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Spinal Interneurons

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Spinal Interneurons

Spinal Interneurons Book
Author : Lyandysha Zholudeva,Michael Lane
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-06-15
ISBN : 9780128192603
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Spinal Interneurons: Plasticity after Spinal Cord Injury provides neuroscientists, clinicians and trainees a reference book exclusively concentrating on spinal interneurons and the techniques and experiments employed to identify and study these cells as part of normal, diseased and injured neural circuits. In addition, the book highlights the therapeutic potential of these cells by presenting relevant pre-clinical and clinical work that has been performed. The book's focus on the latest in therapeutic strategies for targeting spinal interneurons, considerations for the development and use of treatments, and how such treatments work make this a comprehensive source of information. Provides a comprehensive overview of the techniques used to identify, characterize and classify spinal interneurons and their role in neural circuits Presents an in-depth discussion of the therapeutic potential of spinal interneurons for SCI injury and/or disease Represents the first book to discuss spinal interneurons and translational research

Movement Control

Movement Control Book
Author : Paul Cordo,Stevan Harnad
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1994-05-27
ISBN : 9780521456074
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Movement is arguably the most fundamental and important function of the nervous system, since the organism cannot exist without it. Purposive movement requires the coordination of actions within many areas of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves and sensory receptors, which together must control a highly complex biomechanical apparatus made up of the skeleton and muscles. Beginning at the level of biomechanics and spinal reflexes and proceeding upward to brain structures in the cerebellum, brainstem, and cerebral cortex, the chapters in this volume of a special issue of Behavioral and Brain Sciences devoted to this topic highlight important issues in movement control. Commentaries provide a balanced treatment of the articles by experts in a variety of areas related to movement, including behavior, physiology, robotics, and mathematics.

Autonomic Dysfunction After Spinal Cord Injury

Autonomic Dysfunction After Spinal Cord Injury Book
Author : Lynne C. Weaver,Canio Polosa
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2005-10-11
ISBN : 9780080460109
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Autonomic dysfunction is a major and poorly understood consequence of spinal cord injury. It is a cause of very serious disability and requires much more research. It should be a focus of treatment strategies. This book will be of interest to anyone involved in research and treatment of spinal cord injury since it helps to explain the tremendously negative impact on the body caused by cord injury that is not as obvious as paralysis and loss of sensation. It contains a compilation of what is known about bladder, cardiovascular, bowel and sexual dysfunction after spinal cord injury, as it relates to the changes within the autonomic nervous system control of these functions. The book begins with a description of the time course of autonomic dysfunctions and their ramifications from the first hours after a spinal cord injury to the more stable chronic states. The next section contains three chapters that address anatomical findings that may provide some of the foundation for autonomic dysfunctions in many of the systems. The system-specific chapters then follow in four sections. Each section begins with a chapter or two defining the clinical problems experienced by people with cord injury. The following chapters present research, basic and clinical, that address the autonomic dysfunctions.

Motor Neurobiology of the Spinal Cord

Motor Neurobiology of the Spinal Cord Book
Author : Timothy C. Cope
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2001-06-26
ISBN : 1420042645
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Traumatic injuries of the spinal cord continue to be the most common cause of permanent paralysis in young adults in the United States. New information has emerged on the response of spinal neurons to injury of either the spinal cord or peripheral nerves demonstrating that dendrites of injured motoneurons take on characteristics of axons. These and other new developments have helped to promote an exciting new era in the study of spinal cord neurobiology. Motor Neurobiology of the Spinal Cord provides a description of the recent conceptual and technical advances in the field. It provides a description of the new experimental tools available for investigating the neuronal properties that allow populations of spinal cord neurons to control muscles responsible for limb movements and posture. It covers topics ranging from genetics to kinematics and examines cells, tissues, or whole animals in species ranging from fish to humans that are normal, injured, or diseased. By integrating data derived from many new approaches, you'll learn about how spinal cord circuits operate under a variety conditions and about new and exciting inroads being made in motor neurobiology of the spinal cord. Motor Neurobiology of the Spinal Cord elucidates concepts and principles relevant to function and structure throughout the nervous system and presents information about changes induced by injury and disease.

Peripheral and Spinal Mechanisms in the Neural Control of Movement

Peripheral and Spinal Mechanisms in the Neural Control of Movement Book
Author : M.D. Binder
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1999-12-17
ISBN : 9780080862484
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the last decade, we have witnessed a striking maturation of our understanding of how neurons in the spinal cord control muscular activity and movement. Paradoxically, a host of new findings have revealed an unexpected versatility in the behavior of these well-studied neural elements and circuits. In this volume, the world's leading experts review the current state of our knowledge of motor control, outline their latest results and developments, and delineate the seminal unresolved questions in this vibrant field of research. The volume begins with a commentary and overview of our current understanding of the peripheral and spinal basis of motor control. The remainder of the volume is divided into seven sections, each focused on a different problem. The first chapter in each section provides some historical review and presages the experimental findings and hypotheses that are discussed in subsequent chapters. Topics include the biomechanics of neuromuscular systems, the properties of motoneurons and the muscle units they control, spinal interneurons, pattern generating circuits, locomotion, descending control of spinal circuits, comparative physiology of motor systems, and motor systems neurophysiology studied in man. The book serves as a unique reference volume and should be essential reading for anyone interested in motor systems. Moreover, the volume's comprehensive coverage of a wide range of topics make it an effective textbook for graduate level courses in motor control neurobiology, kinesiology, physical therapy, and rehabilitation medicine.

Clinical Anatomy of the Spine Spinal Cord and ANS E Book

Clinical Anatomy of the Spine  Spinal Cord  and ANS   E Book Book
Author : Gregory D. Cramer,Susan A. Darby
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2017-04-05
ISBN : 0323082319
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This one-of-a-kind text describes the specific anatomy and neuromusculoskeletal relationships of the human spine, with special emphasis on structures affected by manual spinal techniques. A comprehensive review of the literature explores current research of spinal anatomy and neuroanatomy, bringing practical applications to basic science. A full chapter on surface anatomy includes tables for identifying vertebral levels of deeper anatomic structures, designed to assist with physical diagnosis and treatment of pathologies of the spine, as well as evaluation of MRI and CT scans. High-quality, full-color illustrations show fine anatomic detail. Red lines in the margins draw attention to items of clinical relevance, clearly relating anatomy to clinical care. Spinal dissection photographs, as well as MRIs and CTs, reinforce important anatomy concepts in a clinical context. Revisions to all chapters reflect an extensive review of current literature. New chapter on the pediatric spine discusses the unique anatomic changes that take place in the spine from birth through adulthood, as well as important clinical ramifications. Over 170 additional illustrations and photos enhance and support the new information covered in this edition.

Basic and Clinical Anatomy of the Spine Spinal Cord and ANS E Book

Basic and Clinical Anatomy of the Spine  Spinal Cord  and ANS   E Book Book
Author : Gregory D. Cramer,Susan A. Darby
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2005-05-25
ISBN : 0323071422
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This one-of-a-kind text describes the specific anatomy and neuromusculoskeletal relationships of the human spine, with special emphasis on structures affected by manual spinal techniques. A comprehensive review of the literature explores current research of spinal anatomy and neuroanatomy, bringing practical applications to basic science. A full chapter on surface anatomy includes tables for identifying vertebral levels of deeper anatomic structures, designed to assist with physical diagnosis and treatment of pathologies of the spine, as well as evaluation of MRI and CT scans. High-quality, full-color illustrations show fine anatomic detail. Red lines in the margins draw attention to items of clinical relevance, clearly relating anatomy to clinical care. Spinal dissection photographs, as well as MRIs and CTs, reinforce important anatomy concepts in a clinical context. Revisions to all chapters reflect an extensive review of current literature. New chapter on the pediatric spine discusses the unique anatomic changes that take place in the spine from birth through adulthood, as well as important clinical ramifications. Over 170 additional illustrations and photos enhance and support the new information covered in this edition.

Sensory Mechanisms of the Spinal Cord

Sensory Mechanisms of the Spinal Cord Book
Author : William D. Willis Jr.,Richard E. Coggeshall
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2004-01-31
ISBN : 9780306480331
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The third edition of this monograph continues to have the goal of providing an overview of current thought about the spinal cord mechanisms that are responsible for sensory processing. We hope that the book is of value to both basic and clinical neuroscientists. Several changes have been made in the presentation, as well as additions because of the research advances that have been made during the past decade. Chapters 3 and 4 in the previous edition have been subdivided, and now the morphology of primary afferent neu rons of the dorsal root ganglia is described in Chapter 3 and the chemical neuroanatomy 4. The description of the dorsal hom in the previous Chapter 4 of these neurons in Chapter is now included in Chapter 5, and the chemical neuroanatomy of the dorsal hom in Chapter 6. Furthermore, discussions of the descending control systems have now been of Chapter 12. consolidated at the end The authors would like to express their appreciation for the help provided by several individuals. R.E.C. wishes to acknowledge the many things he learned about primary afferent neurons from conversations with Dr S. N. Lawson. He also thanks Lyn Shilling for her assistance with the typing. WDW thanks Dr Nada Lawand for her critical reading of parts of the manuscript, Rosaline Leigh for help with the manuscript, and Griselda Gonzales for preparing the illustrations.

The Spinal Cord

The Spinal Cord Book
Author : Charles Watson,George Paxinos,Gulgun Kayalioglu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-11-27
ISBN : 9780080921389
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Many hundreds of thousands suffer spinal cord injuries leading to loss of sensation and motor function in the body below the point of injury. Spinal cord research has made some significant strides towards new treatment methods, and is a focus of many laboratories worldwide. In addition, research on the involvement of the spinal cord in pain and the abilities of nervous tissue in the spine to regenerate has increasingly been on the forefront of biomedical research in the past years. The Spinal Cord, a collaboration with the Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation, is the first comprehensive book on the anatomy of the mammalian spinal cord. Tens of thousands of articles and dozens of books are published on this subject each year, and a great deal of experimental work has been carried out on the rat spinal cord. Despite this, there is no comprehensive and authoritative atlas of the mammalian spinal cord. Almost all of the fine details of spinal cord anatomy must be searched for in journal articles on particular subjects. This book addresses this need by providing both a comprehensive reference on the mammalian spinal cord and a comparative atlas of both rat and mouse spinal cords in one convenient source. The book provides a descriptive survey of the details of mammalian spinal cord anatomy, focusing on the rat with many illustrations from the leading experts in the field and atlases of the rat and the mouse spinal cord. The rat and mouse spinal cord atlas chapters include photographs of Nissl stained transverse sections from each of the spinal cord segments (obtained from a single unfixed spinal cord), detailed diagrams of each of the spinal cord segments pictured, delineating the laminae of Rexed and all other significant neuronal groupings at each level and photographs of additional sections displaying markers such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), calbindin, calretinin, choline acetlytransferase, neurofilament protein (SMI 32), enkephalin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN). The text provides a detailed account of the anatomy of the mammalian spinal cord and surrounding musculoskeletal elements The major topics addressed are: development of the spinal cord; the gross anatomy of the spinal cord and its meninges; spinal nerves, nerve roots, and dorsal root ganglia; the vertebral column, vertebral joints, and vertebral muscles; blood supply of the spinal cord; cytoarchitecture and chemoarchitecture of the spinal gray matter; musculotopic anatomy of motoneuron groups; tracts connecting the brain and spinal cord; spinospinal pathways; sympathetic and parasympathetic elements in the spinal cord; neuronal groups and pathways that control micturition; the anatomy of spinal cord injury in experimental animals; The atlas of the rat and mouse spinal cord has the following features: Photographs of Nissl stained transverse sections from each of 34 spinal segments for the rat and mouse; Detailed diagrams of each of the 34 spinal segments for rat and mouse, delineating the laminae of Rexed and all other significant neuronal groupings at each level. ; Alongside each of the 34 Nissl stained segments, there are additional sections displaying markers such as acetylcholinesterase, calbindin, calretinin, choline acetlytransferase, neurofilament protein (SMI 32), and neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN) All the major motoneuron clusters are identified in relation to the individual muscles or muscle groups they supply.

Central Regulation of Autonomic Functions

Central Regulation of Autonomic Functions Book
Author : Ida J. Llewellyn-Smith,Anthony J. M. Verberne
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2011-05-01
ISBN : 0199719241
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Central autonomic circuits in the brain and spinal cord are essential to vertebrate life because they are involved in controlling all basic bodily functions, including blood pressure, feeding, body temperature regulation voiding and reproduction. This wide-ranging text emphasizes the extraordinary advances that have been made over the last 20 years in understanding how the central nervous system controls autonomic functions.

Spinal Afferent Processing

Spinal Afferent Processing Book
Author : T.L. Yaskh
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 146844994X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Some 29 scientists from the fields of neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, neu rophysiology, neuropharmacology, and behavior have contributed their ef forts to this testimonial on behalf of the contributions made by Dr. F. W. L. Kerr to science and to those with whom he interacted. The intention of the contributors to this volume was to deal with the manifold advances that pertain to the substrates in spinal cord relating to the processing of sensory infor mation, a subject that in one form or another provoked time and again Kerr's native enthusiasm for research. The organization of the book follows a natural course from the peripheral innervation of the somatic and visceral organs (Winkelmann, Chapter 2) to the effective stimuli that activate these fibers and give rise to sensation under normal and pathological conditions (Campbell and Meyer, Chapter 3; Dubner and colleagues, Chapter 13; Dyck, Chapter 14) to the course these afferent systems take to enter the spinal cord (Coggeshall, Chapter 4) and to the organization of the systems through which this afferent information reaches the brain (Willis, Chapter 11; Vierck and colleagues, Chapter 12).

Medical Physiology 2e Updated Edition E Book

Medical Physiology  2e Updated Edition E Book Book
Author : Walter F. Boron,Emile L. Boulpaep
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2012-01-13
ISBN : 1455711810
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Medical Physiology, in its updated 2nd edition, firmly relates molecular and cellular biology to the study of human physiology and disease. Drs. Walter Boron and Emile Boulpaep and a team of leading physiologists present you with practical, accurate coverage, continually emphasizing the clinical implications of the material. Each chapter explains the principles and organization of each body system, while more than 1400 high-quality, full-color line drawings and prominently featured clinical examples clarify every concept. This exceptionally detailed and comprehensive guide to physiology is ideal for a rich, straightforward, state-of-the-art understanding of this essential subject. Quickly review important content using prominent boxes included throughout the text to provide clinical examples of disordered physiology. Master difficult concepts with the use of 800 color drawings that feature balloon captions explaining key processes. Find information easily with the intuitive organization by body system and consistent style. Get up-to-date coverage of physiology with updated text and figures. Access the fully searchable text online at www.StudentConsult.com, along with Webnotes, Image Bank, 150 Self-assessment questions, and 10 physiology animations. Stay current thanks to updated material, including a new chapter on Physiology of Aging and a new section on hemostasis. Gain a clear visual understanding with a revised and updated art program of high-quality, full color line drawings and prominently featured clinical examples.

The Interneuron

The Interneuron Book
Author : Mary Agnes Burniston Brazier
Publisher : Univ of California Press
Release : 1969
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neural Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Regulation

Neural Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Regulation Book
Author : Nae J. Dun,Benedito H. Machado,Paul M. Pilowsky
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2004-01-31
ISBN : 9781402077111
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neural Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Regulation responds to current questions about how neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems regulate the cardiovascular system. It includes a series of thoughtful reviews that are intended to provoke and illuminate the reader, with the intention of revealing some of the ideas that current practitioners in the field of cardiovascular research are using to generate their current studies.

The Science and Clinical Application of Manual Therapy E Book

The Science and Clinical Application of Manual Therapy E Book Book
Author : Hollis H. King,Wilfrid Jänig,Michael M. Patterson
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2010-09-18
ISBN : 0702049956
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Science and Clinical Application of Manual Therapy is a multi-disciplinary, international reference book based on work by the top basic science researchers and clinical researchers in the area of Manual Therapy and Manual Medicine (MT/MM). The first book to bring together research on the benefits of MT/MM beyond the known effects on musculoskeletal disorders, it presents evidence of the benefit of MT/MM in treating systemic disorders such as asthma, heart rate dysfunction and GI disturbance. Authored by the leading multidisciplinary basic science and clinical researchers from throughout the world Describes research confirming benefit of MT for musculoskeletal disorders (which helps provide a rational for greater utilization of manual therapy and reimbursement for this healthcare service) Presents the latest findings on the beneficial effect of MT on systemic disorders including asthma, pneumonia, otitis media, heart rate dysfunction and GI disturbance Critically assesses longstanding theoretical models of MT/MM mechanisms with respect to the current understanding of physiological and neurophysiological function Explores the influences of psychological and cortical processes on the effects of MT/MM, including the effect of placebo Uniquely presents research findings from all the manual therapy professions and scientists making the case for the benefits of MT The symposium from which the book was derived was supported by the NIH National Center for Complimentary and Alternative Medicine

Evoked Spinal Cord Potentials

Evoked Spinal Cord Potentials Book
Author : Koki Shimoji,William D. Jr. Willis
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-01-18
ISBN : 9784431309017
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book covers the basics of evoked spinal cord potentials (SCPs) with reference to studies in animals. Many illustrations help the reader grasp the neurophysiological and neuropharmacological background of spinal cord functions. Case studies offer insight into monitoring and diagnosing spinal cord dysfunctions and spinal cord diseases. The book is intended for students in clinical neurophysiology, neurosurgery, neurology, orthopedics and neuroanesthesia.

Development and Regenerative Capacity of Descending Supraspinal Pathways in Tetrapods

Development and Regenerative Capacity of Descending Supraspinal Pathways in Tetrapods Book
Author : H.J. ten Donkelaar
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3642571255
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this treatise, current knowledge on the neurogenesis, axonal outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and regenerative capacity of descending supraspinal pathways in tetrapods is discussed. Although emphasis is on the clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, chicken embryos, opossums and rodent data, also the data available for primates including man are presented. It will be shown that 1) the outgrowth of descending supraspinal pathways is the result of a coordinated program; 2) the pattern of early descending axonal tracts is similar in all vertebrate groups; 3) the formation of descending supraspinal pathways occurs according to a developmental sequence; 4) the earliest descending supraspinal fibers arrive in a rather immature spinal cord, and 5) the regenerative capacity of descending supraspinal pathways depends on the developmental stage the particular pathways arise.