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Stable Isotopes As Indicators Of Ecological Change

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Stable Isotopes as Indicators of Ecological Change

Stable Isotopes as Indicators of Ecological Change Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2011-09-21
ISBN : 0080551009
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The 20th century has experienced environmental changes that appear to be unprecedented in their rate and magnitude during the Earth’s history. For the first time, Stable Isotopes as Indicators of Ecological Change brings together a wide range of perspectives and data that speak directly to the issues of ecological change using stable isotope tracers. The information presented originates from a range of biological and geochemical sources and from research fields within biological, climatological and physical disciplines covering time-scales from days to centuries. Unlike any other reference, editors discuss where isotope data can detect, record, trace and help to interpret environmental change. Provides researchers with groundbreaking data on how to predict the terrestrial ecosystems response to the ongoing rapid alterations Reveals how ecosystems have responded to environmental and biotic fluctuations in the past Includes examples from research by a wide range of biological and physical scientists who are using isotopic records to both detect and interpret environmental change

Perspectives in Biophysical Plant Ecophysiology

Perspectives in Biophysical Plant Ecophysiology Book
Author : Erick De La Barrera,William Kirby Smith
Publisher : UNAM
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0578004216
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Park S. Nobel pioneered the coupling of cellular physical chemistry with plant physiology, providing a sound physicochemical interpretation of the laws of diffusion to a rapidly expanding field of plant physiological ecology. His classical textbook is the only one of its kind to provide an extensive array of quantitative problems and solutions in the field of plant biophysics and ecophysiology, extending from the molecular to the ecological level. In this festschrift, former graduate students and postdocs, as well as colleagues of Prof. Nobel present a series of reviews that include scales from sub-cellular to global, and topics that range from desert succulent biology to the physiology of alpine plants, encompassing basic research and applications in agronomy and conservation biology. This state-of-the-field survey provides current and useful information for professionals and graduate students, while illustrating the broad span of the influence that Nobel's career has had on modern ecophysiology.

Encyclopedia of Environmental Change

Encyclopedia of Environmental Change Book
Author : John A Matthews
Publisher : SAGE
Release : 2013-12-13
ISBN : 1446264882
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Accessibly written by a team of international authors, the Encyclopedia of Environmental Change provides a gateway to the complex facts, concepts, techniques, methodology and philosophy of environmental change. This three-volume set illustrates and examines topics within this dynamic and rapidly changing interdisciplinary field. The encyclopedia includes all of the following aspects of environmental change: Diverse evidence of environmental change, including climate change and changes on land and in the oceans Underlying natural and anthropogenic causes and mechanisms Wide-ranging local, regional and global impacts from the polar regions to the tropics Responses of geo-ecosystems and human-environmental systems in the face of past, present and future environmental change Approaches, methodologies and techniques used for reconstructing, dating, monitoring, modelling, projecting and predicting change Social, economic and political dimensions of environmental issues, environmental conservation and management and environmental policy Over 4,000 entries explore the following key themes and more: Conservation Demographic change Environmental management Environmental policy Environmental security Food security Glaciation Green Revolution Human impact on environment Industrialization Landuse change Military impacts on environment Mining and mining impacts Nuclear energy Pollution Renewable resources Solar energy Sustainability Tourism Trade Water resources Water security Wildlife conservation The comprehensive coverage of terminology includes layers of entries ranging from one-line definitions to short essays, making this an invaluable companion for any student of physical geography, environmental geography or environmental sciences.

Tracking Animal Migration with Stable Isotopes

Tracking Animal Migration with Stable Isotopes Book
Author : Keith A. Hobson,Leonard I. Wassenaar
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-09-13
ISBN : 0128147245
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Tracking Animal Migration with Stable Isotopes, Second Edition, provides a complete introduction to new and powerful isotopic tools and applications that track animal migration, reviewing where isotope tracers fit in the modern toolbox of tracking methods. The book provides background information on a broad range of migration scenarios in terrestrial and aquatic systems and summarizes the most cutting-edge developments in the field that are revolutionizing the way migrant individuals and populations are assigned to their true origins. It allows undergraduates, graduate students and non-specialist scientists to adopt and apply isotopes to migration research, and also serves as a useful reference for scientists. The new edition thoroughly updates the information available to the reader on current applications of this technique and provides new tools for the isotopic assignment of individuals to origins, including geostatistical multi-isotope approaches and the ways in which researchers can combine isotopes with routine data in a Bayesian framework to provide best estimates of animal origins. Four new chapters include contributions on applications to the movements of terrestrial mammals, with particular emphasis on how aspects of animal physiology can influence stable isotope values. Includes an animal physiology component that is an in-depth overview of the cautions and caveats related to this technique Covers marine and aquatic isoscapes and methods to track marine organisms for researchers trying to apply isotopic tracking to animals in these environments Features state-of-the-art statistical treatments for assignment and combining diverse datasets

Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry

Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry Book
Author : Delphis F. Levia,Darryl Carlyle-Moses,Tadashi Tanaka
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-06-15
ISBN : 9400713630
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This international rigorously peer-reviewed volume critically synthesizes current knowledge in forest hydrology and biogeochemistry. It is a one-stop comprehensive reference tool for researchers and practitioners in the fields of hydrology, biogeoscience, ecology, forestry, boundary-layer meteorology, and geography. Following an introductory chapter tracing the historical roots of the subject, the book is divided into the following main sections: · Sampling and Novel Approaches · Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry by Ecoregion and Forest Type · Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Fluxes from the Canopy to the Phreatic Surface · Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Fluxes in Forest Ecosystems: Effects of Time, Stressors, and Humans The volume concludes with a final chapter that reflects on the current state of knowledge and identifies some areas in need of further research.

Stable Isotope Forensics

Stable Isotope Forensics Book
Author : Wolfram Meier-Augenstein
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-12-27
ISBN : 1119080207
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The number-one guide, internationally, to all aspects of forensic isotope analysis, thoroughly updated and revised and featuring many new case studies This edition of the internationally acclaimed guide to forensic stable isotope analysis uses real-world examples to bridge discussions of the basic science, instrumentation and analytical techniques underlying forensic isotope profiling and its various technical applications. Case studies describe an array of applications, many of which were developed by the author himself. They include cases in which isotope profiling was used in murder, and drugs-related crime investigations, as well as for pharmaceutical and food authenticity control studies. Updated with coverage of exciting advances occurring in the field since the publication of the 1st edition, this 2nd edition explores innovative new techniques and applications in forensic isotope profiling, as well as key findings from original research. More than a simple update, though, this edition has been significantly revised in order to address serious problems that can arise from non-comparable and unfit-for-purpose stable isotope data. To that end, Part II has been virtually rewritten with greater emphasis now being placed on important quality control issues in stable isotope analysis in general and forensic stable isotope analysis in particular. Written in a highly accessible style that will appeal to practitioners, researchers and students alike Illustrates the many strengths and potential pitfalls of forensic stable isotope analysis Uses recent case examples to bridge underlying principles with technical applications Presents hands-on applications that let experienced researchers and forensic practitioners match problems with success stories Includes new chapters devoted to aspects of quality control and quality assurance, including scale normalisation, the identical treatment principle, hydrogen exchange and accreditation Stable Isotope Forensics, 2nd Edition is an important professional resource for forensic scientists, law enforcement officials, public prosecutors, defence attorneys, forensic anthropologists and others for whom isotope profiling has become an indispensable tool of the trade. It is also an excellent introduction to the field for senior undergraduate and graduate forensic science students. "All students of forensic criminology, and all law enforcement officers responsible for the investigation of serious crime , will want to study this book. Wolfram highlights the value, and future potential, of Stable Isotope Forensics as an emerging powerful tool in the investigation of crime." —Roy McComb, Deputy Director, Specialist Investigations, National Crime Agency (NCA), UK “A single author text in these days is rare and the value of this book lies in the dedication and experience of the author which is evident in the clarity of prose, the honest illustration of evidence and the realistic practical application of the subject - it makes this a text of genuine scientific value.” — Prof Dame Sue Black, PhD, DBE, OBE, FRSE, Leverhulme Research Centre for Forensic Science, University of Dundee, UK

Isotopes and the Natural Environment

Isotopes and the Natural Environment Book
Author : Paul Alexandre
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-01-27
ISBN : 3030336522
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides straightforward and practical information on isotopes applied to a variety of natural sciences. It covers the basics of isotopes and includes detailed examples from a range of natural sciences: ecology, biology, human health, environment and climate, geography, and geology, highlighting their applicability in these fields. It is a must-read for all advanced-undergraduate and graduate students working with isotopes, regardless of the area, and is a very useful one-stop resource for scientists starting in isotope research.

Food Forensics

Food Forensics Book
Author : James F. Carter,Lesley A. Chesson
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-07-28
ISBN : 1498741738
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Food forensics is a multi-disciplinary science involving advanced analytical techniques, plant and animal metabolism, and sophisticated data interpretation tools. This book explains how plants, and in turn animals eating those plants, assimilate stable isotopes and trace elements from their environments. It provides extensive reviews of the use of stable isotope and trace element measurements for the authentication of major food groups and how these can be used to detect fraudsters. The book emphasises the use of correct methods for sample preparation and measurement so that data can be compared to existing datasets, with a dedicated chapter discussing interpretations.

Oceanography and Marine Biology

Oceanography and Marine Biology Book
Author : R. N. Hughes,D. J. Hughes,I. P. Smith
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2013-08-28
ISBN : 1466568666
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ever-increasing interest in oceanography and marine biology and their relevance to global environmental issues creates a demand for authoritative reviews summarising the results of recent research. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review has catered to this demand since its founding by the late Harold Barnes fifty years ago. Its objectives are to consider, annually, the basic areas of marine research, returning to them when appropriate in future volumes; to deal with subjects of special and topical importance; and to add new subjects as they arise. The favourable reception accorded to all the volumes shows that the series is fulfilling a very real need: reviews and sales have been gratifying. The fifty-first volume follows closely the objectives and style of the earlier volumes, continuing to regard the marine sciences—with all their various aspects—as a unity. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of marine science are dealt with by experts actively engaged in these fields. The series is an essential reference text for researchers and students in all fields of marine science and related subjects, and it finds a place in libraries of not only marine stations and institutes, but also universities. It is consistently among the highest ranking impact factors for the marine biology category of the citation indices compiled by the Institute for Scientific Information.

Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry of Light Gas Forming Elements

Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry of Light Gas Forming Elements Book
Author : V.S. Sevastyanov
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-04-19
ISBN : 146659408X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry of Light Gas-Forming Elements explores different methods of isotope analysis, including spark, secondary ion, laser, glow discharge, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. It explains how to evaluate the isotopic composition of light elements (H, C, N, O) in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples of organic and inorganic substances, as well as: Presents a universal, economical, simple, and rapid technique for sample preparation of organic substances to measure the isotopic composition of carbon Describes how to determine microbial mineralization of organic matter in soil and the effect of exogenous substrates on environmental sustainability Examines use of the isotopic composition of n-alkanes from continental vegetation to study the paleoclimate and plant physiology Proposes a systematic approach to identifying tobacco areas of origin and tobacco products based on data from the isotopic composition of light elements Discusses ways to detect doping drugs and suggests results assessment criteria based on determining reference intervals for endogenous markers Reviews methods of release of gases from inclusions of rocks and minerals for further implementation of isotope mass spectrometric analysis Considers use of optical isotope analyzers for determining the isotopic composition of carbon in CO2 and of hydrogen and oxygen in water Providing a complete picture of the latest advancements in the field, Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry of Light Gas-Forming Elements aids readers from a variety of disciplines in identifying the fundamental processes in biological, ecological, and geological systems and in revealing the subtle features of many physicochemical processes and chemical transformations.

Food Protected Designation of Origin

Food Protected Designation of Origin Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-06-11
ISBN : 0444595724
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Protected designation of origin (PDO) taken together with other geographical indicators, such as protected geographical indication (PGI) and traditional specialty guaranteed (TSG), offer the consumer additional guarantees on the quality and authentication of foods. They are important tools that protect the names of regional foods, such as wines, cheeses, hams, sausages and olives, so that only foods that genuinely originate in a particular region are allowed to be identified as such. The economic value of these regional foods, as well as the increased interest from consumers and the food industry about the traceability and origin of food, mean that it has become necessary to establish methods for PDO and PGI authentication based on the specific characteristics and chemical markers of these kinds of products. This book offers a complete guide of the methods available to authenticate food PDO, beginning with an explanation of the analytical and chemometric methods available for PDO authentication, before looking at the main foods covered, PGI labels and the social and legal framework for food PGIs. It will be of interest to people engaged in the fields of food production, commercialization and consumption, as well as policymakers and control laboratories. Offers a complete guide to the methods available for food Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) authentication Explains the analytical and chemometric methods Focuses on the various food products covered by authentication labels

The Biology of Sea Turtles

The Biology of Sea Turtles Book
Author : Jeanette Wyneken,Kenneth J. Lohmann,John A. Musick
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2013-03-25
ISBN : 1439873070
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since the first volume of The Biology of Sea Turtles was published in 1997, the field has grown and matured in ways few of the authors would have predicted—particularly in the areas of physiology, behavior, genetics, and health. Volume III presents timely coverage of emerging areas as well as the integration of approaches and information that did not exist even a decade ago. The book assembles the foremost experts in each topic to provide the most up-to-date and comprehensive book on sea turtles available today. New areas covered include in vivo imaging of structure, spatial distributions of marine turtles at sea, epibiosis, imprinting, parasitology, and climatic effects. Life history is explored in three chapters covering age determination, predator-prey interactions, and mortality from bycatch. The Biology of Sea Turtles, Volume III will inspire scientists and students to explore and expand their understanding of these intriguing animals. The book provides clear baseline summaries, thoughtful syntheses, and effective presentation of the most fundamental topics spanning form and function, health, distributions, behavior, genetics, evolution, and ecology. Its scope and depth make it the definitive go-to reference in the field.

Dendroclimatology

Dendroclimatology Book
Author : Malcolm K. Hughes,Thomas W. Swetnam,Henry F. Diaz
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-10-28
ISBN : 1402057253
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A top priority in climate research is obtaining broad-extent and long-term data to support analyses of historical patterns and trends, and for model development and evaluation. Along with directly measured climate data from the present and recent past, it is important to obtain estimates of long past climate variations spanning multiple centuries and millennia. These longer time perspectives are needed for assessing the unusualness of recent climate changes, as well as for providing insight on the range, variation and overall dynamics of the climate system over time spans exceeding available records from instruments, such as rain gauges and thermometers. Tree rings have become increasingly valuable in providing this long-term information because extensive data networks have been developed in temperate and boreal zones of the Earth, and quantitative methods for analyzing these data have advanced. Tree rings are among the most useful paleoclimate information sources available because they provide a high degree of chronological accuracy, high replication, and extensive spatial coverage spanning recent centuries. With the expansion and extension of tree-ring data and analytical capacity new climatic insights from tree rings are being used in a variety of applications, including for interpretation of past changes in ecosystems and human societies. This volume presents an overview of the current state of dendroclimatology, its contributions over the last 30 years, and its future potential. The material included is useful not only to those who generate tree-ring records of past climate-dendroclimatologists, but also to users of their results-climatologists, hydrologists, ecologists and archeologists. ‘With the pressing climatic questions of the 21st century demanding a deeper understanding of the climate system and our impact upon it, this thoughtful volume comes at critical moment. It will be of fundamental importance in not only guiding researchers, but in educating scientists and the interested lay person on the both incredible power and potential pitfalls of reconstructing climate using tree-ring analysis.’, Glen M. MacDonald, UCLA Institute of the Environment, CA, USA ‘This is an up-to-date treatment of all branches of tree-ring science, by the world’s experts in the field, reminding us that tree rings are the most important source of proxy data on climate change. Should be read by all budding dendrochronology scientists.’, Alan Robock, Rutgers University, NJ, USA

Sector Field Mass Spectometry for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis

Sector Field Mass Spectometry for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis Book
Author : Thomas Prohaska,Johanna Irrgeher,Andreas Zitek,Norbert Jakubowski
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2014-11-26
ISBN : 1849733929
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book was triggered by the success story of sector field mass spectrometry in elemental and isotopic analysis from the early days when the first mass spectrum of Ne was presented a hundred years ago. The outstanding and unique features of sector field mass spectrometry - high sensitivity, high mass resolution and simultaneous multiple ion detection - paved the way for its successful and increasing application in different fields of science. Written, compiled and edited by worldwide renowned experts with profound expertise in sector field mass spectrometry related to elemental and isotopic analysis, this book is intended to provide deep insight into the topic along with fundamental knowledge about elemental and isotopic analysis. Aimed at scientists in the field of natural and life sciences, instrument manufacturers, practitioners and graduate students, this book provides solid information about the methodological background and analytical capabilities of sector field mass spectrometry. A detailed description of peculiarities and an overview of the most relevant applications making use of specific techniques using sector field mass analysers (ICP-MS, GDMS, TIMS, SIMS and IRMS) are given, including a presentation of the currently available commercial instruments. This approach guarantees that readers are thoroughly introduced to and familiarized with the fascinating inter- and transdisciplinary field of sector field mass spectrometry.

Atlantic Salmon Ecology

Atlantic Salmon Ecology Book
Author : Øystein Aas,Anders Klemetsen,Sigurd Einum,Jostein Skurdal
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-07-05
ISBN : 1444348191
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Atlantic salmon is one of the most prized and exploited species worldwide, being at the centre of a massive sports fishing industry and increasingly as the major farmed species in many countries worldwide. Atlantic Salmon Ecology is a landmark publication, both scientifically important and visually attractive. Comprehensively covering all major aspects of the relationship of the Atlantic salmon with its environment, chapters include details of migration and dispersal, reproduction, habitat requirements, feeding, growth rates, competition, predation, parasitsm, population dynamics, effects of landscape use, hydro power development, climate change, and exploitation. The book closes with a summary and look at possible future research directions. Backed by the Norwegian Research Council and with editors and contributors widely known and respected, Atlantic Salmon Ecology is an essential purchase for all those working with this species, including fisheries scientists and managers, fish biologists, ecologists, physiologists, environmental biologists and aquatic scientists, fish and wildlife department personnel and regulatory bodies. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where these subjects are studied and taught should have copies of this important publication. Comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of Atlantic Salmon Atlantic Salmon is one of the world's most commercially important species Backed by the Norwegian Research Council Experienced editor and internationally respected contributors

Marine Mammal Ecology and Conservation

Marine Mammal Ecology and Conservation Book
Author : Ian L. Boyd,W. Don Bowen,Sara J. Iverson
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2010-08-12
ISBN : 0199216568
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Much of our knowledge about marine mammals is derived from a long-term and dedicated research effort that is evolving rapidly due to the introduction and invention of new methods.This book reflects the inventiveness of marine researchers as they try to find ways around the problems presented to them by these unusual and challenging animals.

Environmental Forensics

Environmental Forensics Book
Author : R E Hester,R M Harrison
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2008-06-27
ISBN : 1847558348
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

'Environmental forensics' is a combination of analytical and environmental chemistry, which is useful in the court room context. It therefore involves field analytical studies and both data interpretation and modelling connected with the attribution of pollution events to their causes. Recent decades have seen a burgeoning of legislation designed to protect the environment and, as the costs of environmental damage and clean-up are considerable, not only are there prosecutions by regulatory agencies, but the courts are also used as a means of adjudication of civil damage claims relating to environmental causes or environmental degradation. As a result is the increasing number of prosecutions of companies who have breached regulations for environmental protection and in civil claims relating to harm caused by excessive pollutant releases to the environment. Such cases can become extremely protracted as expert witnesses provide their sometimes conflicting interpretations of environmental measurement data and their meaning. It is in this context that environmental forensics is developing as a specialism, leading to greater formalisation of investigative methods which should lead to more definitive findings and less scope for experts to disagree. Now a significant subject in its own right, at least one journal devoted to the field and a number of degree courses have sprung up. As a result of the topicality and rapid growth of the subject area, is the publication of this book - the 26th volume in the highly acclaimed Issues in Environmental Science and Technology Series. This volume contains authoritative articles by a number of the leading practitioners across the globe in the environmental forensics field and aims to cover some of the main techniques and areas to which environmental forensics are being applied. The content is comprehensive and describes a number of the key areas within environmental forensics - topics covered by the authors include: - Source identification issues - Microbial techniques - Metal contamination and methods of assigning liability - The use of isotopes to determine sources and their applications - Molecular biological methods - Hydrocarbon fingerprinting techniques - Oil chemistry and key compound identification - The emerging role of environmental forensics in groundwater pollution Additionally, the volume considers specific pollutants and long-lived pollutants of groundwater such as halocarbons which have presented particular problems and which are described in some depth, as well as the way in which chemical degradation processes can lead to compositional changes which provide valuable information. The book provides a comprehensive overview of many of the key areas of environmental forensics written by some of the leading experts in the field. It will be both of specialist use to those seeking expert insights into the field and its capabilities as well as of more general interest to those involved in both environmental analytical science and environmental law.

Quantitative Ecotoxicology

Quantitative Ecotoxicology Book
Author : Michael C. Newman
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-08-29
ISBN : 1439835659
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Quantitative Ecotoxicology, Second Edition explores models and methods of quantitative ecotoxicology at progressively higher biological scales using worked examples and common software packages. It complements the author's previous books, Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, Third Edition and Ecotoxicology: A Comprehensive Treatment. Encouraging a more r

Advances in the Biology and Conservation of Marine Turtles

Advances in the Biology and Conservation of Marine Turtles Book
Author : Sara M. Maxwell,Peter H. Dutton,Sabrina Fossette-Halot,Mariana M. P. B. Fuentes,Richard D. Reina
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-05-15
ISBN : 2889458547
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Advances in the Biology and Conservation of Marine Turtles book written by Sara M. Maxwell,Peter H. Dutton,Sabrina Fossette-Halot,Mariana M. P. B. Fuentes,Richard D. Reina, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Physiological Ecology of Forest Production

Physiological Ecology of Forest Production Book
Author : J. J. Landsberg,Peter Sands
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2010-11-26
ISBN : 9780080922546
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Process-based models open the way to useful predictions of the future growth rate of forests and provide a means of assessing the probable effects of variations in climate and management on forest productivity. As such they have the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional forest growth and yield models, which are based on mensuration data and assume that climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations will be the same in the future as they are now. This book discusses the basic physiological processes that determine the growth of plants, the way they are affected by environmental factors and how we can improve processes that are well-understood such as growth from leaf to stand level and productivity. A theme that runs through the book is integration to show a clear relationship between photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrient requirements, transpiration, water relations and other factors affecting plant growth that are often looked at separately. This integrated approach will provide the most comprehensive source for process-based modelling, which is valuable to ecologists, plant physiologists, forest planners and environmental scientists. Includes explanations of inherently mathematical models, aided by the use of graphs and diagrams illustrating causal interactions and by examples implemented as Excel spreadsheets Uses a process-based model as a framework for explaining the mechanisms underlying plant growth Integrated approach provides a clear and relatively simple treatment