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Stem Cell Epigenetics

Stem Cell Epigenetics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-08-13
ISBN : 0128140852
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stem Cell Epigenetics, Volume 16, examines how epigenetics are involved in stem cell differentiation, how a stem cell rapidly transitions into a molecularly distinct cell type, and how this process may be reversed or managed via epigenetic reprogramming. Topics discussed include chromatin in pluripotency, epigenetic regulation of reprogramming, stem cells and DNA methylation, histone modifications in stem cells and differentiation, higher-order chromatin conformation in pluripotent cells, epigenetics and disease modeling, organoids from pluripotent cells, transcriptional regulation in stem cells and differentiation, non-coding RNAs in pluripotency and early differentiation, and diseases caused by epigenetic alterations in stem cells. Additionally, the potential implementation of stem cell epigenetics in drug discovery, regenerative medicine, and disease treatment is discussed in detail, helping researchers and physicians bring this exciting and fast evolving field to the clinic. Provides genetic researchers, students and physicians with evidence indicating the epigenetic mechanisms involved in stem cell differentiation Highlights the specific characteristics of the epigenetic modifications and misregulations that may result in disease pathogenesis Examines the potential application of stem cell epigenetics towards developing therapeutic interventions for disease and advancing regenerative medicine Features chapter contributions by leading international experts

Alterations of Epigenetics and MicroRNAs in Cancer and Cancer Stem Cell

Alterations of Epigenetics and MicroRNAs in Cancer and Cancer Stem Cell Book
Author : Yoshimasa Saito
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2014-11-10
ISBN : 2889193454
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Studies have shown that alterations of epigenetics and microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the initiation and progression of human cancer. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells is generally mediated by DNA hypermethylation of CpG island promoter and histone modification such as methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and tri-methylation of H3K27. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of various target genes. Specific miRNAs are aberrantly expressed and play roles as tumor suppressors or oncogenes during carcinogenesis. Important tumor suppressor miRNAs are silenced by epigenetic alterations, resulting in activation of target oncogenes in human malignancies. Stem cells have the ability to perpetuate themselves through self-renewal and to generate mature cells of various tissues through differentiation. Accumulating evidence suggests that a subpopulation of cancer cells with distinct stem-like properties is responsible for tumor initiation, invasive growth, and metastasis formation, which is defined as cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are considered to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy, suggesting that these cells are important targets of cancer therapy. DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNAs may be deeply involved in stem-like properties in cancer cells. Restoring the expression of tumor suppressor genes and miRNAs by chromatin modifying drugs may be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer stem cells. In this Research Topic, we discuss about alterations of epigenetics and miRNAs in cancer and cancer stem cell and understand the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of cancer stem cell, which may provide a novel insight for treatment of refractory cancer.

Epigenetic Gene Regulation in Stem Cell Differentiation and Reprogramming

Epigenetic Gene Regulation in Stem Cell Differentiation and Reprogramming Book
Author : Kevin Huang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The regulatory capacities of epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs, have seen a rising interest in recent years. These epigenetic marks are pervasive and non-randomly distributed across the genome, raising intriguing questions on how epigenetics contributes to genomic features that define cellular identity and function. Unlike fixed genetic information that is shared between all cell types, epigenetics involve multiple layers of regulation and can vary dramatically across different cell types and genomic contexts. Thus, much more effort is required to procure a complete perspective of the manifold epigenetic landscape. The body of work in this dissertation focuses on epigenetic studies in the mammalian pluripotent stem cell model system. We utilize high-throughput technologies such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS) as well as leverage existing epigenetic maps to address a wide range of molecular questions on a comprehensive global scale. This dissertation is organized into three overarching themes: First, we employed genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation profiling tools to determine whether different cell types display unique biomarkers that can be used to distinguish them from other cell types (Chapters 2-5). We found that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) carry distinct features in both gene expression and DNA methylation patterns, arguing in favor of the idea that these two pluripotent cell types are different. Furthermore, we compared pluripotent stem cell derived retinal pigmented epithelium (hESC-RPE and hiPSC-RPE) with fetal and adult RPE and found that all RPE cells share a core set of signature genes that distinguishes them from all other cell types. We propose these signature genes will be useful for evaluating the quality of stem-cell derived RPE. Finally, novel corneal endothelial cells (CECs) biomarkers were identified through comparing 12 other tissue types, paving the way for future studies to evaluate properties of stem-cell derived CECs. We next examined how molecular features of pluripotent stem cells are altered during the differentiation process of stem cells (Chapters 6-8). Using the RPE differentiation paradigm, we profiled both microRNA and DNA methylation patterns in intermediate stages between pluripotent stem cells and mature RPE. These two separate studies identified subsets of dynamically regulated epigenetic marks, some of which are associated with RPE signature gene expression. Furthermore, we used a highly innovative and powerful single-cell RNA-sequencing approach to profile transcriptional changes in the early embryo beginning from mature oocyte to morula stages. This study identified a conserved genetic program describing a highly dynamic transcriptional architecture during early embryogenesis. Finally, we took a focused analysis on how DNA methyltransferases contribute to shaping the pluripotent stem cell epigenome (Chapters 9-10). Using mouse ESCs null of DNA methylation, we determined DNA methylation regulates a large set of genes through action with H3K27me3. Furthermore, we determined shared and unique genomic targets of each DNA methyltransferase, including novel de novo methylation activity for Dnmt1 in vivo. In the human model system, we generated iPSCs from ICF Syndrome patient fibroblasts which carry double heterozygous mutations in DNMT3B. We found DNMT3B is involved in a wave of de novo methylation during the reprogramming process and has unique genomic targets.

Transcriptional and Epigenetic Regulation of Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency and Reprogramming

Transcriptional and Epigenetic Regulation of Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency and Reprogramming Book
Author : Jaclyn J. Ho
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), like all tissues, largely rely on precise transcriptional and epigenetic regulation for proper cell specification and differentiation. General transcription factors, transcriptional regulators, coactivators, and chromatin remodelers are often coordinated and expressed in a cell-type specific manner to ensure the integrity of this gene expression network. However, how ESCs are able to tightly regulate gene expression and remain highly malleable to external developmental cues is still an open biological question. The XPC DNA repair complex was recently identified as one of a set of critical stem cell coactivators (SCC) involved in driving robust OCT4/SOX2-dependent expression of pluripotent genes in ESCs. This dissertation will focus on the molecular mechanisms of the XPC complex and other SCCs in controlling cell identity and fate in pluripotent stem cells. Chapter 1 will provide an introduction to the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation in pluripotent stem cells. Specifically, it will highlight the core transcriptional network, the mechanisms of reprogramming, and barriers to gene expression (e.g. DNA methylation). Chapter 2 will describe a novel role of the XPC DNA repair complex in regulating DNA methylation in both somatic and pluripotent cells, in part through regulating the activity of thymine DNA glycosylase, a major player in active DNA demethylation. Chapter 3 will describe the identification and characterization of two additional stem cell coactivators: the DKC1 ribonucleoprotein and ABCF1. As it is with the case of the XPC DNA repair complex, DKC1 and ABCF1 are multifunctional proteins with unanticipated roles in pluripotent gene transcription. In summary, this dissertation will highlight the role of versatile proteins in pluripotent stem cells and their involvement in transcriptional regulation and beyond. By strengthening our understanding of the fundamental molecular mechanisms employed by pluripotent stem cells, we may gain a better insight into how cell identity is specified.

Epigenetic Regulation of Neural Stem Cell Differentiation

Epigenetic Regulation of Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Book
Author : Hao Wu
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Epigenetic Regulation of Neural Stem Cell Differentiation book written by Hao Wu, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Brain Diseases

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Brain Diseases Book
Author : Vivi M. Heine,Stephanie Dooves,Dwayne Holmes,Judith Wagner
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-11-23
ISBN : 9789400728165
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain diseases can have a large impact on patients and society, and treatment is often not available. A new approach in which somatic cells are reprogrammed into induced pluripotent cells (iPS cells) is a significant breakthrough for regenerative medicine. This promises patient-specific tissue for replacement therapies, as well as disease-specific cells for developmental modeling and drug treatment screening. However, this method faces issues of low reprogramming efficiency, and poorly defined criteria for determining the conversion of one cell type to another. Cells contain epigenetic “memories” of what they were that can affect reprogramming. This book discusses the various methods to reprogram cells, the control and determination of cell identity, the epigenetic models that have emerged and the application of iPS cell therapy for brain diseases, in particular Parkinson’s disease and Vanishing White Matter (VWM).​

Epigenetic Regulation of Skin Development and Regeneration

Epigenetic Regulation of Skin Development and Regeneration Book
Author : Vladimir A. Botchkarev,Sarah E. Millar
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-09-03
ISBN : 3319167693
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This indispensable volume highlights recent studies identifying epigenetic mechanisms as essential regulators of skin development, stem cell activity and regeneration. Chapters are contributed by leading experts and promote the skin as an accessible model system for studying mechanisms that control organ development and regeneration. The timely discussions contained throughout are of broad relevance to other areas of biology and medicine and can help inform the development of novel therapeutics for skin disorders as well as new approaches to skin regeneration that target the epigenome. Part of the highly successful Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine series, Epigenetic Regulation of Skin Development and Regeneration uncovers the fundamental significance of epigenetic mechanisms in skin development and regeneration, and emphasizes the development of new therapies for a number of skin disorders, such as pathological conditions of epidermal differentiation, pigmentation and carcinogenesis. At least six categories of researchers will find this book essential, including stem cell, developmental, hair follicle or molecular biologists, and gerontologists or clinical dermatologists.

Stem Cells in Development and Disease

Stem Cells in Development and Disease Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2004-06-30
ISBN : 9780080490939
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume of Current Topics in Developmental Biology showcases the research and therapeutic value of stem cells, and is proof of the increasing maturation of the fields of regenerative and molecular medicine. Reviews include: * Therapeutic cloning and tissue engineering to produce functional replacement tissues. * The role of the protein a-synuclein in a host of neurodegenerative diseases, which may be the first to benefit from stem cell therapy. * The curious array of functions in eukaryotic DNA methyltransferase, crucial for normal development and at the core of epigenetics regulation. * Influencing stem cell differentiation with mechanical stress, another example of genes versus the environment. * The process of mammalian hematopoeisis, and inducing it in model organisms with embryonic stem cells. * The regulation of differential parental germline genetic imprinting, central for epigenetics. * The molecular function and regulation of the cystic fibrosis gene, critical for understanding the complete molecular mechanism of this devastating disorder, which might soon be treatable with stem cells. This volume comprehensively describes some of the most current issues in stem cell biology, and is an exciting preview of therapies that may soon be applied in the clinic. It is essential reading for researchers, clinicians, and trainees alike. * Therapeutic Cloning and Tissue Engineering * Structure and function of eukaryotic DNA methyltransferases * Mechanical Signals as Regulators of Stem Cell Fate * Molecular basis for the Chloride Channel Activity of CFTR and the Consequences of Disease Causing Mutations

Epigenetics

Epigenetics Book
Author : Lyle Armstrong
Publisher : Garland Pub
Release : 2014
ISBN : 9780815365112
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The concept of epigenetics has been known about since the 1940s, but it is only in the last 10 years that research has shown just how wide ranging its effects are. It is now a very widely-used term, but there is still a lot of confusion surrounding what it actually is and does. Epigenetics brings together the structure and machinery of epigenetic modification, how epigenetic modification controls cellular functions, and the evidence for the relationship between epigenetics and disease. It will therefore be an invaluable source of information about all aspects of this subject for undergraduate students, graduate students, and professionals alike. Topics included are the role of epigenetics in stem cells, the involvement of epigenetics with cancer, and the role of epigenetics in mental health. Key Features - Describes the two forms of epigenetic modification, DNA methylation and histone acetylation, and how they take place. - Section on how epigenetics controls cell function, including cellular differentiation and consequently the role of epigenetics in stem cells - Section on the role of epigenetics in disease only includes diseases where there is clear evidence of epigenetic involvement - Glossary explaining all the terms involved in epigenetics - Full-color figures"--Provided by publisher.

Epigenetics and Regeneration

Epigenetics and Regeneration Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-05-24
ISBN : 0128148802
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics and Regeneration compiles the first foundational reference on epigenetic mechanisms governing tissue development, repair, homeostasis, and regeneration, as well as pathways to employ these mechanisms in clinical practice and translational science. In this book, life science researchers, clinicians, and students will discover an interdisciplinary resource bringing together common themes in the field, background overviews, research methods, recent advances, and opportunities for drug discovery. Throughout this volume, special attention is paid to pre-clinical and first clinical studies aimed at increasing the regenerative potential of damaged tissues by epigenetic drugs, as well as innovative, discipline spanning strategies to enhance cell reprogramming. As an all-inclusive, evidence-based volume, Epigenetics and Regeneration will stimulate discussion and boost new research in this fascinating and impactful area of translational epigenetics. Provides a foundational overview of epigenetics in regenerative medicine Examines epigenetic components of tissue regeneration for a variety of organ systems and tissue types, as well as current attempts to employ these mechanisms in clinical practice Offers researchers, students, clinicians, and pharmacologists the tools they need to enhance tissue development, repair, homeostasis, and regeneration and explore new epigenetic therapeutic pathways Features chapter contributions from leading international researchers and clinicians in the fields of epigenetics and regenerative medicine

Epigenetic Regulation of Stem Cell Fate

Epigenetic Regulation of Stem Cell Fate Book
Author : Jesper Due Jensen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021-06-16
ISBN : 9788776118907
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Epigenetic Regulation of Stem Cell Fate book written by Jesper Due Jensen, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Epigenetic Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Epigenetic Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Book
Author : Lukas Chávez
Publisher : Sudwestdeutscher Verlag Fur Hochschulschriften AG
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9783838127620
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold promise for future cell replacement therapy because they can be induced to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic mechanism involved in normal cellular differentiation. The author Lukas Chavez introduces into several experimental and computational methods commonly applied for the analysis of genetic and epigenetic characteristics. Subsequently, he develops and comprehensively describes computational methods for the analysis of novel genome-wide DNA methylation data. In a case study, the computational methods are applied to DNA methylation data derived from hESCs. The author analyzes the interplay between DNA methylation, histone modifications, and transcription factor binding, and investigates the effect of differential methylation on gene expression. The results given in this book extend our knowledge of interactions between genetic and epigenetic mechanisms during early differentiation of hESCs. The book is of most interest not only for stem cell biologists but also for researchers interested in computational methods available for high-throughput studies in health and disease.

Epigenetic Regulation of Pluripotent and Multipotent Stem Cell Systems

Epigenetic Regulation of Pluripotent and Multipotent Stem Cell Systems Book
Author : Stephanie Lauren Battle
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The epigenome defines what a cell has the potential to do and allows a cell to elicit a response to external cues. This is exemplified in organisms where all the hundreds of different cell types share one genome but differ in their gene expression and response to environmental stimuli. Stem cells with their inherent ability to self-renew and differentiate, are a useful model for studying how the epigenome confers these attribute in a cell. Here I present research performed in two stem cell systems, pluripotent naïve human embryonic stem cells and multipotent ovarian cancer stem cells. I use different next-generation sequencing techniques to quantify changes in gene expression and measure three epigenetic characteristics: DNA methylation, histone modifications and genome three-dimensional architecture. From the data generated, I am able to identify regions that regulate gene expression, identify proteins that potentially target these regions, and predict the genes targets of regulatory regions. I have shown that the pluripotent naïve human embryonic stem cell line, Elf1, has a more open chromatin structure than primed embryonic stem cells, a known feature of early development. This is observed in their less methylated genome and presence of broad domains of active chromatin modifications. I found that architectural differences between the naïve and primed genome can be explained through the presence of histone modifications. I observed that Elf1 naïve embryonic stem cells are also a good model for development due to their ability to gain DNA methylation at imprinted regions and gain repressive histone modifications at key genes when pushed forward to a primed-like state. In our multipotent stem cell system, I was able to identify key genes and protein interactions that distinguish ovarian cancer stem cells from the cells in the bulk of the tumor. I was able to link differentially methylated regions to regulatory elements and identify putative gene targets. Many of the interacting proteins and gene targets have previously been shown to be responsible for chemotherapy resistance and quiescence in cancer stem cells. I uncover evidence that ovarian cancer stem cells use pluripotent cell transcription factors at their regulatory elements, creating a surprising and unexpected connection between the two stem cell systems in this study. There is still much to learn about the epigenetic regulatory network in pluripotent and multipotent stem cells and the work presented here can be viewed as a launching pad for future studies.

The Role of Polycomb mediated Epigenetic Regulation in Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

The Role of Polycomb mediated Epigenetic Regulation in Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation Book
Author : Seraphim R. Thornton,Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Biology
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

During mammalian development, a single founding cell must produce all of the different types of cells in the adult organism. What are the regulatory mechanisms required to coordinate the necessary gene expression networks for this process? Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators necessary for proper differentiation of cells and for mammalian development. Notably, faulty regulation of PRC2 has been associated with a broad range of cancers, suggesting that it has a critical role in maintaining cell identity. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzes the posttranslational histone modification H3K27me3, a histone modification associated with transcriptional repression. Although PRC2 has critical functions in lineage commitment and in mediating cell fate transitions, it has proved difficult to study its precise role in these processes since complete loss of H3K27me3 leads to an inability of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to properly undergo directed differentiation in vitro. PRC2 functions with additional regulators and regulatory pathways, including PRC1, accessory PcG subunits, and DNA methylation, among others; however, we know little about how they work together to coordinate gene expression programs during lineage commitment. Thus, dissecting the function of PRC2 is critical to improve our understanding of mammalian development and disease. Here, we analyzed gene expression and DNA methylation levels in several PRC2 mutant ESC lines that maintained varying levels of H3K27me3. We found that while a partial reduction of H3K27me3 levels allowed for proper temporal activation of lineage genes during directed differentiation of ESCs to spinal motor neurons (SMNs), genes that function to specify other lineages failed to be repressed, suggesting that PRC2 activity is necessary for regulating lineage fidelity. We also found that H3K27me3 is antagonistic to DNA methylation in cis. Thus, these data suggest a role for PRC2 in coordinating gene repression while protecting against inappropriate promoter DNA methylation during differentiation. Our work provides novel insights into the functional relationship between two distinct epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, as mediated by PRC2 and DNA methylation, in regulating lineage decisions during development.

Epigenetics and Cancer

Epigenetics and Cancer Book
Author : Fazlul H. Sarkar
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-05-29
ISBN : 9400766122
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Overall, this book illustrates the complexities of the regulation and deregulation of genes mediated through epigenetics in the development and progression of human malignancies. All the articles have been carefully chosen to represent several cancer systems with state of our knowledge on the role of epigenetic deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target mRNAs along with epigenetic deregulation of mRNAs. This book also illustrates the role of several dietary agents, collectively called nutraceuticals or natural agents in modulating the epigenetic reprogramming of miRNAs and mRNAs for the prevention and/or treatment of human malignancies. It is well known that genetic aberrations, especially inherited through parents (somatic genetic alterations) contribute to the development of less than 10% of all cancer yet epigenetic alterations in genes especially through selective methylation and acetylation appears to be responsible for the development and progression of the vast majority of all cancers. Therefore, understanding the role of epigenetics in the regulation of genes especially through deregulated expression of miRNAs as presented in this book will allow scientists to devise targeted therapeutic strategies for re-expression of the lost genes or down-regulate the genes that are over-expressed in order to eradicate cancer. It is hoped that targeting epigenetics will not only target cancer cells but it will also target the tumor microenvironment (more like the entire tumor environment such as the entire host) for achieving better treatment outcomes for patients diagnosed with cancer which will lead to achieve the long-term objective for complete eradication of cancer. This book contains fifteen chapters which begins with the concept of systems and network biology for investigating the epigenetics of cancer followed by a series of articles on the role of miRNAs and their target genes in the biology of pancreatic cancer and other cancers such as breast, kidney, prostate and and colon. Since it is becoming increasingly clear that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are important in the development and progression of cancer, and CSCs are important in therapeutic resistance, treatment failure and tumor recurrence, thus the importance of CSCs and epigenetics has been highlighted by a very timely article on epigenetic variations of stem cell markers in cancer including miRNAs. Moreover, just targeting heterogeneous cancer cell populations may not be optimal to eradicate tumors and for which one must take a holistic approach for developing drugs that could also target the tumor microenvironment and tumor dormancy that are regulated through epigenetics. Keeping abreast with this thought process the concluding chapter provides a concept towards curative cancer therapy with maspin, which could be a unique window of opportunity to target tumor dormancy. Therefore, it suggest that targeting the tumor dormancy and the tumor microenvironment using novel therapeutics specifically by targeting epigenetics would become the future of medicine.

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Cellular Reprogramming

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Cellular Reprogramming Book
Author : Alexander Meissner,Jörn Walter
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-12-11
ISBN : 3642319742
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability of a single genome to give rise to hundreds of functionally distinct cell type programs is in itself remarkable. Pioneering studies over the past few decades have demonstrated that this plasticity is retained throughout development, a phenomenon of epigenetic programming and reprogramming that remains one of the most fascinating areas of modern biology, with major relevance to human health and disease. This book presents the basic biology involved, including key mechanistic insights into this rapidly growing field.

Stem Cells From Basic Research to Therapy

Stem Cells  From Basic Research to Therapy Book
Author : Federico Calegari,Claudia Waskow
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-02-07
ISBN : 1482207753
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The first volume of Stem Cells deals with the fundamental principles that govern embryonic and somatic stem cell biology. Historically, the identification and characterization of such pathways and general rules of stemness occurred during embryonic development and Volume I reflects this with topics spanning cell cycle regulation, epigenetics, and asymmetric cell division in a number of organ systems from planarian to human. Three specific sections discuss i) Basic Stem Cell Biology, ii) Tissue Formation During Development, and iii) Model Organisms with particular emphasis on those more relevant for biomedical research and, thus, leading to the topics addressed in Volume II.

Stem Cell Epigenetics

Stem Cell Epigenetics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-08-14
ISBN : 0128140860
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stem Cell Epigenetics, Volume 16, examines how epigenetics are involved in stem cell differentiation, how a stem cell rapidly transitions into a molecularly distinct cell type, and how this process may be reversed or managed via epigenetic reprogramming. Topics discussed include chromatin in pluripotency, epigenetic regulation of reprogramming, stem cells and DNA methylation, histone modifications in stem cells and differentiation, higher-order chromatin conformation in pluripotent cells, epigenetics and disease modeling, organoids from pluripotent cells, transcriptional regulation in stem cells and differentiation, non-coding RNAs in pluripotency and early differentiation, and diseases caused by epigenetic alterations in stem cells. Additionally, the potential implementation of stem cell epigenetics in drug discovery, regenerative medicine, and disease treatment is discussed in detail, helping researchers and physicians bring this exciting and fast evolving field to the clinic. Provides genetic researchers, students and physicians with evidence indicating the epigenetic mechanisms involved in stem cell differentiation Highlights the specific characteristics of the epigenetic modifications and misregulations that may result in disease pathogenesis Examines the potential application of stem cell epigenetics towards developing therapeutic interventions for disease and advancing regenerative medicine Features chapter contributions by leading international experts

Epigenetics and Development

Epigenetics and Development Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-04-12
ISBN : 0123914558
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This new volume of Current Topics in Developmental Biology covers epigenetics and development, with contributions from an international board of authors. The chapters provide a comprehensive set of reviews covering such topics as epigenetic marking of the zebrafish developmental program, functions of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in mammalian development, and reprogramming and the pluripotent stem cell cycle. Covers the area of epigenetics and development International board of authors Provides a comprehensive set of reviews covering such topics as epigenetic marking of the zebrafish developmental program, functions of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in mammalian development, and reprogramming and the pluripotent stem cell cycle

Understanding Epigenetic Controllers of Stem Cell Fate and Function

Understanding Epigenetic Controllers of Stem Cell Fate and Function Book
Author : Daniel C. Factor
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability to culture stem cells in vitro has provided access to a wide variety of cellular states that are inaccessible or too rare to study otherwise. Here we demonstrate the use of stem cells to model two distinct developmental transitions, and examine the role that epigenetic regulation of transcription plays in controlling stem cell fate and function. First, we examine the transition from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), representative of the pre-implantation epiblast, to mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs), representative of the post-implantation epiblast. These two states, while maintained by distinct signaling pathways, both retain the ability to re-integrate into their respective tissue of origin and contribute to the development of the entire organism. While the transcriptome of the two cell types is largely similar, they rely on dramatically different sets of enhancers to regulate that expression. 97% of the genes that are shared between the two states undergo a change in enhancer usage in the transition. The enhancers that arise in the mEpiSC state are present, but inactive, in the preceding mESC state and become enhancer clusters downstream in development. Second, we examine the development of oligodendrocytes from oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs). Oligodendrocytes wrap neural axons in a lipid-rich sheath known as myelin. This myelin is required for proper signal conduction, but is subject to immune attack in multiple sclerosis (MS). OPCs replace damaged oligodendrocytes early in the course of disease, but eventually fail. A chemical genetics screen reveals that BET bromodomain proteins are required for oligodendrocyte development. These proteins are epigenetic readers that integrate chromatin state and other signals to allow transcription elongation at many genes. Other inhibitors of elongation show similar effects on development, and treatment with BET bromodomain inhibitor (S)-JQ1 blocks activation of oligodendrocyte genes. Elongation genes are enriched at MS risk alleles, and these alleles show evidence of enhancer function. In MS tissue, elongation genes are disrupted, and Hexim1 is increased in oligodendrocyte lineage cells. In combination, our results demonstrate the broad role that the epigenetic regulation of transcription plays in modulating cellular identity and function in stem cells, both in development and disease.