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Stem Cell Epigenetics

Stem Cell Epigenetics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-08-14
ISBN : 0128140860
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stem Cell Epigenetics, Volume 16, examines how epigenetics are involved in stem cell differentiation, how a stem cell rapidly transitions into a molecularly distinct cell type, and how this process may be reversed or managed via epigenetic reprogramming. Topics discussed include chromatin in pluripotency, epigenetic regulation of reprogramming, stem cells and DNA methylation, histone modifications in stem cells and differentiation, higher-order chromatin conformation in pluripotent cells, epigenetics and disease modeling, organoids from pluripotent cells, transcriptional regulation in stem cells and differentiation, non-coding RNAs in pluripotency and early differentiation, and diseases caused by epigenetic alterations in stem cells. Additionally, the potential implementation of stem cell epigenetics in drug discovery, regenerative medicine, and disease treatment is discussed in detail, helping researchers and physicians bring this exciting and fast evolving field to the clinic. Provides genetic researchers, students and physicians with evidence indicating the epigenetic mechanisms involved in stem cell differentiation Highlights the specific characteristics of the epigenetic modifications and misregulations that may result in disease pathogenesis Examines the potential application of stem cell epigenetics towards developing therapeutic interventions for disease and advancing regenerative medicine Features chapter contributions by leading international experts

Stem Cell Epigenetics

Stem Cell Epigenetics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-08-13
ISBN : 0128140852
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stem Cell Epigenetics, Volume 16, examines how epigenetics are involved in stem cell differentiation, how a stem cell rapidly transitions into a molecularly distinct cell type, and how this process may be reversed or managed via epigenetic reprogramming. Topics discussed include chromatin in pluripotency, epigenetic regulation of reprogramming, stem cells and DNA methylation, histone modifications in stem cells and differentiation, higher-order chromatin conformation in pluripotent cells, epigenetics and disease modeling, organoids from pluripotent cells, transcriptional regulation in stem cells and differentiation, non-coding RNAs in pluripotency and early differentiation, and diseases caused by epigenetic alterations in stem cells. Additionally, the potential implementation of stem cell epigenetics in drug discovery, regenerative medicine, and disease treatment is discussed in detail, helping researchers and physicians bring this exciting and fast evolving field to the clinic. Provides genetic researchers, students and physicians with evidence indicating the epigenetic mechanisms involved in stem cell differentiation Highlights the specific characteristics of the epigenetic modifications and misregulations that may result in disease pathogenesis Examines the potential application of stem cell epigenetics towards developing therapeutic interventions for disease and advancing regenerative medicine Features chapter contributions by leading international experts

Pluripotent Stem Cells

Pluripotent Stem Cells Book
Author : Deepa Bhartiya,Nibedita Lenka
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2013-08-28
ISBN : 9535111922
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stem cells have generated a lot of excitement among the researchers, clinicians and the public alike. Various types of stem cells are being evaluated for their regenerative potential. Marginal benefit resulting by transplanting autologus stem cells (deemed to be absolutely safe) in various clinical conditions has been proposed to be a growth factor effect rather than true regeneration. In contrast, various pre-clinical studies have been undertaken, using differentiated cells from embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells have shown promise, functional improvement and no signs of teratoma formation. The scientists are not in a rush to reach the clinic but a handful of clinical studies have shown promise. This book is a collection of studies/reviews, beginning with an introduction to the pluripotent stem cells and covering various aspects like derivation, differentiation, ethics, etc., and hence would provide insight into the recent standing on the pluripotent stem cells biology. The chapters have been categorized into three sections, covering subjects ranging from the generation of pluripotent stem cells and various means of their derivation from embryonic as well as adult tissues, the mechanistic understanding of pluripotency and narrating the potential therapeutic implications of these in vitro generated cells in various diseases, in addition to the associated pros and cons in the same.

Epigenetic Regulation of Skin Development and Regeneration

Epigenetic Regulation of Skin Development and Regeneration Book
Author : Vladimir A. Botchkarev,Sarah E. Millar
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-09-03
ISBN : 3319167693
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This indispensable volume highlights recent studies identifying epigenetic mechanisms as essential regulators of skin development, stem cell activity and regeneration. Chapters are contributed by leading experts and promote the skin as an accessible model system for studying mechanisms that control organ development and regeneration. The timely discussions contained throughout are of broad relevance to other areas of biology and medicine and can help inform the development of novel therapeutics for skin disorders as well as new approaches to skin regeneration that target the epigenome. Part of the highly successful Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine series, Epigenetic Regulation of Skin Development and Regeneration uncovers the fundamental significance of epigenetic mechanisms in skin development and regeneration, and emphasizes the development of new therapies for a number of skin disorders, such as pathological conditions of epidermal differentiation, pigmentation and carcinogenesis. At least six categories of researchers will find this book essential, including stem cell, developmental, hair follicle or molecular biologists, and gerontologists or clinical dermatologists.

Epigenetics and Regeneration

Epigenetics and Regeneration Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-05-24
ISBN : 0128148802
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics and Regeneration compiles the first foundational reference on epigenetic mechanisms governing tissue development, repair, homeostasis, and regeneration, as well as pathways to employ these mechanisms in clinical practice and translational science. In this book, life science researchers, clinicians, and students will discover an interdisciplinary resource bringing together common themes in the field, background overviews, research methods, recent advances, and opportunities for drug discovery. Throughout this volume, special attention is paid to pre-clinical and first clinical studies aimed at increasing the regenerative potential of damaged tissues by epigenetic drugs, as well as innovative, discipline spanning strategies to enhance cell reprogramming. As an all-inclusive, evidence-based volume, Epigenetics and Regeneration will stimulate discussion and boost new research in this fascinating and impactful area of translational epigenetics. Provides a foundational overview of epigenetics in regenerative medicine Examines epigenetic components of tissue regeneration for a variety of organ systems and tissue types, as well as current attempts to employ these mechanisms in clinical practice Offers researchers, students, clinicians, and pharmacologists the tools they need to enhance tissue development, repair, homeostasis, and regeneration and explore new epigenetic therapeutic pathways Features chapter contributions from leading international researchers and clinicians in the fields of epigenetics and regenerative medicine

Chromatin and Epigenetics

Chromatin and Epigenetics Book
Author : Colin Logie,Tobias Aurelius Knoch
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-01-29
ISBN : 1789844924
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genomics has gathered broad public attention since Lamarck put forward his top-down hypothesis of 'motivated change' in 1809 in his famous book "Philosophie Zoologique" and even more so since Darwin published his famous bottom-up theory of natural selection in "The Origin of Species" in 1859. The public awareness culminated in the much anticipated race to decipher the sequence of the human genome in 2002. Over all those years, it has become apparent that genomic DNA is compacted into chromatin with a dedicated 3D higher-order organization and dynamics, and that on each structural level epigenetic modifications exist. The book "Chromatin and Epigenetics" addresses current issues in the fields of epigenetics and chromatin ranging from more theoretical overviews in the first four chapters to much more detailed methodologies and insights into diagnostics and treatments in the following chapters. The chapters illustrate in their depth and breadth that genetic information is stored on all structural and dynamical levels within the nucleus with corresponding modifications of functional relevance. Thus, only an integrative systems approach allows to understand, treat, and manipulate the holistic interplay of genotype and phenotype creating functional genomes. The book chapters therefore contribute to this general perspective, not only opening opportunities for a true universal view on genetic information but also being key for a general understanding of genomes, their function, as well as life and evolution in general.

The Epigenetics Revolution

The Epigenetics Revolution Book
Author : Nessa Carey
Publisher : Columbia University Press
Release : 2012-03-06
ISBN : 0231530714
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics can potentially revolutionize our understanding of the structure and behavior of biological life on Earth. It explains why mapping an organism's genetic code is not enough to determine how it develops or acts and shows how nurture combines with nature to engineer biological diversity. Surveying the twenty-year history of the field while also highlighting its latest findings and innovations, this volume provides a readily understandable introduction to the foundations of epigenetics. Nessa Carey, a leading epigenetics researcher, connects the field's arguments to such diverse phenomena as how ants and queen bees control their colonies; why tortoiseshell cats are always female; why some plants need cold weather before they can flower; and how our bodies age and develop disease. Reaching beyond biology, epigenetics now informs work on drug addiction, the long-term effects of famine, and the physical and psychological consequences of childhood trauma. Carey concludes with a discussion of the future directions for this research and its ability to improve human health and well-being.

Introduction to Epigenetics

Introduction to Epigenetics Book
Author : Renato Paro,Ueli Grossniklaus,Raffaella Santoro,Anton Wutz
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-03-23
ISBN : 3030686701
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This open access textbook leads the reader from basic concepts of chromatin structure and function and RNA mechanisms to the understanding of epigenetics, imprinting, regeneration and reprogramming. The textbook treats epigenetic phenomena in animals, as well as plants. Written by four internationally known experts and senior lecturers in this field, it provides a valuable tool for Master- and PhD- students who need to comprehend the principles of epigenetics, or wish to gain a deeper knowledge in this field. After reading this book, the student will: Have an understanding of the basic toolbox of epigenetic regulation Know how genetic and epigenetic information layers are interconnected Be able to explain complex epigenetic phenomena by understanding the structures and principles of the underlying molecular mechanisms Understand how misregulated epigenetic mechanisms can lead to disease

Chromatin Regulation in Cell Fate Decisions

Chromatin Regulation in Cell Fate Decisions Book
Author : José Luis Sardina,Justin Brumbaugh,Bruno Di Stefano
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-10-20
ISBN : 2889715108
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Chromatin Regulation in Cell Fate Decisions book written by José Luis Sardina,Justin Brumbaugh,Bruno Di Stefano, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Perinatal Stem Cells

Perinatal Stem Cells Book
Author : Anthony Atala,Kyle J. Cetrulo,Rouzbeh R. Taghizadeh,Curtis L Cetrulo,Sean Murphy
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-06-14
ISBN : 0128120630
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Perinatal Stem Cells provides researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive description of the current clinical and pre-clinical applications of stem cells derived from perinatal sources, such as amniotic fluid, placenta and placental membranes, the umbilical cord and Wharton’s jelly. It's compiled by leading experts in the field, offering readers detailed insights into sources of perinatal stem cells and their potential for disease treatment. Therapeutic applications of perinatal stem cells include the treatment of in utero and pregnancy related diseases, cardiac disease, liver disease, pulmonary disease, inflammatory diseases, for hematopoietic regeneration, and for neural protection after stroke or traumatic brain injury. In addition, the rapid advance in clinical translation and commercialization of perinatal stem cell therapies is highlighted in a section on Clinical and Industry Perspective which provides insight into the new opportunities and challenges involved in this novel and exciting industry. Explores current clinical and pre-clinical application of stem cells derived from perinatal sources Offers detailed insight into sources of perinatal stem cells and their potential for disease treatment Discusses progress in the manufacturing, banking and clinical translation of perinatal stem cells Edited by a world-renowned team to present a complete story of the development and promise of perinatal stem cells

Above the Gene Beyond Biology

Above the Gene  Beyond Biology Book
Author : Jan Baedke
Publisher : University of Pittsburgh Press
Release : 2018-07-20
ISBN : 0822983400
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics is currently one of the fastest-growing fields in the sciences. Epigenetic information not only controls DNA expression but links genetic factors with the environmental experiences that influence the traits and characteristics of an individual. What we eat, where we work, and how we live affects not only the activity of our genes but that of our offspring as well. This discovery has imposed a revolutionary theoretical shift on modern biology, especially on evolutionary theory. It has helped to uncover the developmental processes leading to cancer, obesity, schizophrenia, alcoholism, and aging, and to facilitate associated medial applications such as stem cell therapy and cloning. Above the Gene, Beyond Biology explores how biologists in this booming field investigate and explain living systems. Jan Baedke offers the first comprehensive philosophical discussion of epigenetic concepts, explanations, and methodologies so that we can better understand this “epigenetic turn” in the life sciences from a philosophical perspective.

Epigenetic Gene Regulation in Stem Cell Differentiation and Reprogramming

Epigenetic Gene Regulation in Stem Cell Differentiation and Reprogramming Book
Author : Kevin Huang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The regulatory capacities of epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs, have seen a rising interest in recent years. These epigenetic marks are pervasive and non-randomly distributed across the genome, raising intriguing questions on how epigenetics contributes to genomic features that define cellular identity and function. Unlike fixed genetic information that is shared between all cell types, epigenetics involve multiple layers of regulation and can vary dramatically across different cell types and genomic contexts. Thus, much more effort is required to procure a complete perspective of the manifold epigenetic landscape. The body of work in this dissertation focuses on epigenetic studies in the mammalian pluripotent stem cell model system. We utilize high-throughput technologies such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS) as well as leverage existing epigenetic maps to address a wide range of molecular questions on a comprehensive global scale. This dissertation is organized into three overarching themes: First, we employed genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation profiling tools to determine whether different cell types display unique biomarkers that can be used to distinguish them from other cell types (Chapters 2-5). We found that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) carry distinct features in both gene expression and DNA methylation patterns, arguing in favor of the idea that these two pluripotent cell types are different. Furthermore, we compared pluripotent stem cell derived retinal pigmented epithelium (hESC-RPE and hiPSC-RPE) with fetal and adult RPE and found that all RPE cells share a core set of signature genes that distinguishes them from all other cell types. We propose these signature genes will be useful for evaluating the quality of stem-cell derived RPE. Finally, novel corneal endothelial cells (CECs) biomarkers were identified through comparing 12 other tissue types, paving the way for future studies to evaluate properties of stem-cell derived CECs. We next examined how molecular features of pluripotent stem cells are altered during the differentiation process of stem cells (Chapters 6-8). Using the RPE differentiation paradigm, we profiled both microRNA and DNA methylation patterns in intermediate stages between pluripotent stem cells and mature RPE. These two separate studies identified subsets of dynamically regulated epigenetic marks, some of which are associated with RPE signature gene expression. Furthermore, we used a highly innovative and powerful single-cell RNA-sequencing approach to profile transcriptional changes in the early embryo beginning from mature oocyte to morula stages. This study identified a conserved genetic program describing a highly dynamic transcriptional architecture during early embryogenesis. Finally, we took a focused analysis on how DNA methyltransferases contribute to shaping the pluripotent stem cell epigenome (Chapters 9-10). Using mouse ESCs null of DNA methylation, we determined DNA methylation regulates a large set of genes through action with H3K27me3. Furthermore, we determined shared and unique genomic targets of each DNA methyltransferase, including novel de novo methylation activity for Dnmt1 in vivo. In the human model system, we generated iPSCs from ICF Syndrome patient fibroblasts which carry double heterozygous mutations in DNMT3B. We found DNMT3B is involved in a wave of de novo methylation during the reprogramming process and has unique genomic targets.

Epigenetic Technological Applications

Epigenetic Technological Applications Book
Author : Yujun George Zheng
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-05-30
ISBN : 0128013273
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetic Technological Applications is a compilation of state-of-the-art technologies involved in epigenetic research. Epigenetics is an exciting new field of biology research, and many technologies are invented and developed specifically for epigenetics study. With chapters covering the latest developments in crystallography, computational modeling, the uses of histones, and more, Epigenetic Technological Applications addresses the question of how these new ideas, procedures, and innovations can be applied to current epigenetics research, and how they can keep pushing discovery forward and beyond the epigenetic realm. Discusses technologies that are critical for epigenetic research and application Includes epigenetic applications for state-of-the-art technologies Contains a global perspective on the future of epigenetics

Methylation

Methylation Book
Author : Anica Dricu
Publisher : Inst za onkologiju i radiol
Release : 2012-11-28
ISBN : 9535108816
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Alterations in the normal DNA methylation processes are known to have major consequences for embryonic development and are associated with congenital defects, autoimmunity, aging and malignant transformation. The main purpose of this book is to provide information about the importance of methylation mechanisms in human health and disease. The book, covers the basic mechanism of DNA and protein methylation, aiming at the advanced undergraduate and graduate biomedical students and researchers working in the epigenetic area. The textbook chapters provide background as well as advanced information in the methylation area. On the other hand, it provide readers with both classical and relevant recent discoveries that have been made in the field, pointing out pathways where questions remain.

Principles of Stem Cell Biology and Cancer

Principles of Stem Cell Biology and Cancer Book
Author : Tarik Regad,Thomas Sayers,Robert Rees
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-05-06
ISBN : 1118670620
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Principles of Stem Cell Biology and Cancer: Future Applications and Therapeutics Tarik Regad, The John van Geest Cancer Research Centre, Nottingham Trent University, UK, Thomas J. Sayers, Centre for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, USA and Robert Rees The John van Geest Cancer Research Centre, Nottingham Trent University, UK The field of cancer stem cells is expanding rapidly, with many groups focusing on isolating and identifying cancer stem cell populations. Although some progress has been made developing efficient cancer therapies, targeting cancer stem cells remains one of the important challenges facing the growing stem cell research community. Principles of Stem Cell Biology and Cancer brings together original contributions from international experts in the field to present the very latest information linking stem cell biology and cancer. Divided into two parts, the book begins with a detailed introduction to stem cell biology with a focus on the characterization of these cells, progress that has been made in their identification, as well as future therapeutic applications of stem cells. The second part focuses on cancer stem cells and their role in cancer development, progression and chemo-resistance. This section of the book includes an overview of recent progress concerning therapies targeting cancer stem cells. Features: An authoritative introduction to the link between stem cell biology and cancer. Includes contributions from leading international experts in the field. Well-illustrated with full colour figures throughout. This book will prove an invaluable resource for basic and applied researchers and clinicians working on the development of new cancer treatments and therapies, providing a timely publication of high quality reviews outlining the current progress and exciting future possibilities for stem cell research.

Stem Cells in Reproductive Medicine

Stem Cells in Reproductive Medicine Book
Author : Carlos Simón,Antonio Pellicer,Renee Reijo Pera
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2013-07-04
ISBN : 1107034477
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stem cell science has the potential to impact human reproductive medicine significantly - cutting edge technologies allow the production and regeneration of viable gametes from human stem cells offering potential to preciously infertile patients. Written by leading experts in the field Stem Cells in Reproductive Medicine brings together chapters on the genetics and epigenetics of both the male and female gametes as well as advice on the production and regeneration of gene cells in men and women, trophoblasts and endometrium from human embryonic and adult stem cells. Although focussing mainly on the practical elements of the use of stem cells in reproductive medicine, the book also contains a section on new developments in stem cell research. The book is essential reading for reproductive medicine clinicians, gynecologists and embryologists who want to keep abreast of practical developments in this rapidly developing field.

Post Translational Modifications in Cellular Functions and Diseases

Post Translational Modifications in Cellular Functions and Diseases Book
Author : Shibo Ying
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021-06
ISBN : 9781839690471
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Post Translational Modifications in Cellular Functions and Diseases book written by Shibo Ying, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Human Neural Stem Cells

Human Neural Stem Cells Book
Author : Leonora Buzanska
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-09-12
ISBN : 3319934856
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book summarizes early pioneering achievements in the field of human neural stem cell (hNSC) research and combines them with the latest advances in stem cell technology, including reprogramming and gene editing. The powerful potential of hNSC to generate and repair the developing and adult CNS has been confirmed by numerous experimental in vitro and in vivo studies. The book presents methods for hNSC derivation and discusses the mechanisms underlying NSC in vitro fate decisions and their in vivo therapeutic mode of action. The long-standing dogma that the human central nervous system (CNS) lacks the ability to regenerate was refuted at the end of the 20th century, when evidence of the presence of neurogenic zones in the adult human brain was found. These neurogenic zones are home to human neural stem cells (hNSCs), which are capable of self-renewing and differentiating into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. NSCs isolated from human CNS have a number of clinical advantages, especially the innate potential to differentiate into functional neural cells. Nevertheless, their full clinical exploitation has been hindered by limited access to the tissue and low expansion potential. The search for an alternative to CNS sources of autologous, therapeutically competent hNSCs was the driving force for the many studies proving the in vitro plasticity of different somatic stem cells to generate NSCs and their functional progeny. Now the era of induced pluripotent stem cells has opened entirely new opportunities to achieve research and therapeutic goals with the aid of hNSCs.

Epigenetics Nuclear Organization Gene Function

Epigenetics  Nuclear Organization   Gene Function Book
Author : John C. Lucchesi
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2018-12-19
ISBN : 0192567160
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. These changes, consisting principally of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs, maintain or modulate the initial impact of regulatory factors that recognize and associate with particular genomic sequences. Epigenetic modifications are manifest in all aspects of normal cellular differentiation and function, but they can also have damaging effects that result in pathologies such as cancer. Research is continuously uncovering the role of epigenetics in a variety of human disorders, providing new avenues for therapeutic interventions and advances in regenerative medicine. This book's primary goal is to establish a framework that can be used to understand the basis of epigenetic regulation and to appreciate both its derivation from genetics and interdependence with genetic mechanisms. A further aim is to highlight the role played by the three-dimensional organization of the genetic material itself (the complex of DNA, histones and non-histone proteins referred to as chromatin), and its distribution within a functionally compartmentalized nucleus. This architectural organization of the genome plays a major role in the subsequent retrieval, interpretation, and execution of both genetic and epigenetic information.

Epigenetics Development and Disease

Epigenetics  Development and Disease Book
Author : Tapas Kumar Kundu
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-11-13
ISBN : 9400745257
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics fine-tunes the life processes dictated by DNA sequences, but also kick-starts pathophysiological processes including diabetes, AIDS and cancer. This volume tracks the latest research on epigenetics, including work on new-generation therapeutics.