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Synthesis Of Nanostructured Materials In Near And Or Supercritical Fluids

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Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and or Supercritical Fluids

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and or Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : Can Erkey,Michael Turk
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-12-08
ISBN : 0444640908
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and/or Supercritical Fluids: Methods, Fundamentals and Modeling offers a comprehensive review of the current status of research, development and insights on promising future directions, covering the synthesis of nanostructured materials using supercritical fluid-based processes. The book presents fundamental aspects such as high-pressure phase behavior of complex mixtures, thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption from supercritical solutions, mechanisms of particle formation phenomena in supercritical fluid-based processes, and models for further development. It bridges the gap between theory and application, and is a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and students alike. Includes thermodynamic and mass transfer data necessary for industrial plant design Explains the mechanisms of reactions in a supercritical fluid environment Lists numerous industrial processes for the production of many consumer products

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds Book
Author : Can Erkey
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0080453295
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Organometallic compounds are utilized as reagents in the preparation and processing of advanced nanostructured materials, as catalysts in the production of a wide variety of specialty chemicals and polymers, and as drugs. Supercritical fluid science and technology has a wide variety of applications ranging from extraction of pharmaceutically active compounds to the synthesis of advanced materials. The combination of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids has significant potential. This book covers the fundamental aspects and related applications in this rapidly growing area. Covers the preparation of nanostructured composite materials using supercritical fluids Focuses on the intersection of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids Addresses the behavior of organometallic compounds in supercritical fluid environments

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications Book
Author : Vladimir Anikeev,Maohong Fan I
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-12-21
ISBN : 0444626972
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues. Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection

Foaming with Supercritical Fluids

Foaming with Supercritical Fluids Book
Author : Ernesto Di Maio,Salvatore Iannace,Giuseppe Mensitieri
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-11-06
ISBN : 0444637362
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Foaming with Supercritical Fluids, Volume Nine provides a comprehensive description of the use of supercritical fluids as blowing agents in polymer foaming. To this aim, the fundamental issues on which the proper design and control of this process are rooted are discussed in detail, with specific attention devoted to the theoretical and experimental aspects of sorption thermodynamics of a blowing agent within a polymer, the effect of the absorbed blowing agent on the thermal, interfacial and rheological properties of the expanding matter, and the phase separation of the gaseous phase, and of the related bubble nucleation and growth phenomena. Several foaming technologies based on the use of supercritical blowing agents are then described, addressing the main issues in the light of the underlying chemical-physical phenomena. Offers strong fundamentals on polymer properties important on foaming Outlines the use of supercritical fluids for foaming Covers theoretical points-of-view, including foam formation of the polymer/gas solution to the setting of the final foam Discusses the several processing technologies and applications

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies Book
Author : Igor Pioro
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-05-20
ISBN : 183880708X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Using SuperCritical Fluids (SCFs) in various processes is not new, because Mother Nature has been processing minerals in aqueous solutions at critical and supercritical pressures for billions of years. Somewhere in the 20th century, SCFs started to be used in various industries as working fluids, coolants, chemical agents, etc. Written by an international team of experts and complete with the latest research, development, and design, Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies is a unique technical book, completely dedicated to modern and advanced applications of supercritical fluids in various industries.Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies provides engineers and specialists in various industries dealing with SCFs as well as researchers, scientists, and students of the corresponding departments with a comprehensive overview of the current status, latest trends and developments of these technologies.Dr Igor Pioro is a professor at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada, and the Founding Editor of the ASME Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science.

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology Book
Author : Concepcion Domingo Pascual,Pascale Subra-Paternault
Publisher : Pan Stanford
Release : 2015-05-31
ISBN : 9789814613408
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The environmental and climate program demands technological solutions in the chemical industry that incorporate prevention of pollution. Major advances are needed to reduce the use of organic solvents, such as methanol, toluene, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, and dichloromethane, which account for 27 percent of total toxics release inventory chemicals. The replacement of those solvents is a key point to enable the transition from classical synthesis to green chemistry and nanotechnology concepts, i.e., to sustainability. The first radical option to achieve this goal is to completely avoid the use of solvents, as occurs in mechanochemical processes. A wide-range synthesis prospect is given by identifying between known solvents those with less negative environmental impact. This book concerns the analysis of the advantages of using compressed CO2 to produce not only improved materials in a better way, but also new nanoproducts. Recovering and using CO2, otherwise released into the atmosphere, is a means of recycling emissions resulting from other users. The use of supercritical CO2 is a complex option from a conceptual point of view requiring enhanced technical preparation.

Supercritical Fluid Technology in Materials Science and Engineering

Supercritical Fluid Technology in Materials Science and Engineering Book
Author : Ya-Ping Sun
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2002-03-26
ISBN : 0824744713
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This title analyzes the chemical reactions, structures and fundamental properties of supercritical fluid systems for the production of new compounds, nanomaterials, fibers, and films. It complies contemporary research and technological advances for increased selectivity and reduced waste in chemical, industrial, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. Topics include fluid dynamics, catalysis, hydrothermal synthesis, surfactants, conducting polymers, crystal growth, and other aspects and applications of supercritical fluids.

Green Sustainable Process for Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Science

Green Sustainable Process for Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Science Book
Author : Dr Inamuddin,Rajender Boddula,Abdullah M. Asiri
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-11-26
ISBN : 0128198516
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Green Sustainable Process for Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Science: Switchable Solvents explores the preparation, properties, chemical processes and applications of this class of green solvents. The book provides an in-depth overview on the area of switchable solvents in various industrial applications, focusing on the purification and extraction of chemical compounds utilizing green chemistry protocols that include liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, liquid-gas and lipids separation technologies. In addition, it includes recent advances in greener extraction and separation processes. This book will be an invaluable guide to students, professors, scientists and R&D industrial specialists working in the field of sustainable chemistry, organic, analytical, chemical engineering, environmental and pharmaceutical sciences. Provides a broad overview of switchable solvents in sustainable chemical processes Compares the use of switchable solvents as greener solvents over conventional solvents Outlines eco-friendly organic synthesis and chemical processes using switchable solvents Lists various industrial separations/extraction processes using switchable solvents

Supercritical and Other High pressure Solvent Systems

Supercritical and Other High pressure Solvent Systems Book
Author : Andrew J Hunt,Thomas M Attard
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2018-08-24
ISBN : 1788015185
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Exploring the range and utility of high-pressure solvent systems across a variety of different chemical applications, this book brings together recent advances in supercritical technology and other pressurised-solvent systems. It provides an in-depth overview of the latest advances and developments and discusses the limitations and drawbacks that need to be addressed. Wherever possible, the greenness and economic viability of the different solvent systems is highlighted. This book is ideal for researchers and industrialists working in environmental science, green chemistry and biorefineries.

Synthesis of Nanomaterials

Synthesis of Nanomaterials Book
Author : S. Noor Mohammad
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-10-27
ISBN : 3030575853
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book deals with the synthesis of nanomaterials with a strong focus on the underlying reaction kinetics and various synthesis mechanisms. It gives a detailed description of all major synthesis routes of many types of novel nanomaterials including nanowires, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor nanotubes, carbon nanobelts, nanofibers, nanorings, nanodots and quantum dots. In addition, it articulates the fundamental mechanisms of nanomaterials synthesis via vapor-phase, liquid-phase and solid-phase processes, highlighting the various strengths and weaknesses of each mechanism. This monograph provides the reader with a thorough review of the known state-of-the-art, along with a detailed comparison and analysis of all possible nanomaterials synthesis mechanisms. An important element of the book is how to obtain critical knowledge for controlling the morphology of nanomaterials and thereby fine tune their materials properties. The book is an ideal guide for graduate students and researchers new to the field seeking to establish or enhance their understanding of the physical and chemical fundamentals of nanomaterials synthesis mechanisms.

Nanomaterials in Catalysis

Nanomaterials in Catalysis Book
Author : Philippe Serp,Karine Philippot
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-11-15
ISBN : 3527656898
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanocatalysis has emerged as a field at the interface between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and offers unique solutions to the demanding requirements for catalyst improvement. Heterogeneous catalysis represents one of the oldest commercial applications of nanoscience and nanoparticles of metals, semiconductors, oxides, and other compounds have been widely used for important chemical reactions. The main focus of this fi eld is the development of well-defined catalysts, which may include both metal nanoparticles and a nanomaterial as the support. These nanocatalysts should display the benefits of both homogenous and heterogeneous catalysts, such as high efficiency and selectivity, stability and easy recovery/recycling. The concept of nanocatalysis is outlined in this book and, in particular, it provides a comprehensive overview of the science of colloidal nanoparticles. A broad range of topics, from the fundamentals to applications in catalysis, are covered, without excluding micelles, nanoparticles in ionic liquids, dendrimers, nanotubes, and nanooxides, as well as modeling, and the characterization of nanocatalysts, making it an indispensable reference for both researchers at universities and professionals in industry.

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials by Etching in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials by Etching in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Supercritical CO2(scCO2) is emerging as a viable and environmentally sustainable platform for nanomaterials synthesis due to its tunable solvent properties combined with low surface tension and viscosity, which allow rapid, non-destructive wetting within small features. However, to advance the utility of this fluid, a more thorough understanding of surface chemistry at high pressures is needed. In this study, the behavior of reactive solids in scCO2was examined by etching thin dielectric, metal, and alloy films to determine the fundamental mechanisms controlling the reactions. Models were developed to describe the etching processes and to benchmark scCO2with conventional methods. Dielectric SiOxNyfilms were etched with an HF/pyridine complex dissolved in scCO2. The anhydrous etching process resulted in formation of a residual (NH4)2SiF6layer that limited transport of reactants to the film and caused a drop in reaction order. Partial removal of the salt was accomplished by sublimation under vacuum. Etching of thin CuO films with hexafluoroacetylacetone (hfacH) in scCO2was studied and found to occur via a 3-step Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction sequence. The kinetic model showed that lower scCO2densities favored hfacH adsorption on the CuO surface and that scCO2solvation forces lowered the activation barrier for the rate-limiting step. Adding up to 10 & times the molar ratio of pure H2O to hfacH nearly doubled theetching rate through formation of a hydrogen-bonded hfacH complex. Both bulk and thin film AgCu alloys were selectively etched in scCO2to generatenanoporous Ag structures. As Cu was preferentially removed through selective oxidation and chelation, the Ag atoms conglomerated into successively larger clusters similar to mechanisms reported in aqueous phase dealloying. Supercritical dealloying was observed at Cu compositions below typical parting limits, suggesting enhanced fluid transport in the evolving pores. When using in situ oxidation, the etching reaction was limited by decomposition of H2O2. Inverse space image analysis of samples with initial phase domain sizes between 250 - 1000 nm showed that below a threshold of approximately 500 nm, the dealloyed feature size mimicked the starting microstructure. Larger phase domains prohibited surface diffusion of Ag between phases producing a mixture of large and small Ag nanostructures.

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds Book
Author : Can Erkey
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-10-27
ISBN : 0080914489
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Organometallic compounds are utilized as reagents in the preparation and processing of advanced nanostructured materials, as catalysts in the production of a wide variety of specialty chemicals and polymers, and as drugs. Supercritical fluid science and technology has a wide variety of applications ranging from extraction of pharmaceutically active compounds to the synthesis of advanced materials. The combination of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids has significant potential. This book covers the fundamental aspects and related applications in this rapidly growing area. Covers the preparation of nanostructured composite materials using supercritical fluids Focuses on the intersection of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids Addresses the behavior of organometallic compounds in supercritical fluid environments

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes Book
Author : Gerd Brunner
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-04-04
ISBN : 0444594183
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes presents an overview on the properties and applications of water at elevated temperatures and pressures. It combines fundamentals with production process aspects. Water is an extraordinary substance. At elevated temperatures (and pressures) its properties change dramatically due to the modifications of the molecular structure of bulk water that varies from a stable three-dimensional network, formed by hydrogen bonds at low and moderate temperatures, to an assembly of separated polar water molecules at high and supercritical temperatures. With varying pressure and temperature, water is turned from a solvent for ionic species to a solvent for polar and non-polar substances. This variability and an enhanced reactivity of water have led to many practical applications and to even more research activities, related to such areas as energy transfer, extraction of functional molecules, unique chemical reactions, biomass conversion and fuel materials processing, destruction of dangerous compounds and recycling of useful ones, growth of monolithic crystals, and preparation of metallic nanoparticles. This book provides an introduction into the wide range of activities that are possible in aqueous mixtures. It is organized to facilitate understanding of the main features, outlines the main applications, and gives access to further information Summarizes fundamental properties of water for engineering applications Compares process and reactor designs Evaluates processes from thermodynamic, economic, and social impact viewpoints

Handbook of Greener Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Compounds

Handbook of Greener Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Compounds Book
Author : Boris I. Kharisov,Oxana V. Kharissova
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-04-03
ISBN : 012821967X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Modern techniques to produce nanoparticles, nanomaterials, and nanocomposites are based on approaches that frequently involve high costs, inefficiencies, and negative environmental impacts. As such, there has been a real drive to develop and apply approaches that are more efficient and benign. The Handbook of Greener Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Compounds provides a comprehensive review of developments in this field, combining foundational green and nano-chemistry with the key information researchers need to assess, select and apply the most appropriate green synthesis approaches to their own work. Volume 1: Fundamental Principles and Methods provides a clear introduction to the fundamentals of green synthesis that places synthesis in the context of green chemistry. Beginning with a discussion of key greener physical and chemical methods for synthesis, including ultrasound, microwave and mechanochemistry methods, the book goes on to explore biological methods, including biosynthesis, green nanoformation, and virus-assisted methods. Discusses synthesis in the context of the principles of green chemistry Highlights both traditional and innovative technologies for the synthesis of nanomaterials and related composites under green chemistry conditions Reflects on the current and potential applications of natural products chemistry in synthesis

In situ Spectroscopic Techniques at High Pressure

In situ Spectroscopic Techniques at High Pressure Book
Author : Andreas Braeuer
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-12-07
ISBN : 0444634207
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In situ Spectroscopic Techniques at High Pressure provides a comprehensive treatment of in-situ applications of spectroscopic techniques at high pressure and their working principles, allowing the reader to develop a deep understanding of which measurements are accessible with each technique, what their limitations are, and for which application each technique is best suited. Coverage is also given to the instrumental requirements for these applications, with respect to the high pressure instrumentation and the spectroscopic components of the equipment. The pedagogical style of the book is supplemented by the inclusion of "study questions" which aim to make it useful for graduate-level courses. Bridges the gap between supercritical fluid science/technology and in-situ spectroscopic techniques Provides a powerful guide to applying spectroscopic techniques as gainful sensors at high pressure Highlights the influence of a high pressure environment and high pressure equipment on spectroscopic techniques Presents a deep understanding of which measurements are accessible with each technique, what their limitations are, and for which application each technique is best suited

Advances in Microporous and Mesoporous Materials

Advances in Microporous and Mesoporous Materials Book
Author : Rafael Huirache Acuña
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-07-15
ISBN : 1838807551
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nowadays, microporous and mesoporous materials are versatile solids of great interest due to their structures and pore sizes, which allow their application in many areas. Accordingly, with IUPAC, materials with pore sizes smaller than 2 nm are called microporous and with pore sizes between 2 and 50 nm are called mesoporous. The pore size has an important impact on the material properties and affects their applications. In addition, high surface area, and their ability to incorporate functional groups on the framework are of great relevance for commercial and science applications. This book intends to provide readers with a comprehensive overview of recent improvements in the microporous and mesoporous materials field.

Organometallic Flow Chemistry

Organometallic Flow Chemistry Book
Author : Timothy Noël
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-04-22
ISBN : 3319332430
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The series Topics in Organometallic Chemistry presents critical overviews of research results in organometallic chemistry. As our understanding of organometallic structure, properties and mechanisms increases, new ways are opened for the design of organometallic compounds and reactions tailored to the needs of such diverse areas as organic synthesis, medical research, biology and materials science. Thus the scope of coverage includes a broad range of topics of pure and applied organometallic chemistry, where new breakthroughs are being achieved that are of significance to a larger scientific audience. The individual volumes of Topics in Organometallic Chemistry are thematic. Review articles are generally invited by the volume editors. All chapters from Topics in Organometallic Chemistry are published OnlineFirst with an individual DOI. In references, Topics in Organometallic Chemistry is abbreviated as Top Organomet Chem and cited as a journal

Environment Energy and Climate Change I

Environment  Energy and Climate Change I Book
Author : Elena Jiménez,Beatriz Cabañas,Gilles Lefebvre
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-01-16
ISBN : 3319129074
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume offers a comprehensive overview of advanced research in the field of environmental green chemistry for air, soil and water pollutants, and presents emerging technologies on the chemical treatment of polluted sites and wastes. The 15 chapters, prepared by internationally respected experts, address the following topics: (1) monitoring of indoor and outdoor air pollutants; (2) atmospheric degradation processes and formation mechanisms of secondary pollutants; (3) the environmental assessment and impacts of soils polluted by heavy metals and hydrocarbons; (4) sustainable and emerging technologies for the chemical treatment of organic and animal wastes and wastewaters; (5) photocatalytic CO2 conversion methods for the mitigation of greenhouse effects; and (6) non-conventional methods in green chemistry synthesis. Lastly, the authors outline the future perspectives of each topic. Given its multidisciplinary approach, combining environmental analysis and engineering, the book offers a valuable resource for all researchers and students interested in environmental chemistry and engineering.

Nanostructured Materials

Nanostructured Materials Book
Author : Jackie Ying
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2001-12-28
ISBN : 9780127444512
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This thematic volume of Advances in Chemical Engineering presents the latest advances in the exciting interdisciplinary field of nanostructured materials. Written by chemical engineers, chemists, physicists, materials scientists, and bioengineers, this volume focuses on the molecular engineering of materials at the nanometer scale for unique size-dependent properties. It describes a "bottom-up" approach to designing nanostructured systems for a variety of chemical, physical, and biological applications.