analysis, current basic science theory and research, and a wide range of clinical investigations and observations, makes this text a focused, authoritative resource. Global coverage includes discussions of traditional healing arts from Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Clinical guides for selecting therapies, and new advances for matching the appropriate therapy to the individual patient, enables you to offer and/or recommend individualized patient care. Expert contributors include well-known writers such as Kevin Ergil, Patch Adams, Joseph Pizzorno, and Marc Micozzi. A unique history of CAI traces CAM therapies from their beginnings to present day practices. Suggested readings and references on the companion website list the best resources for further research and study. NEW! Added chapters offer fresh perspective on quantum biology and biofields in health and nursing, integrative mental health care, and homeopathic medicine. NEW! Updated chapters feature new content and topics, including: challenges in integrative medicine, legal issues, CAI in the community, psychometric evaluation, placebo effect, stress management, and much more! NEW! Updated guides on common herbal remedies in clinical practice, East and Southeast Asia, and native North and South America deliver the latest information. NEW! Basic science content and new theory and research studies cover a wide range of sciences such as biophysics, biology and ecology, ethnomedicine, psychometrics, neurosciences, and systems theory. NEW! Expanded global ethnomedical systems includes new content on Shamanism and Neo-Shamanism, Central and North Asia, Southeast Asia, Nepal and Tibet, Hawaii and South Pacific, Alaska and Pacific Northwest, and contemporary global healthcare.

Sociology of Aging and Death

Sociology of Aging and Death Book
Author : Jason Powell
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022-11-25
ISBN : 3031193296
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a critical analysis and examination of the major theories and social issues in the social construction of aging and death. It is concerned with the impact of death and places how our experiences of death are transformed by the roles that truth and discourse about aging play in everyday life. A major element of the book is an examination of the way in which groups and individuals employ specific representations of mortality in order to construct meaning and purpose for life and death. To accentuate this, the book provides an investigation into the social construction of death practices across time and space. Special attention is given to the notion of death as a socially accomplished phenomenon grounded in a unique sociological introduction to the meaning of death throughout history to the present. The purpose of this book is to critically inform debates concerning the abstract and empirical features of death examined through the lens of sociological perspectives. This book explores the emergent biomedical dominance relating to ageing and death. An alternative is advocated which re-interprets ageing for Graduate schools. This innovative book explores the concept, history and theory of aging and its relationship to death. Traditionally, many books have focused on older people dying of 'natural causes', a biomedical explanatory framework. This book looks at alternative social theories and experiences with aging and relate to death in different countries, victims, crime, imprisonment and institutional care. Are these deaths avoidable? If so, what are the solutions the book addresses. This is one of the first books that re-interprets aging and its relationship of examples of death. It will be of essential reading for graduate students and researchers in understanding these different examples of aging and death across the globe.

Bioinformatics for Diagnosis Prognosis and Treatment of Complex Diseases

Bioinformatics for Diagnosis  Prognosis and Treatment of Complex Diseases Book
Author : Bairong Shen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-25
ISBN : 9400779755
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book introduces the bioinformatics tools, databases and strategies for the translational research, focuses on the biomarker discovery based on integrative data analysis and systems biological network reconstruction. With the coming of personal genomics era, the biomedical data will be accumulated fast and then it will become reality for the personalized and accurate diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of complex diseases. The book covers both state of the art of bioinformatics methodologies and the examples for the identification of simple or network biomarkers. In addition, bioinformatics software tools and scripts are provided to the practical application in the study of complex diseases. The present state, the future challenges and perspectives were discussed. The book is written for biologists, biomedical informatics scientists and clinicians, etc. Dr. Bairong Shen is Professor and Director of Center for Systems Biology, Soochow University; he is also Director of Taicang Center for Translational Bioinformatics.