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Strengthening Forensic Science In The United States

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Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2009-07-29
ISBN : 0309142393
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2009-08-29
ISBN : 0309131308
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States Book
Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology (2007). Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States book written by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology (2007). Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States Book
Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States book written by United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

National Research Council s Publication Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States a Path Forward

National Research Council s Publication  Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States  a Path Forward  Book
Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download National Research Council s Publication Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States a Path Forward book written by United States. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Need to Strengthen Forensic Science in the United States

The Need to Strengthen Forensic Science in the United States Book
Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Need to Strengthen Forensic Science in the United States book written by United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Complete Guide to the ABC Molecular Biology Certification Exam

The Complete Guide to the ABC Molecular Biology Certification Exam Book
Author : Tiffany Roy
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-04-03
ISBN : 1498753930
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In 2009, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) authored the report Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. In it, the Committee expressed the need for accreditation and certification. Accreditation, long recognized by public labs as an important benchmark in quality, was recognized as an important way to standardize laboratories that provide forensic services. Certification can play an important role as a method of oversight in the forensic sciences—something also recommended by the - National Commission on Forensic Science in October 2014. The Complete Guide to the ABC's Molecular Biology is a professional certification examination preparation text for forensic scientists taking the American Board of Criminalistics Examination in Molecular Biology. The book serves as a resource for forensic scientists—who are facing more and more pressure to become certified—to support them in their pursuit of forensic certification. In the years since the NAS report was published, there has been increased discussion of forensic certification requirements. ABC’s Molecular Biology exam is a quality certification, and learning the concepts for it will invariably help any professional working in the field. The book prepares readers in all relevant topic areas, including: accreditation, safety, biological screen principles, anatomy and cell biology, crime scene and evidence handling, concepts in genetics, biochemistry, statistics, DNA evidence, and DNA testing. The book will be particularly helpful for forensic science laboratory technicians, police and investigations professionals, forensic serology and DNA analysts, attorneys, and forensic science students. This study guide follows the guidelines for the exam and presents all the information necessary to prepare individuals to pass the exam.

Wildlife Forensic Investigation

Wildlife Forensic Investigation Book
Author : John E. Cooper,Margaret E. Cooper
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2013-04-25
ISBN : 1482210037
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Wildlife forensics is the application of forensic science to the conservation and protection of non-domesticated animals, both in the wild and in captivity. Providing an in-depth introduction to this rapidly evolving field, Wildlife Forensic Investigation: Principles and Practice also chronicles aspects of the history of management, conservation, and environmental protection, with an emphasis on their global importance in the twenty-first century. The book examines the crucial role of wildlife forensic investigation with regard to live animals, dead animals and samples and covers national, regional, and international legislation. While the text particularly focuses on forensic science as it relates to wild animals, it also includes mention of plants and habitats because of their relevance to conservation. The book discusses animal welfare as well as the damage that can be inflicted on humans and property by wildlife. Offering access to sound evidence based on good science and obtained using the best available practices, the book is enhanced by case studies from experts who describe some of their own work. This resource is essential for those involved in a range of endeavours, including investigating wildlife crime, identifying animal remains, ascertaining the circumstances of death of wild species, and other legal proceedings and activities concerning wildlife. The forensic skills described in this book can be applied to a wide range of activities (not necessarily involving the legal process), including environmental impact assessments, insurance claims, governmental and other enquiries, checking of trading standards and the inspection of (for instance) pet-shops, animal boarding establishments, and zoological collections. The authors point out that one of the most important requirements of those persons involved in wildlife forensic work is to retain an open mind. Such personnel should also be conscious of new developments and evolving techniques and be able to anticipate situations where their investigative and scientific skills might be used to advantage—so-called "horizon scanning". Examples of these are given.

Autopsy of a Crime Lab

Autopsy of a Crime Lab Book
Author : Brandon L. Garrett
Publisher : Univ of California Press
Release : 2021-03-23
ISBN : 0520976630
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book exposes the dangerously imperfect forensic evidence that we rely on for criminal convictions. "That's not my fingerprint, your honor," said the defendant, after FBI experts reported a "100-percent identification." They were wrong. It is shocking how often they are. Autopsy of a Crime Lab is the first book to catalog the sources of error and the faulty science behind a range of well-known forensic evidence, from fingerprints and firearms to forensic algorithms. In this devastating forensic takedown, noted legal expert Brandon L. Garrett poses the questions that should be asked in courtrooms every day: Where are the studies that validate the basic premises of widely accepted techniques such as fingerprinting? How can experts testify with 100 percent certainty about a fingerprint, when there is no such thing as a 100 percent match? Where is the quality control in the laboratories and at the crime scenes? Should we so readily adopt powerful new technologies like facial recognition software and rapid DNA machines? And why have judges been so reluctant to consider the weaknesses of so many long-accepted methods? Taking us into the lives of the wrongfully convicted or nearly convicted, into crime labs rocked by scandal, and onto the front lines of promising reform efforts driven by professionals and researchers alike, Autopsy of a Crime Lab illustrates the persistence and perniciousness of shaky science and its well-meaning practitioners.

Forensic Chemistry Handbook

Forensic Chemistry Handbook Book
Author : Lawrence Kobilinsky
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-11-17
ISBN : 9781118062234
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A concise, robust introduction to the various topics covered by the discipline of forensic chemistry The Forensic Chemistry Handbook focuses on topics in each of the major chemistry-related areas of forensic science. With chapter authors that span the forensic chemistry field, this book exposes readers to the state of the art on subjects such as serology (including blood, semen, and saliva), DNA/molecular biology, explosives and ballistics, toxicology, pharmacology, instrumental analysis, arson investigation, and various other types of chemical residue analysis. In addition, the Forensic Chemistry Handbook: Covers forensic chemistry in a clear, concise, and authoritative way Brings together in one volume the key topics in forensics where chemistry plays an important role, such as blood analysis, drug analysis, urine analysis, and DNA analysis Explains how to use analytical instruments to analyze crime scene evidence Contains numerous charts, illustrations, graphs, and tables to give quick access to pertinent information Media focus on high-profile trials like those of Scott Peterson or Kobe Bryant have peaked a growing interest in the fascinating subject of forensic chemistry. For those readers who want to understand the mechanisms of reactions used in laboratories to piece together crime scenes—and to fully grasp the chemistry behind it—this book is a must-have.

Education and Training in Forensic Science

Education and Training in Forensic Science Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Education and Training in Forensic Science book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Global Forensic Cultures

Global Forensic Cultures Book
Author : Ian Burney,Christopher Hamlin
Publisher : Johns Hopkins University Press
Release : 2019-05-21
ISBN : 1421427494
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carrier, Simon A. Cole, Christopher Hamlin, Jeffrey Jentzen, Projit Bihari Mukharji, Quentin (Trais) Pearson, Mitra Sharafi, Gagan Preet Singh, Heather Wolffram

The Neuroscience of Handwriting

The Neuroscience of Handwriting Book
Author : Michael P. Caligiuri,Linton A. Mohammed
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-02-22
ISBN : 143987140X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Daubert trilogy of U.S. Supreme Court cases has established that scientific expert testimony must be based on science grounded in empirical research. As such, greater scrutiny is being placed on questioned document examination generally, and handwriting comparison in particular. Bridging the gap between theory and practice, The Neuroscience of Handwriting: Applications in Forensic Document Examination examines the essential neuroscientific principles underlying normal and pathological hand motor control and handwriting. Topics discussed include: Fundamental principles in the neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of hand motor control and their application to research in handwriting The epidemiology, pathophysiology, and motor characteristics of neurogenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, essential tremor, and motor neuron disease and their effects on handwriting Psychotropic medications prescribed for depression, bipolar disorder, and psychosis; their mechanisms of action; and their effect on motor behavior and handwriting The impact of substance abuse on handwriting An overview of the aging process and its effects on motor control and handwriting The kinematic approach and new findings on the kinematic analyses of genuine, disguised, and forged signatures The authors’ laboratory research on authentic and forged signatures An essential resource for professionals and researchers in the forensic documentation examination and legal communities, this volume provides a window on the scientific process of signature and handwriting authentication, integrating the extensive research on neural processes and exploring how disease, medication, and advanced age alter these processes.

Support for Forensic Science Research

Support for Forensic Science Research Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on Strengthening Forensic Science at the National Institute of Justice
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2015-11-03
ISBN : 0309376483
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reliable and valid forensic science analytic techniques are critical to a credible, fair, and evidence-based criminal justice system. There is widespread agreement that the scientific foundation of some currently available forensic science methods needs strengthening and that additional, more efficient techniques are urgently needed. These needs can only be met through sustained research programs explicitly designed to ensure and improve the reliability and validity of current methods and to foster the development and use of new and better techniques. This task is challenging due to the broad nature of the field. Concerns have been raised repeatedly about the ability of the criminal justice system to collect and analyze evidence efficiently and to be fair in its verdicts. Although significant progress has been made in some forensic science disciplines, the forensic science community still faces many challenges. Federal leadership, particularly in regard to research and the scientific validation of forensic science methods, is needed to help meet the pressing issues facing state and local jurisdictions. This report reviews the progress made by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to advance forensic science research since the 2009 report, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward and the 2010 report, Strengthening the National Institute of Justice. Support for Forensic Science Research examines the ways in which NIJ develops its forensic science research priorities and communicates those priorities as well as its findings to the scientific and forensic practitioner communities in order to determine the impact of NIJ forensic science research programs and how that impact can be enhanced.

The Double Helix and the Law of Evidence

The Double Helix and the Law of Evidence Book
Author : David H. Kaye
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 2010-05-15
ISBN : 9780674054110
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bridging law, genetics, and statistics, this book is an authoritative history of the long and tortuous process by which DNA science has been integrated into the American legal system. In a history both scientifically sophisticated and comprehensible to the nonspecialist, David Kaye weaves together molecular biology, population genetics, the legal rules of evidence, and theories of statistical reasoning as he describes the struggles between prosecutors and defense counsel over the admissibility of genetic proof of identity. Combining scientific exposition with stories of criminal investigations, scientific and legal hubris, and distortions on all sides, Kaye shows how the adversary system exacerbated divisions among scientists, how lawyers and experts obfuscated some issues and clarified others, how probability and statistics were manipulated and misunderstood, and how the need to convince lay judges influenced the scientific research. Looking to the future, Kaye uses probability theory to clarify legal concepts of relevance and probative value, and describes alternatives to race-based DNA profile frequencies. Essential reading for lawyers, judges, and expert witnesses in DNA cases, The Double Helix and the Law of Evidence is an informative and provocative contribution to the interdisciplinary study of law and science.

Blinding as a Solution to Bias

Blinding as a Solution to Bias Book
Author : Christopher T Robertson,Aaron S Kesselheim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-01-30
ISBN : 0128026332
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

What information should jurors have during court proceedings to render a just decision? Should politicians know who is donating money to their campaigns? Will scientists draw biased conclusions about drug efficacy when they know more about the patient or study population? The potential for bias in decision-making by physicians, lawyers, politicians, and scientists has been recognized for hundreds of years and drawn attention from media and scholars seeking to understand the role that conflicts of interests and other psychological processes play. However, commonly proposed solutions to biased decision-making, such as transparency (disclosing conflicts) or exclusion (avoiding conflicts) do not directly solve the underlying problem of bias and may have unintended consequences. Robertson and Kesselheim bring together a renowned group of interdisciplinary scholars to consider another way to reduce the risk of biased decision-making: blinding. What are the advantages and limitations of blinding? How can we quantify the biases in unblinded research? Can we develop new ways to blind decision-makers? What are the ethical problems with withholding information from decision-makers in the course of blinding? How can blinding be adapted to legal and scientific procedures and in institutions not previously open to this approach? Fundamentally, these sorts of questions—about who needs to know what—open new doors of inquiry for the design of scientific research studies, regulatory institutions, and courts. The volume surveys the theory, practice, and future of blinding, drawing upon leading authors with a diverse range of methodologies and areas of expertise, including forensic sciences, medicine, law, philosophy, economics, psychology, sociology, and statistics. Introduces readers to the primary policy issue this book seeks to address: biased decision-making. Provides a focus on blinding as a solution to bias, which has applicability in many domains. Traces the development of blinding as a solution to bias, and explores the different ways blinding has been employed. Includes case studies to explore particular uses of blinding for statisticians, radiologists, and fingerprint examiners, and whether the jurors and judges who rely upon them will value and understand blinding.

Scientific Protocols for Fire Investigation

Scientific Protocols for Fire Investigation Book
Author : John J. Lentini
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2006-01-26
ISBN : 142000381X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Scientific Protocols for Fire Investigation provides comprehensive coverage from historical, developmental, current, and practical perspectives. The author, uniquely qualified with years of experience in both on-site investigations and lab analyses, provides a resource that is unparalleled in depth and focus. The book is distinctive in that it not

Turning the Investigation on the Science of Forensics

Turning the Investigation on the Science of Forensics Book
Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Turning the Investigation on the Science of Forensics book written by United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Failed Evidence

Failed Evidence Book
Author : David A. Harris
Publisher : NYU Press
Release : 2012-09-03
ISBN : 0814790550
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With the popularity of crime dramas like CSI focusing on forensic science, and increasing numbers of police and prosecutors making wide-spread use of DNA, high-tech science seems to have become the handmaiden of law enforcement. But this is a myth,asserts law professor and nationally known expert on police profiling David A. Harris. In fact, most of law enforcement does not embrace science—it rejects it instead, resisting it vigorously. The question at the heart of this book is why. »» Eyewitness identifications procedures using simultaneous lineups—showing the witness six persons together,as police have traditionally done—produces a significant number of incorrect identifications. »» Interrogations that include threats of harsh penalties and untruths about the existence of evidence proving the suspect’s guilt significantly increase the prospect of an innocent person confessing falsely. »» Fingerprint matching does not use probability calculations based on collected and standardized data to generate conclusions, but rather human interpretation and judgment.Examiners generally claim a zero rate of error – an untenable claim in the face of publicly known errors by the best examiners in the U.S. Failed Evidence explores the real reasons that police and prosecutors resist scientific change, and it lays out a concrete plan to bring law enforcement into the scientific present. Written in a crisp and engaging style, free of legal and scientific jargon, Failed Evidence will explain to police and prosecutors, political leaders and policy makers, as well as other experts and anyone else who cares about how law enforcement does its job, where we should go from here. Because only if we understand why law enforcement resists science will we be able to break through this resistance and convince police and prosecutors to rely on the best that science has to offer.Justice demands no less.

Inside the Cell

Inside the Cell Book
Author : Erin E. Murphy
Publisher : Bold Type Books
Release : 2015-10-06
ISBN : 1568584709
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Josiah Sutton was convicted of rape. He was five inches shorter and 65 pounds lighter than the suspect described by the victim, but at trial a lab analyst testified that his DNA was found at the crime scene. His case looked like many others -- arrest, swab, match, conviction. But there was just one problem -- Sutton was innocent. We think of DNA forensics as an infallible science that catches the bad guys and exonerates the innocent. But when the science goes rogue, it can lead to a gross miscarriage of justice. Erin Murphy exposes the dark side of forensic DNA testing: crime labs that receive little oversight and produce inconsistent results; prosecutors who push to test smaller and poorer-quality samples, inviting error and bias; law-enforcement officers who compile massive, unregulated, and racially skewed DNA databases; and industry lobbyists who push policies of "stop and spit." DNA testing is rightly seen as a transformative technological breakthrough, but we should be wary of placing such a powerful weapon in the hands of the same broken criminal justice system that has produced mass incarceration, privileged government interests over personal privacy, and all too often enforced the law in a biased or unjust manner. Inside the Cell exposes the truth about forensic DNA, and shows us what it will take to harness the power of genetic identification in service of accuracy and fairness.