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Spinal Interneurons

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Spinal Interneurons

Spinal Interneurons Book
Author : Lyandysha Zholudeva,Michael Lane
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-06-15
ISBN : 9780128192603
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Spinal Interneurons: Plasticity after Spinal Cord Injury provides neuroscientists, clinicians and trainees a reference book exclusively concentrating on spinal interneurons and the techniques and experiments employed to identify and study these cells as part of normal, diseased and injured neural circuits. In addition, the book highlights the therapeutic potential of these cells by presenting relevant pre-clinical and clinical work that has been performed. The book's focus on the latest in therapeutic strategies for targeting spinal interneurons, considerations for the development and use of treatments, and how such treatments work make this a comprehensive source of information. Provides a comprehensive overview of the techniques used to identify, characterize and classify spinal interneurons and their role in neural circuits Presents an in-depth discussion of the therapeutic potential of spinal interneurons for SCI injury and/or disease Represents the first book to discuss spinal interneurons and translational research

Spinal Interneurons in Sensorimotor Integration

Spinal Interneurons in Sensorimotor Integration Book
Author : Ting Ting Liu
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Even though spinal cord research has expanded enormously during the past decades, we still lack a precise understanding of how spinal interneuron networks perfectly integrate sensory feedback with motor control, and how these neuron circuits give rise to specific functions. The present study thus has three basic aims: (1) to investigate propriospinal interneurons connecting rostral and caudal lumbar spinal cord in the rat; (2) to investigate input properties of identified spinal interneurons interposed in different pathways; (3) to investigate cholinergic terminals in the ventral horn of adult rat and cat. There was no evidence to support the presence of vesicular glutamate transporters in motoneuron axon terminals of either species. In addition, there was no obvious relationship between motoneuron terminals and R2 subunit of the AMPA receptor (GluR2). However, a population of cholinergic terminals in lamina VII, which did not originate from motoneurons, was found to be immunoreactive for VGLUT2 and formed appositions with GluR2 subunits. These terminals were smaller than motoneuron terminals and, unlike them, formed no relationship with Renshaw cells. The evidence suggests that glutamate does not act as a cotransmitter with acetylcholine at central synapses of motoneurons in the adult cat and rat. However, glutamate is present in a population of cholinergic terminals which probably originate from interneurons where its action is via an AMPA receptor. In conclusion, the present studies add to the understanding of the organization of neuronal networks involved in sensorimotor integration. Propriospinal interneurons located within the lumbar segments have extensive intra-segmental projections to motor nuclei. First order interneurons interposed in reflex pathways and descending pathways receive a significantly different pattern of inputs. A similar proportion of monosynaptic excitatory input from primary afferents has been found in both excitatory and inhibitory interneurons and these two types of cells are subject to presynaptic inhibitory control of this input.

Pathology of Spinal Interneurons in Motor Neuron Disease

Pathology of Spinal Interneurons in Motor Neuron Disease Book
Author : Benjamin Stephens,University of London (GB)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Pathology of Spinal Interneurons in Motor Neuron Disease book written by Benjamin Stephens,University of London (GB), available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Lumbar Spinal Interneuron Activity as it Relates to Rhythmic Motor Output in the Adult Spinal Air stepping Cat

Lumbar Spinal Interneuron Activity as it Relates to Rhythmic Motor Output in the Adult  Spinal  Air stepping Cat Book
Author : Chantal Marie McMahon
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Interneurons of the lumbar spinal cord inherently maintain and modulate stepping. In order to advance therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury, it is necessary to clearly understand both the localized locomotor spinal circuitry as well as the activation patterns within the spinal cord. In this study, the structural organization of interneurons regulating antagonistic motor pools and the neural activation patterns driving behavior were investigated. In-vivo extracellularly recorded neurons of the intermediate zone and ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord were concurrently measured with hindlimb EMGs in the adult, air-stepping, spinal cat. Our results demonstrate that spinal interneurons participate in one of two ensembles which are highly correlated to opposing muscle bursts during stepping. Furthermore, the interneurons' firing phases were independent of their rostrocaudal locations. These findings suggest that spinal interneurons act within networks tuned to opposing phases of stepping which are heterogeneously mixed throughout the lumbar enlargement. Spectral power of extracellularly recorded continuous multiunit signals was found to be greater in mid-lumbar segments L3-L5 during stepping, supportive of previous lesioning studies isolating lumbar rhythmic generating centers to these segments in the cat. There was also greater multiunit power during the flexion phase of stepping than the extension phase of stepping in all lumbar segments. Finally, the multiunit power showed no phase lag at coherent frequencies throughout the lumbar enlargement indicative of a longitudinal standing wave of neural activation. Together, these results support that the spinal multiunit activity behaves as a synchronously active distributed network of caudally decreasing rhythmogenic potential, with greater power during the flexion phase of stepping. Furthermore, the results are unique in that it verifies and extends previous findings from the isolated, neonatal spinal cord to the in-vivo, mature and behaving system.

Lineage Tracing of Ipsilateral Ventral Spinal Interneurons Delineates a Sensorimotor Connectivity Map Based on Developmental Origin and Spatial Distribution

Lineage Tracing of Ipsilateral Ventral Spinal Interneurons Delineates a Sensorimotor Connectivity Map Based on Developmental Origin and Spatial Distribution Book
Author : Stefania Di Costanzo
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Movement is a fundamental behavior that is generated and patterned by premotor neural networks that reside in the ventral spinal cord of vertebrates. Despite ongoing investigations in multiple animal models, including humans, non-human primates, cats and rodents, identifying the functional neuron cell types that shape various motor tasks has proved difficult. One of the key issues in the field is the criteria by which neuronal cell types are characterized and defined. This dissertation describes my work tackling this problem using a comprehensive anatomical approach aimed at identifying neuronal subsets within major classes of ipsilateral premotor spinal interneurons. The first chapter provides a historical background of spinal motor system research developed from the beginning of the 20th century that summarizes our current knowledge of motor circuits in the spinal cord and the contribution that this dissertation makes to bridging the gaps that exist in our understanding of premotor interneuron cell types. The second chapter describes the anatomical approach I pursued, which is based on spatial distribution, connectivity and morphology to identify potential groups of functional premotor interneuron cell types. In the third chapter I discuss the relevance of these findings, by highlighting how the strategy used in this work can be applied to other spinal cord populations and used to lay the groundwork to build an anatomical reference for motor functional studies, including electrophysiology and behavioral assays. This work provides an important and necessary framework to understand the complicated logic governing the organization of motor networks in the vertebrate spinal cord.

Movement Control

Movement Control Book
Author : Paul Cordo,Stevan Harnad
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1994-05-27
ISBN : 9780521456074
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume addresses issues about how the central nervous system controls movement.

The Specification of Spinal Interneuron Identity by Evx1

The Specification of Spinal Interneuron Identity by Evx1 Book
Author : Laura Moran Rivard
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Specification of Spinal Interneuron Identity by Evx1 book written by Laura Moran Rivard, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Deconstructing Spinal Interneurons One Cell Type at a Time

Deconstructing Spinal Interneurons  One Cell Type at a Time Book
Author : Mariano Ignacio Gabitto
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

By using our Sparse Bayesian approach, we showed that V1 interneurons, a major inhibitory population that controls motor output, fractionate into diverse subsets on the basis of the expression of nineteen transcription factors. Transcriptionally defined subsets exhibit highly structured spatial distributions with mediolateral and dorsoventral positional biases. These distinctions in settling position are largely predictive of patterns of input from sensory and motor neurons, arguing that settling position is a determinant of inhibitory microcircuit organization. Finally, we extensively validated inferred cell types by direct experimental measurement and then, extend our Bayesian framework to full transcriptome technologies. Together, these findings provide insight into the diversity and organizational logic through which inhibitory microcircuits shape motor output.

The Neuroplastic and Therapeutic Potential of Interneurons in the Injured Spinal Cord

The Neuroplastic and Therapeutic Potential of Interneurons in the Injured Spinal Cord Book
Author : Lyandysha Viktorovna Zholudeva
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There is a growing appreciation for spontaneous anatomical and functional changes, or neuroplasticity, after spinal cord injury. One key element of neuroplasticity recently identified are spinal interneurons. The work presented in this thesis identifies a specific population of spinal interneurons that contribute to respiratory plasticity -- the excitatory, ipsilaterally projecting population of V2a SpINs -- after high cervical spinal cord injury (Aim 1). Building upon these results, we transplanted neural progenitor cells enriched with stem-cell derived V2a interneurons and found that donor cells promoted anatomical and functional repair of the phrenic (respiratory) circuit. These studies serve as a basis for ongoing work focused on identifying other interneuronal phenotypes that may be beneficial for both motor and sensory repair after injury. Understanding the neuroplastic and therapeutic potential of spinal interneurons may help identify novel therapeutic targets for functional repair of the central nervous system.

Evidence for Programmed Cell Death in the Spinal Interneurons of the Chick Embryo

Evidence for Programmed Cell Death in the Spinal Interneurons of the Chick Embryo Book
Author : Laura Willard Sherrill,Guilford College
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Evidence for Programmed Cell Death in the Spinal Interneurons of the Chick Embryo book written by Laura Willard Sherrill,Guilford College, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Descending influences on responses of lumbar spinal cord interneurons to adequate skin stimulation in chronically prepared cats

Descending influences on responses of lumbar spinal cord interneurons to adequate skin stimulation in chronically prepared cats Book
Author : Nathaniel Gilbert Pitts
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1975
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Descending influences on responses of lumbar spinal cord interneurons to adequate skin stimulation in chronically prepared cats book written by Nathaniel Gilbert Pitts, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Autonomic Dysfunction After Spinal Cord Injury

Autonomic Dysfunction After Spinal Cord Injury Book
Author : Lynne C. Weaver,Canio Polosa
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2005-10-11
ISBN : 9780080460109
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Autonomic dysfunction is a major and poorly understood consequence of spinal cord injury. It is a cause of very serious disability and requires much more research. It should be a focus of treatment strategies. This book will be of interest to anyone involved in research and treatment of spinal cord injury since it helps to explain the tremendously negative impact on the body caused by cord injury that is not as obvious as paralysis and loss of sensation. It contains a compilation of what is known about bladder, cardiovascular, bowel and sexual dysfunction after spinal cord injury, as it relates to the changes within the autonomic nervous system control of these functions. The book begins with a description of the time course of autonomic dysfunctions and their ramifications from the first hours after a spinal cord injury to the more stable chronic states. The next section contains three chapters that address anatomical findings that may provide some of the foundation for autonomic dysfunctions in many of the systems. The system-specific chapters then follow in four sections. Each section begins with a chapter or two defining the clinical problems experienced by people with cord injury. The following chapters present research, basic and clinical, that address the autonomic dysfunctions.

Motor Neurobiology of the Spinal Cord

Motor Neurobiology of the Spinal Cord Book
Author : Timothy C. Cope
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2001-06-26
ISBN : 1420042645
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Traumatic injuries of the spinal cord continue to be the most common cause of permanent paralysis in young adults in the United States. New information has emerged on the response of spinal neurons to injury of either the spinal cord or peripheral nerves demonstrating that dendrites of injured motoneurons take on characteristics of axons. These and other new developments have helped to promote an exciting new era in the study of spinal cord neurobiology. Motor Neurobiology of the Spinal Cord provides a description of the recent conceptual and technical advances in the field. It provides a description of the new experimental tools available for investigating the neuronal properties that allow populations of spinal cord neurons to control muscles responsible for limb movements and posture. It covers topics ranging from genetics to kinematics and examines cells, tissues, or whole animals in species ranging from fish to humans that are normal, injured, or diseased. By integrating data derived from many new approaches, you'll learn about how spinal cord circuits operate under a variety conditions and about new and exciting inroads being made in motor neurobiology of the spinal cord. Motor Neurobiology of the Spinal Cord elucidates concepts and principles relevant to function and structure throughout the nervous system and presents information about changes induced by injury and disease.

Peripheral and Spinal Mechanisms in the Neural Control of Movement

Peripheral and Spinal Mechanisms in the Neural Control of Movement Book
Author : M.D. Binder
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1999-12-17
ISBN : 9780080862484
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the last decade, we have witnessed a striking maturation of our understanding of how neurons in the spinal cord control muscular activity and movement. Paradoxically, a host of new findings have revealed an unexpected versatility in the behavior of these well-studied neural elements and circuits. In this volume, the world's leading experts review the current state of our knowledge of motor control, outline their latest results and developments, and delineate the seminal unresolved questions in this vibrant field of research. The volume begins with a commentary and overview of our current understanding of the peripheral and spinal basis of motor control. The remainder of the volume is divided into seven sections, each focused on a different problem. The first chapter in each section provides some historical review and presages the experimental findings and hypotheses that are discussed in subsequent chapters. Topics include the biomechanics of neuromuscular systems, the properties of motoneurons and the muscle units they control, spinal interneurons, pattern generating circuits, locomotion, descending control of spinal circuits, comparative physiology of motor systems, and motor systems neurophysiology studied in man. The book serves as a unique reference volume and should be essential reading for anyone interested in motor systems. Moreover, the volume's comprehensive coverage of a wide range of topics make it an effective textbook for graduate level courses in motor control neurobiology, kinesiology, physical therapy, and rehabilitation medicine.

AXOTOMIZED SPINAL COMMISSURAL INTERNEURONS OF THE ADULT FELINE A Study of Axonal Growth from Dendrites and Cut Axons

AXOTOMIZED SPINAL COMMISSURAL INTERNEURONS OF THE ADULT FELINE  A Study of Axonal Growth from Dendrites and Cut Axons Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Acquiring knowledge of the morphological, molecular, and functional changes that occur to neurons following axotomy is a key step for a comprehensive understanding of the nervous system and how it reacts to injury. Propriospinal commissural interneurons (PCIs or CINs) are a class of neuron with axons that project through the ventral commissure to the contralateral spinal cord. My goal was to examine the morphological, molecular, and functional changes that occur to adult feline PCIs following a proximal axotomy. We first determined whether proximally axotomized PCIs develop de novo axons from their dendrites. C3 PCIs were proximally axotomized and several weeks later we stained PCIs and prepared the tissue for histological evaluation. Two primary classes of axotomized PCI were identified: those with a very short axon (called permanently axotomized) and those with an axon that projected across the injury site. Permanently axotomized PCIs had processes with morphological features typical of axons that emerged from their distal dendrites. These axonal processes of the distal dendrites also had GAP-43 (an axonal marker) and lacked MAP2a/b (a dendritic marker). We concluded that permanently axotomized PCIs develop de novo axons from distal dendrites. We then determined whether the axons that crossed the lesion site were representative of spontaneous functional regeneration. First, we showed that PCI axons regenerate through an environment that is typically highly inhibitory to regenerating axons. Second, we established that the regenerated axons conduct action potentials. Finally, we found that regenerated PCI axons form functional synaptic connections with neurons in the contralateral spinal cord. Collectively, these data indicated that spinal interneurons are capable of spontaneous functional regeneration through an injured spinal cord. PCI growth cones are complex and unlike growth cones previously described in the literature. The final study of the thesis examines th.

Clinical Anatomy of the Spine Spinal Cord and ANS E Book

Clinical Anatomy of the Spine  Spinal Cord  and ANS   E Book Book
Author : Gregory D. Cramer,Susan A. Darby
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2017-04-05
ISBN : 0323082319
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This one-of-a-kind text describes the specific anatomy and neuromusculoskeletal relationships of the human spine, with special emphasis on structures affected by manual spinal techniques. A comprehensive review of the literature explores current research of spinal anatomy and neuroanatomy, bringing practical applications to basic science. A full chapter on surface anatomy includes tables for identifying vertebral levels of deeper anatomic structures, designed to assist with physical diagnosis and treatment of pathologies of the spine, as well as evaluation of MRI and CT scans. High-quality, full-color illustrations show fine anatomic detail. Red lines in the margins draw attention to items of clinical relevance, clearly relating anatomy to clinical care. Spinal dissection photographs, as well as MRIs and CTs, reinforce important anatomy concepts in a clinical context. Revisions to all chapters reflect an extensive review of current literature. New chapter on the pediatric spine discusses the unique anatomic changes that take place in the spine from birth through adulthood, as well as important clinical ramifications. Over 170 additional illustrations and photos enhance and support the new information covered in this edition.

V1 derived Renshaw Cells and IA Inhibitory Interneurons Differentiate Early During Development

V1 derived Renshaw Cells and IA Inhibitory Interneurons Differentiate Early During Development Book
Author : Ana Benito González
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Locomotor development is dependent on the maturation of spinal cord circuits controlling motor output, but little is known about the development of the spinal interneurons that control motoneuron activity. This study focused on the development of Renshaw cells (RCs) and Ia inhibitory interneurons (IaINs), which mediate recurrent and reciprocal inhibition, respectively, two basic inhibitory circuits for motorneuron control. Both interneurons originate from the same progenitor pool (p1) giving rise to ventral spinal embryonic interneurons denominated V1. V1-derived interneurons (V1-INs) establish local inhibitory connections with ipsilateral motoneurons and express the transcription factor engrailed-1. This characteristic permitted the generation of transgenic mice that were used in this study to genetically label V1 interneuron lineages from embryo to adult. Adult V1-derived Renshaw cells and IaINs share some similar properties, both being inhibitory and establishing ipsilateral connections; but differ in morphology, location in relation to motor pools, expression of calcium binding proteins (calbindin vs. parvabumin), synaptic connectivity and function. These differences are already present in neonates, therefore the purpose of this study was to determine possible embryonic differentiation mechanisms. Using 5‟-bromodeoxyuridine birth-dating we demonstrated that V1-INs can be divided into early and late born groups. The early group quickly upregulates calbindin iv expression and includes the Renshaw cells, which maintain calbindin expression through life. The second group includes many cells that postnatally upregulate parvalbumin, including IaINs. This later born group is characterized by upregulation of the transcription factor FoxP2 as they start to differentiate and is retained up to the first postnatal week in many V1-derived IaINs. In contrast, Renshaw cells express the transcription factor MafB that seems relatively specific to them within the V1-INs. Furthermore, Renshaw cells appear attracted to the ventral root exit region and follow a unique migratory route to become specifically placed at this location. In contrast, other V1 interneurons settle more medially and far from the ventral root exit region. MafB expression is upregulated in Renshaw cells only after they have reached their final position among motor axons. Therefore, the specific migration of Renshaw cells might be responsible for their final differentiation and unique relationship with motor axons in adult.

The Interneuron

The Interneuron Book
Author : Mary Agnes Burniston Brazier
Publisher : Univ of California Press
Release : 1969
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Interneuron book written by Mary Agnes Burniston Brazier, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.